[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beam deflection due to axial channeling in a silicon crystal bent along the 111 axis was observed with 400 GeV/c protons at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The condition for doughnut scattering of protons by the atomic strings of the crystal was attained. Such a condition allowed one to observe a beam deflection of 50 murad with about 30% efficiency. The contribution of hyperchanneled states of protons to the observed beam deflection was less than 2% according to simulation results.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Physical Review Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high performance apparatus has been designed and built by the H8-RD22 collaboration for the study of channeling and volume reflection phenomena in the interaction of 400 GeV/c protons with bent silicon crystals, during the 2006 data taking in the external beamline H8 of the CERN SPS. High-quality silicon short crystals were bent by either anticlastic or quasimosaic effects. Alignment with the highly parallel (8 murad divergence) proton beam was guaranteed through a submicroradian goniometric system equipped with both rotational and translational stages. Particle tracking was possible by a series of silicon microstrip detectors with high-resolution and a parallel plate gas chamber, triggered by various scintillating detectors located along the beamline. Experimental observation of volume reflection with 400 GeV/c protons proved true with a deflection angle of (10.4+/-0.5) murad with respect to the unperturbed beam, with a silicon crystal whose (111) planes were parallel to the beam.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Review of Scientific Instruments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The doubling of the angle of beam deflection due to volume reflection of protons by a sequence of two bent silicon crystals was experimentally observed at the 400 GeV proton beam of the CERN SPS. A similar sequence of short bent crystals can be used as an efficient primary collimator for the Large Hadron Collider.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Physics Letters B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a detailed study of the deflection phenomena of a 400 GeV=c proton beam impinging on a new generation of bent silicon crystals; the tests have been performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron H8 beam line. Channeling and volume reflection angles are measured with an extremely precise goniometer and with high resolution silicon microstrip detectors. Volume reflection has been observed and measured for the first time at this energy, with a single-pass efficiency as large as 98%, in good agreement with the simulation results. This efficiency makes volume reflection a possible candidate for collimation with bent crystals at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Physical Review Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient and robust collimation system is mandatory for any superconducting hadron collider, in particular for the LHC, which will store a beam of unprecedented high intensity and energy. The usage of highly efficient and short primary bent-crystal collimators might be a possibility for reaching nominal and ultimate LHC intensity. Over the last years, groups in Italy (Ferrara) and Russia (St. Petersburg) have developed crystal production methods, that considerably improve the crystal quality. These developments led, in turn, to a surprising increase in the channeling efficiency and to the recent observation of the âﾜvolume reflectionâ mechanism. The aim of the proposed experiment is the setup of a beam test facility, directing primary protons from the SPS onto a bent silicon crystal, and the quantitative study of single-pass efficiency for all involved processes. Final goal will be the extrapolation of important information on the feasibility of a crystal collimator for halo cleaning in the LHC. The experiment will be performed in the H8 beamline at the CERN SPS where a beam with very small divergence can be provided thus representing a unique facility for tests and characterization of crystals to be used for particle channeling studies.