[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To assess the influence of pro-inflammatory IL-1 genotype status on the risk of CAD, defined as >50% diameter stenosis, and cardiovascular events mediated by OxPL and Lp(a).
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are pro-inflammatory, circulate on lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and mediate coronary artery disease (CAD). Genetic variations in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) region are associated with increased inflammatory mediators.
IL-1 genotypes, OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL/apoB) and Lp(a) levels were measured in 499 patients undergoing coronary angiography. The composite genotype termed IL-1(+) was defined by three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 gene cluster associated with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. All other IL-1 genotypes were termed IL-1(-).
Among IL-1(+) patients, the highest quartile of OxPL/apoB was significantly associated with a higher risk of CAD compared to the lowest quartile (OR 2.84, P=0.001). This effect was accentuated in patients ≤60 years old (OR 7.03, P<0.001). In IL-1(-) patients, OxPL/apoB levels showed no association with CAD. The interaction was significant for OxPL/apoB (OR 1.99, P=0.004) and Lp(a) (OR 1.96, P<0.001) in IL-1(+) versus IL-1(-) groups for patients ≤60 years old but not for patients >60 years old. In IL-1(+) patients ≤60 years old, after adjusting for established risk factors, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Lp(a), OxPL/apoB remained an independent predictor of CAD. IL-1(+) patients above the median OxPL/apoB presented to the cardiac catheterization laboratory a mean of 3.9 years earlier (P=0.002) and had worse 4-year event-free survival (death, MI, stroke, and revascularization) compared to other groups (P=0.006).
Our study suggests that IL-1 genotype status can stratify population risk for CAD and cardiovascular events mediated by OxPL. These data suggest a clinically-relevant biological link between pro-inflammatory IL-1 genotypes, oxidation of phospholipids, Lp(a) and genetic predisposition to CAD and cardiovascular events.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic markers associated with disease are often non-functional and generally tag one or more functional "causative" variants in linkage disequilibrium. Markers may not show tight linkage to the causative variants across multiple ethnicities due to evolutionary divergence, and therefore may not be informative across different population groups. Validated markers of disease suggest causative variants exist in the gene and, if the causative variants can be identified, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such variants will be informative across diverse populations. The aim of this study was to test that hypothesis using functional Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene variations across multiple ethnic populations to replace the non-functional markers originally associated with chronic adult periodontitis in Caucasians.
Adult chronic periodontitis cases and controls from four ethnic groups (Caucasians, African Americans, Hispanics and Asians) were recruited in the USA, Chile and China. Genotypes of IL1B gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including three functional SNPs (rs16944, rs1143623, rs4848306) in the promoter and one intronic SNP (rs1143633), were determined using a single base extension method or TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. Logistic regression and other statistical analyses were used to examine the association between moderate to severe periodontitis and IL1B gene variations, including SNPs, haplotypes and composite genotypes. Genotype patterns associated with disease in the discovery study were then evaluated in independent validation studies.
Significant associations were identified in the discovery study, consisting of Caucasians and African Americans, between moderate to severe adult chronic periodontitis and functional variations in the IL1B gene, including a pattern of four IL1B SNPs (OR = 1.87, p < 0.0001). The association between the disease and this IL1B composite genotype pattern was validated in two additional studies consisting of Hispanics (OR = 1.95, p = 0.04) or Asians (OR = 3.27, p = 0.01). A meta-analysis of the three populations supported the association between the IL-1 genotype pattern and moderate to severe periodontitis (OR 1.95; p < 0.001). Our analysis also demonstrated that IL1B gene variations had added value to conventional risk factors in predicting chronic periodontitis.
This study validated the influence of IL-1 genetic factors on the severity of chronic periodontitis in four different ethnicities.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Periodontal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identifying population stratification and genotyping error are important for candidate gene association studies using the Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT). Although the TDT retains the prespecified Type I error in the presence of population stratification, the test may have decreased power in the presence of population stratification. Genotyping error can also cause the TDT to have an elevated Type I error. Differentiating population stratification from genotyping error remains a challenge for geneticists. Both genotyping error and population stratification can result in an increase in the observed homozygosity of a sample relative to that expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). We show that when family data are available, even if a limited number of markers are genotyped, evaluating the markers that show statistically significant deviation from HWE with the Mating Type Distortion Test (MTDT)--a test based on the mating type distribution--can reliably differentiate genotyping error from population stratification. We simulate data based on several models of genotyping error in previously published literature, and show how this method could be used in practice to assist in differentiating population stratification from systematic genotyping error.
Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Annals of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Variations in genes for IL-1a and IL-1b (IL1B) have been associated with increased IL-1b levels and periodontitis severity or progression in >15 studies. Utility in non-Caucasians has been less well characterized partly due to different allele frequencies. Since elevated IL-1b is associated with periodontitis severity, we sought to identify IL1B single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are common in all major ethnicities and to determine if those variations were predictive of periodontitis in multiple ethnicities. Methods: Allelic and haplotypic frequencies for IL1 SNPs were compared across major ethnic groups: Caucasians (DARIC, N=767); African Americans (DARIC, N=156); Chinese 1 (N=300); Chinese 2 (N=1,000); and Indian (N=644). SNPs and haplotypes with high multi-ethnic frequency were identified. Single SNPs, haplotypes, and composite genotypes were then analyzed for association with periodontitis severity in Caucasians by logistic regression models adjusted for smoking. Patterns associated with disease in Caucasians were then evaluated in African-Americans. Results: SNPs with high frequency in all ethnic groups included the previously identified functional SNPs in the IL1B promoter (rs16944, rs1143623, rs4848306) and another IL1B SNP (rs1143633). Four IL1B promoter haplotypes (B1-B4) predominated with B3 and B4 having very different frequencies across ethnicities. Multiple composite genotypes in the IL1B gene were associated with severe periodontitis and elevated gingival fluid IL1b in Caucasians. When further tested in African Americans, the composite genotypes B1B1/(B1B4 and IL1B3877=1.1)/B2B3/B2B4/B3B3/B3B4/B4B4 were also significantly associated with severe periodontitis (p=0.003 and 0.043 for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively). Conclusion: These studies have identified IL1 SNPs and haplotypes that are highly prevalent in all major ethnic populations. Specific composite genotypes were significantly associated with more severe periodontitis in Caucasians and African-Americans. Studies in Chinese are in progress. These findings suggest a pattern of IL1B gene variations may be valuable predictors of periodontitis severity independent of ethnicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population stratification leads to a predictable phenomenon-a reduction in the number of heterozygotes compared to that calculated assuming Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). We show that population stratification results in another phenomenon-an excess in the proportion of spouse-pairs with the same genotypes at all ancestrally informative markers, resulting in ancestrally related positive assortative mating. We use principal components analysis to show that there is evidence of population stratification within the Framingham Heart Study, and show that the first principal component correlates with a North-South European cline. We then show that the first principal component is highly correlated between spouses (r = 0.58, p = 0.0013), demonstrating that there is ancestrally related positive assortative mating among the Framingham Caucasian population. We also show that the single nucleotide polymorphisms loading most heavily on the first principal component show an excess of homozygotes within the spouses, consistent with similar ancestry-related assortative mating in the previous generation. This nonrandom mating likely affects genetic structure seen more generally in the North American population of European descent today, and decreases the rate of decay of linkage disequilibrium for ancestrally informative markers.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Genetic Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) is a family-based test for association based on the rate of transmission of alleles from heterozygous parents to affected offspring, and has gained popularity as this test preserves the Type I error rate. Population stratification results in a decreased number of heterozygous parents compared to that expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (Wahlund Effect). We show that population stratification changes the relative proportion of the informative mating types. The decrease in the number of heterozygous parents and the change in the relative proportion of the informative mating types result in significant changes to the sample sizes required to achieve the power desired. We show examples of the changes in sample sizes, and provide an easy method for estimating TDT sample sizes in the presence of population stratification. This method potentially aids in reducing the number of false-negative association studies.
Preview · Article · May 2010 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite extensive evidence for genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, the identification of susceptibility genes and their variants has had limited success. To search for genes that contribute to diabetic nephropathy, a genome-wide association scan was implemented on the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes collection.
