- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare complication in propionic acidaemia (PA). Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We present a child of Pakistani consanguineous parents, diagnosed with late-onset PA at 18months of age. He presented a mild phenotype, showed no severe further decompensations, normal growth and psychomotor development on a low protein diet and carnitine supplementation. At 15years, a mildly dilated left ventricle was noticed. At 17years he presented after a 2-3 months history of lethargy and weight loss with severe decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy. He was stabilised on inotropic support and continuous haemofiltration; a Berlin Heart biventricular assist device was implanted. He received D,L-Hydroxybutyrate 200mg/kg/d, riboflavin and thiamine 200mg/d each and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Myocardial biopsy showed endocardial fibrosis, enlarged mitochondria, with atypical cristae and slightly low respiratory chain (RC) complex IV activity relative to citrate synthase (0.012, reference range 0.014-0.034). Myocardial CoQ10 was markedly decreased (224 pmol/mg, reference range 942-2738), with a marginally decreased white blood cell level (34 pmol/mg reference range 37-133). The dose of CoQ10 was increased from 1.5 to 25mg/kg/d. Cardiomyopathy slowly improved allowing removal of the external mechanical cardiac support after 67days. We demonstrate for the first time low myocardial CoQ10 in cardiomyopathy in PA, highlighting secondary mitochondrial impairment as a relevant causative mechanism. According to these findings, a high-dose CoQ10 supplementation could be a potential adjuvant therapeutic to be considered in PA-related cardiomyopathy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency appears to have a particularly heterogeneous clinical presentation. However, there appear to be 5 recognisable clinical phenotypes: encephalomyopathy, severe infantile multisystemic disease, nephropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and isolated myopathy. However, although useful, clinical symptoms alone are insufficient for the definitive diagnosis of CoQ10 deficiency which relies upon biochemical assessment of tissue CoQ10 status. In this article, we review the biochemical methods used in the diagnosis of human CoQ10 deficiency and indicate the most appropriate tissues for this evaluation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Common presenting features include both muscle and neurological dysfunction. Muscle abnormalities can improve, both clinically and biochemically following CoQ10 supplementation, however neurological symptoms are only partially ameliorated. At present, the reasons for the refractory nature of the neurological dysfunction remain unknown. In order to investigate this at the biochemical level we evaluated the effect of CoQ10 treatment upon a previously established neuronal cell model of CoQ10 deficiency. This model was established by treatment of human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells with 1 mM para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) which induced a 54% decrease in cellular CoQ10 status. CoQ10 treatment (2.5 μM) for 5 days significantly (p < 0.0005) decreased the level of mitochondrial superoxide in the CoQ10 deficient neurons. In addition, CoQ10 treatment (5 μM) restored mitochondrial membrane potential to 90% of the control level. However, CoQ10 treatment (10 μM) was only partially effective at restoring mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme activities. ETC Complex II/III activity was significantly (p < 0.05) increased to 82.5% of control levels. ETC Complex I and IV activities were restored to 71.1% and 77.7%, respectively of control levels. In conclusion, the results of this study have indicated that although mitochondrial oxidative stress can be attenuated in CoQ10 deficient neurons following CoQ10 supplementation, ETC enzyme activities appear partially refractory to treatment. Accordingly, treatment with > 10 μM CoQ10 may be required to restore ETC enzyme activities to control level. Accordingly, these results have important implication for the treatment of the neurological presentations of CoQ10 deficiency and indicate that high doses of CoQ10 may be required to elicit therapeutic efficacy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, predominantly caused by mutations in the X-linked Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Patients present with numerous functional deficits including intellectual disability and abnormalities of movement. Clinical and biochemical features may overlap with those seen in patients with primary mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders. In the late stages of the disorder, patients suffer from motor deterioration and usually require assisted mobility. Using a mouse model of RTT (Mecp2tm1Tam), we studied mitochondrial function in the hind-limb skeletal muscle of these mice. We identified a reduction in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (MTCO1) at both the transcript and protein level, in accordance with our previous findings in RTT patient brain studies. Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) enzyme activity of complexes II + III (COII + III) and complex IV (COIV), and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly reduced in symptomatic mice, but not in the pre-symptomatic mice. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial abnormalities in skeletal muscle may contribute to the progressive deterioration in mobility in RTT through the accumulation of free radicals, as evidenced by the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH). We hypothesise that a diminution in GSH leads to an accumulation of free radicals and an increase in oxidative stress. This may impact on respiratory chain function and contribute in part to the progressive neurological and motor deterioration seen in the Mecp2-mutant mouse. Treatment strategies aimed at restoring cellular GSH levels may prove to be a novel target area to consider in future approaches to RTT therapies.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood onset motor neuron diseases or neuronopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. A particularly severe subgroup first described in 1894, and subsequently called Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, is characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency. There has been no treatment for this progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to respiratory failure and usually death during childhood. We recently reported the identification of SLC52A2, encoding riboflavin transporter RFVT2, as a new causative gene for Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. We used both exome and Sanger sequencing to identify SLC52A2 mutations in patients presenting with cranial neuropathies and sensorimotor neuropathy with or without respiratory insufficiency. We undertook clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characterization of patients with mutations in SLC52A2, functionally analysed the most prevalent mutations and initiated a regimen of high-dose oral riboflavin. We identified 18 patients from 13 families with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SLC52A2. Affected individuals share a core phenotype of rapidly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (manifesting with sensory ataxia, severe weakness of the upper limbs and axial muscles with distinctly preserved strength of the lower limbs), hearing loss, optic atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. We demonstrate that SLC52A2 mutations cause reduced riboflavin uptake and reduced riboflavin transporter protein expression, and we report the response to high-dose oral riboflavin therapy in patients with SLC52A2 mutations, including significant and sustained clinical and biochemical improvements in two patients and preliminary clinical response data in 13 patients with associated biochemical improvements in 10 patients. The clinical and biochemical responses of this SLC52A2-specific cohort suggest that riboflavin supplementation can ameliorate the progression of this neurodegenerative condition, particularly when initiated soon after the onset of symptoms.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiency of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with a number of neurometabolic conditions including mitochondrial electron transport chain defects. Whilst failure of the active transport of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) into the CSF compartment has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for the 5-MTHF deficiency seen in mitochondrial disorders, it is becoming increasingly clear that other mechanisms are involved. Here, we have considered the role of oxidative stress as a contributing mechanism. Concerning, ascorbic acid (AA), we have established a CSF reference range (103-303μM) and demonstrated a significant positive correlation between 5-MTHF and AA. Furthermore, CSF itself was also shown to convey antioxidant properties towards 5-MTHF. However, this protection could be overcome by the introduction of a hydroxyl radical generating system. Using a neuronal model system, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, by 58%, was associated with a 23% increase in superoxide generation and a significantly increased loss of 5-MTHF from the extracellular medium. Addition of AA (150μM) was able to prevent this increased 5-MTHF catabolism. We conclude that increased generation of reactive oxygen species and/or loss of CSF antioxidants are also factors to consider with regard to the development of a central 5-MTHF deficiency. Co-supplementation of AA together with appropriate folate replacement may be of therapeutic benefit.