Karol Bal

Instytut Biotechnologii Przemysłu Rolno-Spożywczego, Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (11)13.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Molds in water-damaged indoor environments may produce toxic secondary metabolites, viz. mycotoxins. In this study various mycotoxins predominantly produced by Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor were determined in visibly mold-affected building materials and in house dust settled above floor level by using highly specific and sensitive mass spectrometry methods. Of the 98 building materials samples studied 79% were positive for at least one mycotoxin; the most common was trichodermol (61%) followed by verrucarol (50%), sterigmatocystin (39%), and satratoxin G (7%) and H (50%). In addition, 5 out of 12 studied settled dust samples were mycotoxin positive; for verrucarol (4), trichodermol (2), sterigmatocystin (1). This is part of an on-going comprehensive study on the prevalence of mycotoxins in water-damaged buildings in Sweden.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2007
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    ABSTRACT: Dampness in buildings has been linked to adverse health effects, but the specific causative agents are unknown. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds and toxic to higher vertebrates. In this study, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the presence of mycotoxins predominantly produced by Aspergillus spp. and Stachybotrys spp. in buildings with either ongoing dampness or a history of water damage. Verrucarol and trichodermol, hydrolysis products of macrocyclic trichothecenes (including satratoxins), and trichodermin, predominately produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, whereas sterigmatocystin (mainly produced by Aspergillus versicolor), satratoxin G, and satratoxin H were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These mycotoxin analytes were demonstrated in 45 of 62 building material samples studied, in three of eight settled dust samples, and in five of eight cultures of airborne dust samples. This is the first report on the use of tandem mass spectrometry for demonstrating mycotoxins in dust settled on surfaces above floor level in damp buildings. The direct detection of the highly toxic sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in indoor environments is important due to their potential health impacts.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Presence of Stachybotrys chartarum in indoor environments has been linked to building-associated disease, however, the causative agents are unknown. Verrucarol (VER) and trichodermol (TRID) are hydrolysis products of some major S. chartarum mycotoxins, i.e. macrocyclic trichothecenes and trichodermin. We optimized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for detecting VER and TRID in S. chartarum-contaminated indoor environmental samples. Heptafluorobutyryl derivatives of both VER and TRID exhibited little MS fragmentation and gave much higher detection sensitivity (sub-picogram injected onto the GC column), both in GC-MS and GC-MSMS, than trimethylsilyl derivatives. Optimal detection sensitivity and specificity was achieved by combining chemical ionization and negative ion (NICI) detection with MSMS. With this method, VER and TRID were detected in building materials colonized by S. chartarum and TRID was demonstrated in dust settled in the breathing zone in a house where an inner wall was colonized. In summary, we have shown that NICI-GC-MSMS can be used to demonstrate mycotoxins in house dust in S. chartarum-contaminated dwellings.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Environmental Monitoring
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    ABSTRACT: During the GC analysis of apple aroma essence using a capillary column with polar stationary phases, i.e., bonded/crosslinked polyethylene glycol (HP-Innowax) and acid-modified polyethylene glycol (FFAP) the phenomenon of changing the elution order of some compounds was observed ("cross-over phenomenon"). The elution order within two pairs of closely eluting compounds: 2-methylbutyl acetate/pentan-3-ol (internal standard) and trans-2-hexen-1-al/2-methylbutan-1-ol differed between samples introduced onto the column with direct injection and with static headspace method. Experiments carried out on standard solutions of investigated compounds in water-acetone mixtures of gradually reduced water ratio (99:1 to 0:100) proved that changes of elution times leading first to co-elution and subsequently to reversion of elution order of compounds within both pairs depended on the amount of water in the injected sample. The same effect was observed while the amount of water was diminished by reducing the sample volume introduced into the column.
    Full-text · Article · May 2003 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    ABSTRACT: The fat content and fatty acid composition (saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated in cis and trans configuration) in selected food products was determined. From over 2000 products investigated in recent years, results are given for some soft and hard margarines, oils and butter as well as butter-like products. It has been found that food products are distinguished by very high diversification with regard to fat content, in terms of both quantity and quality. This differentiation was particularly evident in the groups of margarines, mixed fats and confectioner's products.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Acta microbiologica Polonica