We genotyped approximately 360,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 820 case subjects (284 with proteinuria and 536 with end-stage renal disease) and 885 control subjects with type 1 diabetes. Confirmation of implicated SNPs was sought in 1,304 participants of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a long-term, prospective investigation of the development of diabetes-associated complications.
A total of 13 SNPs located in four genomic loci were associated with diabetic nephropathy with P < 1 x 10(-5). The strongest association was at the FRMD3 (4.1 protein ezrin, radixin, moesin [FERM] domain containing 3) locus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, P = 5.0 x 10(-7)). A strong association was also identified at the CARS (cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase) locus (OR = 1.36, P = 3.1 x 10(-6)). Associations between both loci and time to onset of diabetic nephropathy were supported in the DCCT/EDIC study (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33, P = 0.02, and HR = 1.32, P = 0.01, respectively). We demonstratedexpression of both FRMD3 and CARS in human kidney.
We identified genetic associations for susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy at two novel candidate loci near the FRMD3 and CARS genes. Their identification implicates previously unsuspected pathways in the pathogenesis of this important late complication of type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to investigate whether genotypes, haplotypes and haplotype-pairs of interleukin (IL) gene cluster are associated with risk of Myocardial Infarction (MI) at young age and with the release of IL-1B and expression of tissue factor pro-coagulant activity (TFPCA), after stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Patients with MI at young age, frequency-matched for age, sex and recruitment centre, with healthy population-based controls and PBMCs from healthy volunteers were studied. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identifying two haplotype-blocks, in IL-1B gene and one SNP in IL-1A and IL-RA genes were genotyped. In multivariate analyses, haplotype A2 (122) and A4 (112) were associated with decreased risk of MI [OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.40-0.95), p = 0.01; OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.51-0.92), p = 0.03, respectively]. Haplotype-pair A2/A2 showed significant reduction in the risk of MI [OR = 0.38 (95% CI = 0.18-0.81); p = 0.01]. Haplotype A2 and A4 were associated with lower levels of IL-1B (respectively p = 0.01; p = 0.04, multivariate analysis) and haplotype-pair A2/A4 showed decreased levels of IL-1beta (p = 0.02). No association was found between block "B" IL-1B haplotypes or IL-1A and IL-RA polymorphisms and risk of MI. IL-1B haplotypes influence the inflammatory response of human mononuclear cells to LPS and affect the risk of MI at young age.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Immunological Investigations
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and family studies have demonstrated that susceptibility genes play an important role in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy, defined as persistent proteinuria or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 1 diabetes.
To efficiently search for genomic regions harboring diabetic nephropathy genes, we conducted a scan using 5,382 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms on 100 sibpairs concordant for type 1 diabetes but discordant for diabetic nephropathy. In addition to being powerful for detecting linkage to diabetic nephropathy, this design allows linkage analysis on type 1 diabetes via traditional affected sibpair (ASP) analysis. In weighing the evidence for linkage, we considered maximum logarithm of odds score (maximum likelihood score [MLS]) values and corresponding allelic sharing patterns, calculated and viewed graphically using the software package SPLAT.
Our primary finding for diabetic nephropathy, broadly defined, is on chromosome 19q (MLS = 3.1), and a secondary peak exists on chromosome 2q (MLS = 2.1). Stratification of discordant sibpairs based on whether disease had progressed to ESRD suggested four tertiary peaks on chromosome 1q (ESRD only), chromosome 20p (proteinuria only), and chromosome 3q (two loci 58 cm apart, one for ESRD only and another for proteinuria only). Additionally, analysis of 130 ASPs for type 1 diabetes confirmed the linkage to the HLA region on chromosome 6p (MLS = 9.2) and IDDM15 on chromosome 6q (MLS = 3.1).
This study identified several novel loci as candidates for diabetic nephropathy, none of which appear to be the sole genetic determinant of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. In addition, this study confirms two previously reported type 1 diabetes loci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) activates inflammatory mediator cascades and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL1B promoter have been associated with various inflammatory diseases. We recently reported that IL1B gene transcription was influenced by four promoter SNPs, and that individual SNP function in vitro was governed by haplotype context. In the present study we tested the in vivo relevance of this observation by comparing IL1B promoter haplotype-pairs with IL-1beta protein levels in 900 gingival tissue fluid samples. Three SNPs (-511, -1464, -3737) defined four IL1B promoter haplotypes that occurred in the study population and could be assigned unambiguously to each chromosome. The four haplotypes defined ten haplotype-pairs of which four pairs, representing 57% of the population, were associated with 28-52% higher IL-1beta protein levels in vivo. Two of these pairs, characterized by homozygosity for the common allele at -3737, were also associated with raised serum levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.02). We validated these findings in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a separate population (N = 70). PBMCs with IL1B haplotype-pairs associated with higher in vivo levels of IL-1beta produced 86-287% more IL-1beta in vitro than the reference group. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a relationship between in vivo levels of an inflammatory mediator and gene promoter haplotypes on both chromosomes. These findings may apply to other inducible genes and could provide a logical framework for exploring disease risk related to genetic variability in pathogenic mediators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although observational studies have shown that genotype may influence nutritional effects on target outcomes, there are few reported studies that stratified subjects by genotype before a nutritional intervention. This proof-of-concept trial determined whether specifically formulated botanical mixtures reduced inflammation in individuals with genetic variations that predispose to overexpression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and early heart disease.
Healthy adults with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) were stratified into genetic groups based on being positive (IL1(Pos)) or negative (IL1(Neg)) for the at-risk IL-1 gene variations. IL1(Pos) (n = 39) and IL1(Neg) (n = 40) subjects were then randomized to the candidate botanical formulation or placebo. The botanical formulation included rose hips, a blueberry and blackberry mixture, and a grapevine extract.
At 12 wk of dosing with the botanical formulation, IL-1beta gene expression by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly lower than at baseline and significantly lower than placebo in IL1(Pos) and IL1(Neg) subjects. Mean IL-1beta gene expression treatment effect over the 12-wk period was greater in IL1(Pos) than in IL1(Neg) subjects. At 12 wk of dosing the botanical mixture produced no mean change in serum CRP levels. However, in IL1(Pos) subjects, significantly more subjects achieved a reduction in CRP with the botanical mixture than with placebo. No CRP effect was observed in the IL1(Neg) subjects.
This study represents one of a few prospective clinical trials in which genetic variations were shown to differentially influence nutrient effects on outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A significant portion of patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) develop psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and other psychotic and affective symptoms, and the responsible gene/s are assumed to also play a significant role in the etiology of nonsyndromic psychiatric disease. The most common psychiatric diagnosis among patients with 22q11DS is schizophrenia, thought to result from neurotransmitter imbalances and also from disturbed brain development. Several genes in the 22q11 region with known or suspected roles in neurotransmitter metabolism have been analyzed in patients with isolated schizophrenia; however, their contribution to the disease remains controversial. Haploinsufficiency of the TBX1 gene has been shown to be sufficient to cause the core physical malformations associated with 22q11DS in mice and humans and via abnormal brain development could contribute to 22q11DS-related and isolated psychiatric disease. 22q11DS populations also have increased rates of psychiatric conditions other than schizophrenia, including mood disorders. We therefore analyzed variations at the TBX1 locus in a cohort of 446 white patients with psychiatric disorders relevant to 22q11DS and 436 ethnically matched controls. The main diagnoses included schizophrenia (n = 226), schizoaffective disorder (n = 67), bipolar disorder (n = 82), and major depressive disorder (n = 29). We genotyped nine tag SNPs in this sample but did not observe significant differences in allele or haplotype frequencies in any of the analyzed groups (all affected, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia alone, and bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) compared with the control group. Based on these results we conclude that TBX1 variation does not make a strong contribution to the genetic etiology of nonsyndromic forms of psychiatric disorders commonly seen in patients with 22q11DS.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a variance components linkage analysis of renal function, measured as glomerular filtration rate (GFR), in 63 extended families with multiple members with type 2 diabetes. GFR was estimated from serum concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine in 406 diabetic and 428 nondiabetic relatives. Results for cystatin C were summarized because they are superior to creatinine results. GFR aggregates in families with significant heritability (h(2)) in diabetic (h(2) = 0.45, P < 1 x 10(-5)) and nondiabetic (h(2) = 0.36, P < 1 x 10(-3)) relatives. Genetic correlation (r(G) = 0.35) between the GFR of diabetic and nondiabetic relatives was less than one (P = 0.01), suggesting that genes controlling GFR variation in these groups are different. Linkage results supported this interpretation. In diabetic relatives, linkage was strong on chromosome 2q (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 4.1) and suggestive on 10q (LOD = 3.1) and 18p (LOD = 2.2). In nondiabetic relatives, linkage was suggestive on 3q (LOD = 2.2) and 11p (LOD = 2.1). When diabetic and nondiabetic relatives were combined, strong evidence for linkage was found only on 7p (LOD = 4.0). In conclusion, partially distinct sets of genes control GFR variation in relatives with and without diabetes on chromosome 2q, possibly on 10q and 18p in the former, and on 7p in both. None of these genes overlaps with genes controlling variation in urinary albumin excretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study is an initiative that aims to identify genes that are involved in diabetic nephropathy. A large number of individuals with type 1 diabetes were screened to identify two subsets, one with clear-cut kidney disease and another with normal renal status despite long-term diabetes. Those who met additional entry criteria and consented to participate were enrolled. When possible, both parents also were enrolled to form family trios. As of November 2005, GoKinD included 3075 participants who comprise 671 case singletons, 623 control singletons, 272 case trios, and 323 control trios. Interested investigators may request the DNA collection and corresponding clinical data for GoKinD participants using the instructions and application form that are available at http://www.gokind.org/access. Participating scientists will have access to three data sets, each with distinct advantages. The set of 1294 singletons has adequate power to detect a wide range of genetic effects, even those of modest size. The set of case trios, which has adequate power to detect effects of moderate size, is not susceptible to false-positive results because of population substructure. The set of control trios is critical for excluding certain false-positive results that can occur in case trios and may be particularly useful for testing gene-environment interactions. Integration of the evidence from these three components into a single, unified analysis presents a challenge. This overview of the GoKinD study examines in detail the power of each study component and discusses analytic challenges that investigators will face in using this resource.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sib pair linkage analysis of a dichotomous trait is a popular method for narrowing the search for genes that influence complex diseases. Although the pedigree structures are uncomplicated and the underlying genetic principles straightforward, a surprising degree of complexity is involved in implementing a sib pair study and interpreting the results. Ascertainment may be based on affected, discordant, or unaffected sib pairs, as well as on pairs defined by threshold values for quantitative traits, such as extreme discordant sib pairs. To optimize power, various domain restrictions and null hypotheses have been proposed for each of these designs, yielding a wide array of choices for the analyst. To begin, we systematically classify the major sources of discretion in sib pair linkage analysis. Then, we extend the work of Kruglyak and Lander (1995), to bring the various forms into a unified framework and to facilitate a more general approach to the analysis. Finally, we describe a new, freely available computer program, Splat (Sib Pair Linkage Analysis Testing), that can perform any sib pair statistical test currently in use, as well as any user-defined test yet to be proposed. Splat uses the expectation maximization algorithm to calculate maximum-likelihood estimates of sharing (subject to user-specified conditions) and then plots LOD scores versus chromosomal position. It includes a novel grid-scanning capability that enables simultaneous visualization of multiple test statistics. This can lead to further insight into the genetic basis of the disease process under consideration. In addition, phenotype definitions can be modified without the recalculation of inheritance vectors, thereby providing considerable flexibility for exploratory analysis. The application of Splat will be illustrated with data from studies on the genetics of diabetic nephropathy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main hallmark of diabetic nephropathy is elevation in urinary albumin excretion. We performed a genome-wide linkage scan in 63 extended families with multiple members with type II diabetes. Urinary albumin excretion, measured as the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), was determined in 426 diabetic and 431 nondiabetic relatives who were genotyped for 383 markers. The data were analyzed using variance components linkage analysis. Heritability (h2) of ACR was significant in diabetic (h2=0.23, P=0.0007), and nondiabetic (h2=0.39, P=0.0001) relatives. There was