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance: Isolated cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) deficiency is one of the most frequent respiratory chain defects seen in human mitochondrial disease. Typically, patients present with severe neonatal multisystem disease and have an early fatal outcome. We describe an adult patient with isolated COX deficiency associated with a relatively mild clinical phenotype comprising myopathy; demyelinating neuropathy; premature ovarian failure; short stature; hearing loss; pigmentary maculopathy; and renal tubular dysfunction. Observations: Whole-exome sequencing detected 1 known pathogenic and 1 novel COX10 mutation: c.1007A>T; p.Asp336Val, previously associated with fatal infantile COX deficiency, and c.1015C>T; p.Arg339Trp. Muscle COX holoenzyme and subassemblies were undetectable on immunoblots of blue-native gels, whereas denaturing gels and immunocytochemistry showed reduced core subunit MTCO1. Heme absorption spectra revealed low heme aa3 compatible with heme A:farnesyltransferase deficiency due to COX10 dysfunction. Both mutations demonstrated respiratory deficiency in yeast, confirming pathogenicity. A COX10 protein model was used to predict the structural consequences of the novel Arg339Trp and all previously reported substitutions. Conclusions and relevance: These findings establish that COX10 mutations cause adult mitochondrial disease. Nuclear modifiers, epigenetic phenomenon, and/or environmental factors may influence the disease phenotype caused by reduced COX activity and contribute to the variable clinical severity related to COX10 dysfunction.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor Keap1 regulate a network of cytoprotective genes involving more than 1% of the genome, their best known targets being drug-metabolizing and antioxidant genes. Here we demonstrate a novel role for this pathway in directly regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics in murine neurons and embryonic fibroblasts. Loss of Nrf2 leads to mitochondrial depolarisation, decreased ATP levels and impaired respiration, whereas genetic activation of Nrf2 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, the rate of respiration and the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. We further show that Nrf2-deficient cells have increased production of ATP in glycolysis, which is then used by the F1Fo-ATPase for maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential. While the levels and in vitro activities of the respiratory complexes are unaffected by Nrf2 deletion, their activities in isolated mitochondria and intact live cells are substantially impaired. In addition, the rate of regeneration of NADH after inhibition of respiration is much slower in Nrf2-knockout cells than in their wild-type counterparts. Taken together, these results show that Nrf2 directly regulates cellular energy metabolism through modulating the availability of substrates for mitochondrial respiration. Our findings highlight the importance of efficient energy metabolism in Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: SURF1 deficiency, a monogenic mitochondrial disorder, is the most frequent cause of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficient Leigh syndrome (LS). We report the first natural history study of SURF1 deficiency. Methods: We conducted a multi-centre case notes review of 44 SURF1-deficient patients from ten different UK centres and two Australian centres. Survival data for LRPPRC-deficient LS and nuclear-encoded complex I-deficient LS patients were obtained from previous publications. The survival of SURF1-deficient patients was compared with these two groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and logrank test. Results: The majority of patients (32/44, 73%) presented in infancy (median 9.5 months). Frequent symptoms were poor weight gain (95%, median age 10 months), hypotonia (93%, median age 14 months), poor feeding/vomiting (89%, median age 10 months), developmental delay (88%, median age 14 months), developmental regression (71%, median age 19 months), movement disorder (52%, median age 24 months), oculomotor involvement (52%, median age 29 months) and central respiratory failure (78%, median age 31 months). Hypertrichosis (41%), optic atrophy (23%), encephalopathy (20%), seizures (14%) and cardiomyopathy (2%) were observed less frequently. Conclusions: SURF1-deficient patients have a homogeneous clinical and biochemical phenotype. Early recognition is essential to expedite diagnosis and enable prenatal diagnosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) levels in patients studied under suspicion of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDS) (n = 39). CoQ levels were quantified by HPLC, and the percentage of mtDNA depletion by quantitative real-time PCR. A high percentage of MDS patients presented with CoQ deficiency as compared to other mitochondrial patients (Mann–Whitney-U test: p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that MDS are frequently associated with CoQ deficiency, as a possible secondary consequence of disease pathophysiology. Assessment of muscle CoQ status seems advisable in MDS patients since the possibility of CoQ supplementation may then be considered as a candidate therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential for the energy production of the cells and as an electron transporter in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. CoQ10 links the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation to the respiratory chain by accepting electrons from electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). Recently, it was shown that a group of patients with the riboflavin responsive form of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (RR-MADD) carrying inherited amino acid variations in ETF-QO also had secondary CoQ10 deficiency with beneficial effects of CoQ10 treatment, thus adding RR-MADD to an increasing number of diseases involving secondary CoQ10 deficiency. In this study, we show that moderately decreased CoQ10 levels in fibroblasts from six unrelated RR-MADD patients were associated with increased levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with CoQ10, but not with riboflavin, could normalize the CoQ10 level and decrease the level of ROS in the patient cells. Additionally, riboflavin depleted control fibroblasts showed moderate CoQ10 deficiency, but not increased mitochondrial ROS, indicating that variant ETF-QO proteins and not CoQ10 deficiency are the causes of mitochondrial ROS production in the patient cells. Accordingly, the corresponding variant Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO proteins, when overexpressed in vitro, bind a CoQ10 pseudosubstrate, Q10Br, less tightly than the wild-type ETF-QO protein, suggesting that molecular oxygen can get access to the electrons in the misfolded ETF-QO protein, thereby generating superoxide and oxidative stress, which can be reversed by CoQ10 treatment.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Neurological dysfunction is common in primary coenzyme Q10 (2,3-dimethoxy, 5-methyl, 6-polyisoprene parabenzoquinone; CoQ10 ; ubiquinone) deficiencies, the most readily treatable subgroup of mitochondrial disorders. Therapeutic benefit from CoQ10 supplementation has also been noted in other neurodegenerative diseases. CoQ10 can be measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in plasma, muscle or leucocytes; however, there is no reliable method to quantify CoQ10 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Additionally, many methods use CoQ9 , an endogenous ubiquinone in humans, as an internal standard. Methods: Deuterated CoQ10 (d6 -CoQ10 ) was synthesised by a novel, simple, method. Total CoQ10 was measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) using d6 -CoQ10 as internal standard and 5 mM methylamine as an ion-pairing reagent. Chromatography was performed using a Hypsersil GOLD C4 column (150 × 3 mm, 3 µm). Results: CoQ10 levels were linear over a concentration range of 0-200 nM (R(2) = 0.9995). The lower limit of detection was 2 nM. The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.6% (10 nM) and 4.3% (20 nM), and intra-assay CV 3.4% (10 nM) and 3.6% (20 nM). Reference ranges were established for CoQ10 in CSF (5.7-8.7 nM; n = 17), fibroblasts (57.0-121.6 pmol/mg; n = 50) and muscle (187.3-430.1 pmol/mg; n = 15). Conclusions: Use of d6 -CoQ10 internal standard has enabled the development of a sensitive LC/MS/MS method to accurately determine total CoQ10 levels. Clinical applications of CSF CoQ10 determination include identification of patients with cerebral CoQ10 deficiency, and monitoring CSF CoQ10 levels following supplementation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Charcot-Marie Tooth disease (CMT) forms a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Although a number of disease genes have been identified for CMT, the gene discovery for some complex form of CMT has lagged behind. The association of neuropathy and optic atrophy (also known as CMT type 6) has been described with autosomaldominant, recessive and X-linked modes of inheritance. Mutations in Mitofusin 2 have been found to cause dominant forms of CMT6. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase-I mutations cause X-linked CMT6, but until now, mutations in the recessive forms of disease have never been identified. Methods We here describe a family with three affected individuals who inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion a childhood onset neuropathy and optic atrophy. Using homozygosity mapping in the family and exome sequencing in two affected individuals we identified a novel protein-truncating mutation in the C12orf65 gene, which encodes for a protein involved in mitochondrial translation. Using a variety of methods we investigated the possibility of mitochondrial impairment in the patients cell lines. Results We described a large consanguineous family with neuropathy and optic atrophy carrying a loss of function mutation in the C12orf65 gene. We report mitochondrial impairment in the patients cell lines, followed by multiple lines of evidence which include decrease of complex V activity and stability (blue native gel assay), decrease in mitochondrial respiration rate and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions This work describes a mutation in the C12orf65 gene that causes recessive form of CMT6 and confirms the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in this complex axonal neuropathy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine is produced first by hydroxylalation of l-tyrosine to l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) and subsequently by the decarboxylation of l-dopa to dopamine catalysed by the enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) respectively. Reduced glutathione (GSH) acts as a major cellular antioxidant. We have investigated the role of dopamine in the control of GSH homeostasis in brain cells. The SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line was found to increase intracellular GSH levels in response to 50 μM dopamine treatment. Similarly the 1321N1 human astrocytoma cell line was found to increase GSH release in response to 50 μM dopamine. The same concentration of l-dopa was also found to increase intracellular GSH in SH-SY5Y cells, however when AADC was inhibited this affect was abolished. Furthermore 1321N1 cells which were found to have almost undetectable levels of AADC activity did not increase GSH release in response to 50 μM l-dopa. These results suggest that at these concentrations dopamine has the potential to act as a signal for the upregulation of GSH synthesis within neuronal-like cells and for the increased trafficking of GSH from astrocytes to neurons. This effect could potentially relate to the activation of antioxidant response elements leading to the induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes including those involved in GSH synthesis and release. The inability of l-dopa to produce a similar effect when AADC was inhibited or when AADC activity was absent indicates that these effects are relatively specific to dopamine. Additionally dopamine but not l-dopa treatment led in an increase in complex I activity of the respiratory chain in SH-SY5Y cells which may be related to the effect of dopamine on GSH levels.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) has been detected in patients with various neurodegenerative conditions. Studies on neurones and cerebral tissue have revealed that hyperhomocystinaemia may inhibit mitochondrial electron chain (ETC) enzyme activity resulting in neuronal morbidity. As astrocytes convey a protective and supportive role towards neurones, we postulated that Hcy-induced astrocytic ETC inhibition may contribute to neurological dysfunction. In order to investigate this hypothesis we established a cellular model of hyperhomocystinaemia using primary rat astrocytes. Which were incubated were incubated with 200 µM, 500 µM Hcy and the Hcy metabolite, thiolactone (10µM). Following 96 hours of incubation with 200 µM and 500 µM Hcy an approximate 2-fold (1.11 nmol/mg) and 3-fold (1.45 nmol/mg) increase in mitochondrial levels of Hcy, respectively, were detected compared to control levels (0.54 nmol/mg). However, on exposure to Hcy (200 µM or 500 µM) and Hcy-thiolactone (10µM) , the activities of astrocytic ETC complex I, II-III and IV were found to be comparable to control levels. In addition, the extracellular lactate:pyruvate ratio and the intracellular glutathione status of primary rat astrocytes were not significantly different between Hcy (200 µM or 500 µM) treated and controls . In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that Hcy induced impairment of astrocytic ETC function may not contribute to the pathophysiology of hyperhomocystinaemia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We reported previously that rats exposed to a low-protein diet in utero and postnatal catch-up growth (recuperated) develop metabolic dysfunction and have reduced life span. Here we explored the hypothesis that cardiac oxidative and nitrosative stress leading to DNA damage and accelerated cellular aging could contribute to these phenotypes. Recuperated animals had a low birth weight (P<0.001) but caught up in weight to controls during lactation. At weaning, recuperated cardiac tissue had increased (P<0.05) protein nitrotyrosination and DNA single-stranded breaks. This condition was preceded by increased expression of DNA damage repair molecules 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase-1, nei-endonuclease-VIII-like, X-ray-repair-complementing-defective-repair-1, and Nthl endonuclease III-like-1 on d 3. These differences were maintained on d 22 and became more pronounced in the case of 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase-1 and nei-endonuclease-VIII-like. This was accompanied by increases in xanthine oxidase (P<0.001) and NADPH oxidase (P<0.05), major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The detrimental effects of increased ROS in recuperated offspring may be exaggerated at 22 d by reductions (P<0.001) in the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin-3 and CuZn-superoxide-dismutase. We conclude that poor fetal nutrition followed by accelerated postnatal growth results in increased cardiac nitrosative and oxidative-stress and DNA damage, which could contribute to age-associated disease risk.-Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Martin-Gronert, M. S., Fernandez-Twinn, D. S., Hargreaves, I., Alfaradhi, M. Z., Land, J. M., Aiken, C. E., Ozanne, S. E. Poor maternal nutrition followed by accelerated postnatal growth leads to alterations in DNA damage and repair, oxidative and nitrosative stress and oxidative defense capacity in rat heart.
UCL Eastman Dental InstituteLondinium, England, United Kingdom
Universidad de Salamanca
Salamanca, Castile and Leon, Spain
- Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
University of London
Londinium, England, United Kingdom
- The School of Pharmacy