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    ABSTRACT: The use of trimethylsilyl (TMS)-derivatisation for determining muramic acid in environmental and clinical samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry provides high detection sensitivity; however, questions have been raised as concerns the chemical structure of the entity giving the strong signal of m/z 185. In the present communication we present evidence that this entity results from the formation of a lactam structure of muramic acid upon derivatisation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · Journal of Microbiological Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Trichothecene mycotoxins are commonly distributed in cereals in the world. Rapid and accurate methods for the determination of these toxins are required to prevent the intoxication of human and to contribute to the supply of safe foods and feed. MSMS mode was applied for identification of eight trichothecene mycotoxins with Finnigan/Mat GCQ GC/MS system. We describe here optimal parameters of CID and to obtain best pairs of ions (precursor ions and daughter ions) for all analysed toxins.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
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    A. Filipek · M. Daniewski · K. Bal
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    ABSTRACT: Trichothecene mycotoxins are commonly distributed in cereals in the world. Rapid and accurate methods for the determination of these toxins are required to prevent the intoxication of human and to contribute to the supply of safe foods and feed. MSMS mode was applied for identification of eight trichothecene mycotoxins with Finnigan/Mat GCQ GC/MS system. We describe here optimal parameters of CID and to obtain best pairs of ions (precursor ions and daughter ions) for all analysed toxins.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2002
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    ABSTRACT: Fractions in which 37 organic compounds were identified by means of GC-MS method were isolated using extraction of four propolis samples and bud exudate from Populus nigra. Six of them were identified in propolis for the first time. They are: 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid), 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutanoic acid), phthalic acid, 4-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (phenyllactic acid), imidazole and phenetole. The main components of propolis fraction are acids: benzoic, cis- and trans-p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic. The compounds were determined by HPLC technique (according to analysis conditions estimated with Dry-Lab software) applying calibration curve calculation for the standards of those acids. Propolis ethanolic extracts consisted of 3.5-8.8% of dry residue and 2.9% bud exudate extract from Populus nigra. The percentage of acids in the isolated samples was determined in the range of 30% to 78%. The content of the compounds varied in different samples which confirms the fact that propolis composition is not constant. The determination of phenolic acids by HPLC technique in optimal conditions may be essential useful for propolis standardization.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Chemia analityczna
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    ABSTRACT: Between six and nine flavonoids have been identified by GC-MS in five samples of propolis and in one sample of bud exudate from poplar (Populus nigra), all collected in Poland. On the basis of experimental data and data obtained by use of Drylab software, the optimum temperature programme was found for separation of reference samples of pinostrobin chalcone, pinocembrin, tectochrysin, genkwanin, chrysin, galangin, 5-hydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone, and pilloin.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Chromatographia
  • Karol Bal · Lennart Larsson
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    ABSTRACT: A gas chromatographic-ion trap tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the quantification of muramic acid, a marker of bacterial peptidoglycan, in environmental and clinical specimens. Samples (bacteria, house dust and urine) were heated in methanolic hydrochloric acid overnight and extracted with hexane for removal of hydrophobic compounds. The aqueous phase was evaporated and heated in acetic anhydride and pyridine after which the product, the acetate derivative, was washed with dilute hydrochloric acid and water. The described method is both rapid and simple to apply, and produces a stable derivative. It should become widely used for measuring peptidoglycan in chemically complex environments.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications

Publication Stats

135 Citations
13.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007
    • Instytut Biotechnologii Przemysłu Rolno-Spożywczego
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2002-2007
    • Lund University
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2001-2003
    • National Food and Nutrition Institute
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland