Patrick J Hussey

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (114)957.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is connected to the plasma membrane (PM) through the plant-specific NETWORKED protein, NET3C, and phylogenetically conserved vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins (VAPs). Ten VAP homologues (VAP27-1 to 27-10) can be identified in the Arabidopsis genome and can be divided into three clades. Representative members from each clade were tagged with fluorescent protein and expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Proteins from clades I and III localized to the ER as well as to ER/PM contact sites (EPCSs), whereas proteins from clade II were found only at the PM. Some of the VAP27-labelled EPCSs localized to plasmodesmata, and we show that the mobility of VAP27 at EPCSs is influenced by the cell wall. EPCSs closely associate with the cytoskeleton, but their structure is unaffected when the cytoskeleton is removed. VAP27-labelled EPCSs are found in most cell types in Arabidopsis, with the exception of cells in early trichome development. Arabidopsis plants expressing VAP27-GFP fusions exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes, including defects in root hair morphogenesis. A similar effect is also observed in plants expressing VAP27 RNAi. Taken together, these data indicate that VAP27 proteins used at EPCSs are essential for normal ER–cytoskeleton interaction and for plant development.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · New Phytologist
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    Pengwei Wang · Patrick J. Hussey
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane trafficking, organelle movement, and morphogenesis in plant cells are mainly controlled by the actin cytoskeleton. Not all proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics in animal systems have functional homologs in plants, especially for those proteins that form the bridge between the cytoskeleton and membrane; the membrane-actin adaptors. Their nature and function is only just beginning to be elucidated and this field has been greatly enhanced by the recent identification of the NETWORKED (NET) proteins, which act as membrane-actin adaptors. In this review, we will summarize the role of the actin cytoskeleton and its regulatory proteins in their interaction with endomembrane compartments and where they potentially act as platforms for cell signalling and the coordination of other subcellular events.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Frontiers in Plant Science
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    ABSTRACT: Blobs and curves occur everywhere in plant bioimaging: from signals of fluorescence-labelled proteins, through cytoskeletal structures, nuclei staining and cell extensions such as root hairs. Here we look at the problem of colocalisation of blobs with blobs (protein-protein colocalisation) and blobs with curves (organelle-cytoskeleton colocalisation). This article demonstrates a clear quantitative alternative to pixel-based colocalisation methods and, using object-based methods, can quantify not only the level of colocalisation but also the distance between objects. Included in this report are computational algorithms, biological experiments and guidance for those looking to increase their use of computationally-based and quantified analysis of bioimages.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Functional Plant Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) END BINDING1b (EB1b) and SPIRAL1 (SPR1) are required for normal cell expansion and organ growth. EB proteins are viewed as central regulators of +TIPs and cell polarity in animals; SPR1 homologs are specific to plants. To explore if EB1b and SPR1 fundamentally function together, we combined genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that eb1b-2 spr1-6 double mutant roots exhibit substantially more severe polar expansion defects than either single mutant, undergoing right-looping growth and severe axial twisting instead of waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces. Protein interaction assays revealed that EB1b and SPR1 bind each other and tubulin heterodimers, which is suggestive of a microtubule loading mechanism. EB1b and SPR1 show antagonistic association with microtubules in vitro. Surprisingly, our combined analyses revealed that SPR1 can load onto microtubules and function independently of EB1 proteins, setting SPR1 apart from most studied +TIPs in animals and fungi. Moreover, we found that the severity of defects in microtubule dynamics in spr1 eb1b mutant hypocotyl cells correlated well with the severity of growth defects. These data indicate that SPR1 and EB1b have complex interactions as they load onto microtubule plus ends and direct polar cell expansion and organ growth in response to directional cues.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Plant Cell
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    Junli Liu · Patrick J Hussey
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics are all important properties that regulate pollen tube growth. Currently, the two main pollen tube growth models, the cell wall model and the hydrodynamic model do not appear to be reconcilable. Here we develop an integrative model for pollen tube growth and show that our model reproduces key experimental observations: (1) that the hypertonic condition leads to a much longer oscillatory period and that the hypotonic condition halves the oscillatory period; (2) that oscillations in turgor are experimentally undetectable; (3) that increasing the extracellular calcium concentration or decreasing the pH decreases the growth oscillatory amplitude; (4) that knockout of Raba4d, a member of the Rab family of small GTPase proteins, decreases pollen tube length after germination for 24 h. Using the model generated here, we reveal that (1) when cell wall extensibility is large, pollen tube may sustain growth at different volume changes and maintain relatively stable turgor; (2) turgor increases if cell wall extensibility decreases; (3) increasing turgor due to decrease in osmolarity in the media, although very small, increases volume change. However, increasing turgor due to decrease in cell wall extensibility decreases volume change. In this way regulation of pollen tube growth by turgor is context dependent. By changing the osmolarity in the media, the main regulatory points are extracellular osmolarity for water flow and turgor for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. However, if the viscosity of cell wall changes, the main regulatory points are turgor for water flow and wall extensibility for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. The novel methodology developed here reveals the underlying context-dependent regulatory principle of pollen tube growth.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Plant Science
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    ABSTRACT: The cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network in plants is a highly dynamic structure, and it contacts the plasma membrane (PM) at ER-PM anchor/contact sites. These sites are known to be essential for communication between the ER and PM for lipid transport, calcium influx, and ER morphology in mammalian and fungal cells. The nature of these contact sites is unknown in plants [1 and 2], and here, we have identified a complex that forms this bridge. This complex includes (1) NET3C, which belongs to a plant-specific superfamily (NET) of actin-binding proteins [3], (2) VAP27, a plant homolog of the yeast Scs2 ER-PM contact site protein [4 and 5], and (3) the actin and microtubule networks. We demonstrate that NET3C and VAP27 localize to puncta at the PM and that NET3C and VAP27 form homodimers/oligomers and together form complexes with actin and microtubules. We show that F-actin modulates the turnover of NET3C at these puncta and microtubules regulate the exchange of VAP27 at the same sites. Based on these data, we propose a model for the structure of the plant ER-PM contact sites.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Current Biology
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    Timothy J Hawkins · Michael J Deeks · Pengwei Wang · Patrick J Hussey
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    ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis Networked (NET) superfamily are plant-specific actin binding proteins which specifically label different membrane compartments and identify specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes unique to plants. There are 13 members of the superfamily in Arabidopsis, which group into four distinct clades or families. NET homologs are absent from the genomes of metazoa and fungi; furthermore, in plantae, NET sequences are also absent from the genome of mosses and more ancient extant plant clades. A single family of the NET proteins is found encoded in the club moss genome, an extant species of the earliest vascular plants. Gymnosperms have examples from families 4 and 3, with a hybrid form of NET1 and 2 which shows characteristics of both NET1 and NET2. In addition to NET3 and 4 families, the NET1 and pollen-expressed NET2 families are found only as independent sequences in Angiosperms. This is consistent with the divergence of reproductive actin. The four families are conserved across Monocots and Eudicots, with the numbers of members of each clade expanding at this point, due, in part, to regions of genome duplication. Since the emergence of the NET superfamily at the dawn of vascular plants, they have continued to develop and diversify in a manner which has mirrored the divergence and increasing complexity of land-plant species.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Frontiers in Plant Science
  • Junli Liu · Keith Lindsey · Patrick J Hussey
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    ABSTRACT: The pollen tube represents a model system for the study of tip growth, and the root provides a valuable system to study gene and signalling networks in plants. In the present article, using the two systems as examples, we discuss how to elucidate the regulation of complex signalling systems in plant cells. First, we discuss how hormones and related genes in plant root development form a complex interacting network, and their activities are interdependent. Therefore their roles in root development must be analysed as an integrated system, and elucidation of the regulation of each component requires the adaptation of a novel modelling methodology: regulation analysis. Secondly, hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics are all important properties that regulate plant cell growth. We discuss how regulation analysis can be applied to study the regulation of hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics, using pollen tube growth as a model system. Finally, we discuss future prospects for elucidating the regulation of complex signalling systems in plant cells.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Biochemical Society Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: The cell-staining behaviour of a set of five emissive europium complexes has been studied in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells and pollen tubes, Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaves and in the root hairs of the wild-type plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia). The cell walls were stained selectively, notably in the tobacco BY-2 cells, by the complex [EuL1] that contains one azathiaxanthone chromophore. Internalisation only occurred in cells that had been deliberately permeabilised or were dying. No uptake was observed within healthy plant leaves. In root hairs, the cell wall was strongly stained as well as the mitochondria, revealed by time-lapsed microscopy that showed the tumbling of the mitochondria in the living tissue, confirmed by co-localisation studies. In pollen tubes, the cell wall was also stained; rapid bursting of the pollen tip occurred following incubation with [Eu.L1], triggered by excitation with 405 nm laser light. Such behaviour is consistent with local perturbation of cell wall permeability and integrity, associated with the reactivity of the chromophore triplet excited state.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicle trafficking plays an important role in cell division, establishment of cell polarity, and translation of environmental cues to developmental responses. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating vesicle trafficking remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the evolutionarily conserved caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES [ESP]) is required for the establishment of cell polarity and cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. At the cellular level, separase colocalizes with microtubules and RabA2a (for RAS GENES FROM RAT BRAINA2a) GTPase-positive structures. Separase facilitates polar targeting of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) to the rootward side of the root cortex cells. Plants with the radially swollen4 (rsw4) allele with compromised separase activity, in addition to mitotic failure, display isotropic cell growth, perturbation of auxin gradient formation, slower gravitropic response in roots, and cytokinetic failure. Measurements of the dynamics of vesicle markers on the cell plate revealed an overall reduction of the delivery rates of KNOLLE and RabA2a GTPase in separase-deficient roots. Furthermore, dissociation of the clathrin light chain, a protein that plays major role in the formation of coated vesicles, was slower in rsw4 than in the control. Our results demonstrate that separase is a key regulator of vesicle trafficking, which is indispensable for cytokinesis and the establishment of cell polarity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · The Plant Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Complex animals use a wide variety of adaptor proteins to produce specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes. Plants do not have these protein families, yet actin-membrane interactions within plant cells are critical for the positioning of subcellular compartments, for coordinating intercellular communication, and for membrane deformation [1]. Novel factors are therefore likely to provide interfaces at actin-membrane contacts in plants, but their identity has remained obscure. Here we identify the plant-specific Networked (NET) superfamily of actin-binding proteins, members of which localize to the actin cytoskeleton and specify different membrane compartments. The founding member of the NET superfamily, NET1A, is anchored at the plasma membrane and predominates at cell junctions, the plasmodesmata. NET1A binds directly to actin filaments via a novel actin-binding domain that defines a superfamily of thirteen Arabidopsis proteins divided into four distinct phylogenetic clades. Members of other clades identify interactions at the tonoplast, nuclear membrane, and pollen tube plasma membrane, emphasizing the role of this superfamily in mediating actin-membrane interactions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Current biology: CB
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    ABSTRACT: Guard cell actin reorganization has been observed in stomatal responses to a wide array of stimuli. However, how the guard cell signaling machinery regulates actin dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of an allele of the Arabidopsis thaliana ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN C2/DISTORTED TRICHOMES2 (ARPC2) locus (encoding the ARPC2 subunit of the ARP2/3 complex) designated high sugar response3 (hsr3). The hsr3 mutant showed increased transpirational water loss that was mainly due to a lesion in stomatal regulation. Stomatal bioassay analyses revealed that guard cell sensitivity to external stimuli, such as abscisic acid (ABA), CaCl(2), and light/dark transition, was reduced or abolished in hsr3. Analysis of a nonallelic mutant of the ARP2/3 complex suggested no pleiotropic effect of ARPC2 beyond its function in the complex in regard to stomatal regulation. When treated with ABA, guard cell actin filaments underwent fast disruption in wild-type plants, whereas those in hsr3 remained largely bundled. The ABA insensitivity phenotype of hsr3 was rescued by cytochalasin D treatment, suggesting that the aberrant stomatal response was a consequence of bundled actin filaments. Our work indicates that regulation of actin reassembly through ARP2/3 complex activity is crucial for stomatal regulation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The Plant Cell
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process);5,6 thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical modulators are powerful tools to investigate biological processes. To identify circadian clock effectors, we screened a natural product library in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Two compounds, prieurianin (Pri) and prieurianin acetate, were identified as causing a shorter circadian period. Recently, Pri was independently identified as a vesicle trafficking inhibitor and re-named endosidin 1 (ES1). Here we show that Pri primarily affects actin filament flexibility in vivo, later resulting in reduced severing and filament depolymerization. This stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton subsequently causes changes in vesicle trafficking. Pri also affected microfilaments in mammalian cells, indicating that its target is highly conserved; however, it did not alter actin dynamics in vitro, suggesting that its activity requires the presence of actin-associated proteins. Furthermore, well-characterized actin inhibitors shortened the period length of the Arabidopsis clock in a similar way to Pri, supporting the idea that Pri affects rhythms by altering the actin network. We conclude that actin-associated processes influence the circadian system in a light-dependent manner, but their disruption does not abolish rhythmicity. In summary, we propose that the primary effect of Pri is to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton system, thereby affecting endosome trafficking. Pri appears to stabilize actin filaments by a different mechanism from previously described inhibitors, and will be a useful tool to study actin-related cellular processes.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Plant Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Plant resistance proteins (R-proteins) are key components of the plant immune system activated in response to a plethora of different pathogens. R-proteins are P-loop NTPase superfamily members, and current models describe their main function as ATPases in defense signaling pathways. Here we show that a subset of R-proteins have evolved a new function to combat pathogen infection. This subset of R-proteins possesses a nucleotide phosphatase activity in the nucleotide-binding domain. Related R-proteins that fall in the same phylogenetic clade all show the same nucleotide phosphatase activity indicating a conserved function within at least a subset of R-proteins. R-protein nucleotide phosphatases catalyze the production of nucleoside from nucleotide with the nucleotide monophosphate as the preferred substrate. Mutation of conserved catalytic residues substantially reduced activity consistent with the biochemistry of P-loop NTPases. Kinetic analysis, analytical gel filtration, and chemical cross-linking demonstrated that the nucleotide-binding domain was active as a multimer. Nuclear magnetic resonance and nucleotide analogues identified the terminal phosphate bond as the target of a reaction that utilized a metal-mediated nucleophilic attack by water on the phosphoester. In conclusion, we have identified a group of R-proteins with a unique function. This biochemical activity appears to have co-evolved with plants in signaling pathways designed to resist pathogen attack.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Andrei P Smertenko · Bernard Piette · Patrick J Hussey
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    ABSTRACT: The phragmoplast coordinates cytokinesis in plants [1]. It directs vesicles to the midzone, the site where they coalesce to form the new cell plate. Failure in phragmoplast function results in aborted or incomplete cytokinesis leading to embryo lethality, morphological defects, or multinucleate cells [2, 3]. The asymmetry of vesicular traffic is regulated by microtubules [1, 4, 5, 6], and the current model suggests that this asymmetry is established and maintained through treadmilling of parallel microtubules. However, we have analyzed the behavior of microtubules in the phragmoplast using live-cell imaging coupled with mathematical modeling and dynamic simulations and report that microtubules initiate randomly in the phragmoplast and that the majority exhibit dynamic instability with higher turnover rates nearer to the midzone. The directional transport of vesicles is possible because the majority of the microtubules polymerize toward the midzone. Here, we propose the first inclusive model where microtubule dynamics and phragmoplast asymmetry are consistent with the localization and activity of proteins known to regulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Current biology: CB

Publication Stats

7k Citations
957.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000-2015
    • Durham University
      • School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Life Sciences Institute
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 1998-2002
    • John Innes Centre
      • Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
      Norwich, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993-2001
    • Royal Holloway, University of London
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Division of Biochemistry
      Egham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1992-1998
    • University of London
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Saint Catherine University
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 1990-1993
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1985-1988
    • University of Kent
      • Biological Laboratory
      Canterbury, ENG, United Kingdom