no significant difference in genetic variance of ACR between diabetic and nondiabetic relatives (P=0.16), and the genetic correlation (rG=0.64) for ACR between these two groups was not different from 1 (P=0.12). These results suggested that similar genes contribute to variation in ACR in diabetic and nondiabetic relatives. This hypothesis was supported further by the linkage results. Support for linkage to ACR was suggestive in diabetic relatives and became significant in all relatives for chromosome 22q (logarithm of odds, LOD=3.7) and chromosome 7q (LOD=3.1). When analyses were restricted to 59 Caucasian families, support for linkage in all relatives increased and became significant for 5q (LOD=3.4). In conclusion, genes on chromosomes 22q, 5q and 7q may contribute to variation in urinary albumin excretion in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We questioned the significance of haplotype structure in gene regulation by testing whether individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a gene promoter region [interleukin-1-beta (IL1B)] might affect promoter function and, if so, whether function was dependent on haplotype context. We sequenced genomic DNA from 25 individuals of diverse ethnicity, focusing on exons and upstream flanking regions of genes of the cluster. We identified four IL1B promoter region SNPs that were active in transient transfection reporter gene assays. To substantiate allelic differences found in reporter gene assays, we also examined nuclear protein binding to promoter sequence oligonucleotides containing different alleles of the SNPs. The effect of individual SNPs on reporter gene transcription varied according to which alleles of the three other SNPs were present in the promoter construct. The SNP patterns that influenced function reflected common haplotypes that occur in the population, suggesting functionally significant interactions between SNPs according to haplotype context. Of the haplotypes that include the four functional IL1B promoter SNPs (-3737, -1464, -511, -31), the four haplotypes that showed different contextual effects on SNP function accounted for >98% of the estimated haplotypes in Caucasian and African-American populations. This finding underlines the importance of understanding the haplotype structure of populations used for genetic studies and may be especially important in the functional analysis of genetic variation across gene regulatory regions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors that result from mutations of at least six different genes as components of distinct autosomal dominant disorders. However, there remain familial occurrences of pheochromocytoma without a known genetic defect. We describe here a familial pheochromocytoma syndrome consistent with digenic inheritance identified through a combination of global genomics strategies. Multipoint parametric linkage analysis revealed identical LOD scores of 2.97 for chromosome 2cen and 16p13 loci. A two-locus parametric linkage analysis produced maximum LOD score of 5.16 under a double recessive multiplicative model, suggesting that both loci are required to develop the disease. Allele-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was detected only at the chromosome 2 locus in all tumors from this family, consistent with a tumor suppressor gene. Four additional pheochromocytomas with a similar genetic pattern were identified through transcription profiling and helped refine the chromosome 2 locus. High-density LOH mapping with single nucleotide polymorphism-based array identified a total of 18 of 62 pheochromocytomas with LOH within the chromosome 2 region, which further narrowed down the locus to <2 cM. This finding provides evidence for two novel susceptibility loci for pheochromocytoma and adds a recessive digenic trait to the increasingly broad genetic heterogeneity of these tumors. Similarly, complex traits may also be involved in other familial cancer syndromes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans and in animal models, susceptibility to arthritis is under complex genetic control, reflecting influences on the immunological processes that initiate autoimmunity and on subsequent inflammatory mechanisms in the joints. The effector phases are conveniently modeled by the K/BxN serum transfer system, a robust model well suited for genetic analysis where arthritis is initiated by pathogenic Ig. Here, we mapped the genetic loci distinguishing the high-responder BALB/c vs. low-responder SJL strains. After computational modeling of potential breeding schemes, we adapted a stepwise selective breeding strategy, with a whole-genome scan performed on a limited number of animals. Several genomic regions proved significantly associated with high sensitivity to arthritis. One of these regions, on distal chr2, was centered on the interleukin 1 gene family. Quantitation of transcripts of the Il1a and Il1b candidate genes revealed a 10-fold greater induction of Il1b mRNA in BALB/c than in SJL splenocytes after injection of LPS, whereas Il1a showed much less difference. The differential activity of the Il1b gene was associated with a particular sequence haplotype of noncoding polymorphisms. The BALB/c haplotype was found in 75% of wild-derived strains but was rare among conventional inbred strains (4/33 tested, one of which is DBA/1, the prototype arthritis-susceptible strain) and was associated with vigorous Il1b responses in a panel of inbred strains. Inbred strains carrying this allele were far more responsive to serum-transferred arthritis, confirming its broad importance in controlling arthritis severity.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences