[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CDC73 tumor suppressor gene is mutationally inactivated in hereditary and sporadic parathyroid tumors. Its product, the Cdc73 protein, is a component of the RNA polymerase II and chromatin-associated human Paf1 complex (Paf1C). Here, we show that Cdc73 physically associates with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) complexes that are required for the maturation of mRNA 3' ends in the cell nucleus. Immunodepletion experiments indicate that the Cdc73-CPSF-CstF complex is necessary for 3' mRNA processing in vitro. Microarray analysis of CDC73 siRNA-treated cells revealed INTS6, a gene encoding a subunit of the Integrator complex, as an in vivo Cdc73 target. Cdc73 depletion by siRNA resulted in decreased INTS6 mRNA abundance, and decreased association of CPSF and CstF subunits with the INTS6 locus. Our results suggest that Cdc73 facilitates association of 3' mRNA processing factors with actively-transcribed chromatin and support the importance of links between tumor suppression and mRNA maturation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cap formation is the first step of pre-mRNA processing in eukaryotic cells. Immediately after transcription initiation, capping enzyme (CE) is recruited to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) by the phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal domain of the Pol II largest subunit (CTD), allowing cotranscriptional capping of the nascent pre-mRNA. Recent studies have indicated that CE affects transcription elongation and have suggested a checkpoint model in which cotranscriptional capping is a necessary step for the early phase of transcription. To investigate further the role of the CTD in linking transcription and processing, we generated a fusion protein of the mouse CTD with T7 RNA polymerase (CTD-T7 RNAP). Unexpectedly, in vitro transcription assays with CTD-T7 RNAP showed that CE promotes formation of DNA.RNA hybrids or R loops. Significantly, phosphorylation of the CTD was required for CE-dependent R-loop formation (RLF), consistent with a critical role for the CTD in CE recruitment to the transcription complex. The guanylyltransferase domain was necessary and sufficient for RLF, but catalytic activity was not required. In vitro assays with appropriate synthetic substrates indicate that CE can promote RLF independent of transcription. ASF/SF2, a splicing factor known to prevent RLF, and GTP, which affects CE conformation, antagonized CE-dependent RLF. Our findings suggest that CE can play a direct role in transcription by modulating displacement of nascent RNA during transcription.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Termination of RNA polymerase II transcription frequently requires a poly(A) signal and cleavage/polyadenylation factors. Recent work has shown that degradation of the downstream cleaved RNA by the exonuclease XRN2 promotes termination, but how XRN2 functions with 3'-processing factors to elicit termination remains unclear. Here we show that XRN2 physically associates with 3'-processing factors and accumulates at the 3' end of a transcribed gene. In vitro 3'-processing assays show that XRN2 is necessary to degrade the downstream RNA, but is not required for 3' cleavage. Significantly, degradation of the 3'-cleaved RNA was stimulated when coupled to cleavage. Unexpectedly, while investigating how XRN2 is recruited to the 3'-processing machinery, we found that XRN2 associates with p54nrb/NonO(p54)-protein-associated splicing factor (PSF), multifunctional proteins involved in several nuclear processes. Strikingly, p54 is also required for degradation of the 3'-cleaved RNA in vitro. p54 is present along the length of genes, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown leads to defects in XRN2 recruitment and termination. Together, our data indicate that p54nrb/PSF functions in recruitment of XRN2 to facilitate pre-mRNA 3' processing and transcription termination.
Preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Genes & Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most eukaryotic messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) undergo extensive maturational processing, including cleavage and polyadenylation at the 3'-end. Despite the characterization of many proteins that are required for the cleavage reaction, the identity of the endonuclease is not known. Recent analyses indicated that the 73-kDa subunit of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF-73) might be the endonuclease for this and related reactions, although no direct data confirmed this. Here we report the crystal structures of human CPSF-73 at 2.1 A resolution, complexed with zinc ions and a sulphate that might mimic the phosphate group of the substrate, and the related yeast protein CPSF-100 (Ydh1) at 2.5 A resolution. Both CPSF-73 and CPSF-100 contain two domains, a metallo-beta-lactamase domain and a novel beta-CASP (named for metallo-beta-lactamase, CPSF, Artemis, Snm1, Pso2) domain. The active site of CPSF-73, with two zinc ions, is located at the interface of the two domains. Purified recombinant CPSF-73 possesses RNA endonuclease activity, and mutations that disrupt zinc binding in the active site abolish this activity. Our studies provide the first direct experimental evidence that CPSF-73 is the pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing endonuclease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA polymerase II plays a critical role not only in transcription of mRNA precursors but also in their subsequent processing. This later function is mediated primarily by the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the enzyme's largest subunit, a unique, repetitive structure conserved throughout eukaryotes and known to interact with a number of different proteins during the transcription cycle. Here, we show that the mammalian CTD also interacts with RNA in a sequence-specific manner. We use a variety of RNA binding assays, including SELEX, to characterize the interaction in vitro and a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to provide evidence that it also occurs in vivo. Transfection assays with the CTD binding consensus situated downstream of a polyadenylation signal indicate that the sequence can suppress mRNA 3' end formation and transcription termination, and in vitro assays indicate that the inhibition of processing is CTD dependent. Our results provide an unexpected function for CTD in modulating gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells exhibit a complex response to DNA damage. The tumor suppressor BRCA1 and associated protein BARD1 are thought to play an important role in this response, and our previous work demonstrated that this includes transient inhibition of the pre-mRNA 3' processing machinery. Here we provide evidence that this inhibition involves proteasomal degradation of a component necessary for processing, RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We further show that RNAP IIO, the elongating form of the enzyme, is a specific in vitro target of the BRCA1/BARD1 ubiquitin ligase activity. Significantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRCA1 and BARD1 resulted in stabilization of RNAP II after DNA damage. In addition, inhibition of 3' cleavage induced by DNA damage was reverted in extracts of BRCA1-, BARD1-, or BRCA1/BARD1-depleted cells. We also describe corresponding changes in the nuclear localization and/or accumulation of these factors following DNA damage. Our results support a model in which a BRCA1/BARD1-containing complex functions to initiate degradation of stalled RNAP IIO, inhibiting the coupled transcription-RNA processing machinery and facilitating repair.
Preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Genes & Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) has previously been shown to be required for the pre-mRNA polyadenylation cleavage reaction in
vitro. This activity was found to reside solely in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the enzyme's largest subunit. Using a deletion
analysis of glutathione S-transferase-CTD fusion proteins, we searched among the CTD's 52 imperfectly repetitive heptapeptides for the minimal subset
that possesses this property. We found that heptads in the vicinity of 30 to 37 contribute modestly more than other sections,
but that no specific subsection of the CTD is necessary or sufficient for cleavage. To investigate further the heptad requirements
for cleavage, we constructed a series of all-consensus CTDs having 13, 26, 39, and 52 YSPTSPS repeats. We found that the nonconsensus
CTD heptads are together responsible for only 20% of the wild-type cleavage activity. Analysis of the all-consensus CTD series
revealed that the remaining 80% of the CTD-dependent cleavage activity directly correlates with CTD length, with significant
activity requiring ≈26 or more repeats. These results are consistent with a scaffolding role for the RNAP II CTD in the pre-mRNA