[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Despite a large amount of data on recurrent pericarditis, conclusive data are lacking to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the treatment of the first attack of acute pericarditis. The Investigation on Colchicine in Acute Pericarditis (ICAP) trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial aimed at the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of colchicine to treat acute pericarditis and prevent its recurrences.
Methods: Eligible adult patients with acute pericarditis were randomly assigned to placebo or colchicine (0.5 mg twice daily for 3 months for patients>70kg or 0.5 mg once daily if ≤70kg) in addition to conventional anti-inflammatory therapy with aspirin or ibuprofen in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary study outcome was incessant/recurrent pericarditis within 18 months. Secondary outcomes were symptoms persistence at 72 hours, remission within 1 week, number of recurrences, time to first recurrence, disease-related hospitalization, cardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis.
Results: Of the 240 randomly assigned participants (mean age 52.1±16.9 years, 60% males), 65 patients (27.1%) reached the primary outcome: incessant/recurrent pericarditis within 18 months was 16.7% in the colchicine group and 37.5% in the placebo group (relative risk reduction 0.56 95% CI 0.30-0.72; number needed to treat-NNT 4). Colchicine reduced symptoms persistence at 72 hours (respectively, 19.2% vs. 40.0%; p=0.001), number of recurrences, hospitalizations (respectively, 5.0% vs. 14.2%; p=0.016), improved the remission rate at 1 week (respectively, 85.0% vs. 58.3%; p<0.001), and prolonged time to first recurrence. Corticosteroid use (OR 4.17, 95% CI 1.28 to 13.53; p=0.018), and C-reactive protein elevation at presentation (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.05 to 9.49; p=0.041) were independent risk factors for recurrences in multivariable analysis. Overall adverse effect rates were similar in the study groups (respectively, 11.7% in the colchicine group and 10.0% in the placebo group; p=0.836) as well as withdrawal rates (respectively, 11.7% vs. 8.3%; p=0.519). No serious adverse effects were observed.
Conclusions: The ICAP trial is the first multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial to show the efficacy and safety of colchicine as an adjunct to conventional anti-inflammatory therapy to halve incessant/recurrent pericarditis within 18 months, reduce the number of recurrences, and prolong the time to subsequent recurrence after a first episode of acute pericarditis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · European Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant pericardial effusion is a common and serious manifestation in malignancies. The origins of the malignant process include solid tumors or hematological malignancies, while primary neoplasms of the pericardium are less common. In the oncological patient, pericardial effusion may develop by several different mechanisms, namely by direct or metastatic spread of the primary process or as a complication of antineoplastic therapies. In some cases, pericardial effusion may be the first manifestation of the disease, and that is why malignancy must be excluded in every case of an acute pericardial disease with cardiac tamponade at presentation, rapidly increasing pericardial effusion and an incessant or recurrent course. Thus, the definite differentiation of malignant pericardial effusion and rapid diagnosis are of particular therapeutic and prognostic importance. Management of these patients is multidisciplinary and requires team work, but at present there is a need for further research. An individual treatment plan should be established, taking into account cancer stage, the patient's prognosis, local availability and experience. In emergency cases with cardiac tamponade or significant effusion, initial relief can be obtained with pericardiocentesis. Despite the magnitude of this serious problem, little progress has been made in the treatment of pericardial effusion secondary to malignant disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We appreciate your interest in the COPPS postoperative atrial
fibrillation (POAF) substudy.1 Your letter has 2 main queries: The
time of colchicine administration, and the possible beneficial effects
of concomitant use of �-blockers as a potential confounding factor in
the trial results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate therapy and rheumatologic aspects of recurrent acute idiopathic pericarditis (RAIP).
We studied 46 patients. We used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at high dosage. We did not start corticosteroid: if already started, we planned a very slow tapering; 37 patients (80.4%) were treated with colchicine. We also assessed the frequency of ANA, anti-SSA and Rheumatoid factor.
With our protocol recurrences dropped from 0.46 to 0.03 attacks/patient/month (p<0.00001) within 12 months and remained at the same level (0.024) till the end of the follow-up (mean 8 years). In the 37 patients treated with colchicine recurrences dropped from 0.5 to 0.03 (p<0.0001) within 12 months, and in 9 patients not given colchicine from 0.27 to 0.045 (p<0.005). When colchicine was used the decrease was significantly higher (0.47 vs 0.23) (p<0.001). In 27 (58.7%) patients ANA were positive at a titre >1/80, in 7 (15.2%) >1/160. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 7 (15.2%) and anti-SSA in 4 (8.7%). During the follow-up 4 (8.7%) new diagnosis of Sjogren and 1 (2.2%) of Rheumatoid Arthritis were made.
NSAIDs at high dosage, slow tapering of corticosteroid and colchicine are very effective in RAIP. The improvement is more dramatic in colchicine treated patients, but also other patients can achieve good control of the disease. The finding of ANA, anti-SSA and the new rheumatological diagnoses support the involvement of autoimmunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the current major diagnostic issues on the diagnosis of acute and recurrent pericarditis.
To review the current available evidence, we performed a through search of several evidence-based sources of information, including Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Clinical Evidence, Evidence-based guidelines from National Guidelines Clearinghouse and a comprehensive Medline search with the MeSH terms 'pericarditis', 'etiology' and 'diagnosis'.
The diagnosis of pericarditis is based on clinical criteria including symptoms, presence of specific physical findings (rubs), electrocardiographical changes and pericardial effusion. Although the aetiology may be varied, most cases are idiopathic or viral, even after an extensive diagnostic evaluation. In such cases, the course is often benign following anti-inflammatory treatment, and management would be not affected by a more precise diagnostic evaluation. A triage of pericarditis can be safely performed on the basis of the clinical and echocardiographical presentation. Specific diagnostic tests are not warranted if no specific aetiologies are suspected on the basis of the epidemiological background, history and presentation. High-risk features associated with specific aetiologies or complications include: fever > 38 degrees C, subacute onset, large pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, lack of response to aspirin or a NSAID.
A targeted diagnostic evaluation is warranted in acute and recurrent pericarditis, with a specific aetiological search to rule out tuberculous, purulent or neoplastic pericarditis, as well as pericarditis related to a systemic disease, in selected patients according to the epidemiological background, presentation and clinical suspicion.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · International Journal of Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are known risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Our aim was to examine whether amongst patients with pre-existing atherothrombotic disease, increased insulin resistance is associated with incident cerebrovascular events.
Patients with stable coronary heart disease included in a secondary prevention trial were followed up for a mean of 6.2 years. Coronary heart disease was documented by a history of myocardial infarction > or =6 months and <5 years before enrollment and/or stable angina pectoris with evidence of ischaemia confirmed by ancillary diagnostic testing. Main exclusion criteria were insulin treated diabetes, hepatic or renal failure, and disabling stroke. Baseline insulin levels were measured in 2938 patients from stored frozen plasma samples and increased insulin resistance assessed using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), categorized into tertiles or quartiles.
Crude rates of incident cerebrovascular events rose from 5.0% for HOMA-IR at the bottom tertile to 5.7% at the middle tertile, and 7.0% at the top tertile (P = 0.07). HOMA-IR at the top versus bottom tertile was associated with an unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.37 (95%CI, 0.94-1.98) and a 1-unit increase in the ln HOMA-IR was associated with a HR of 1.14 (95%CI, 0.97-1.35). In further analyses adjusting for potential confounders, or categorizing baseline HOMA-IR into quartiles, or excluding diabetic patients, we did not identify an increased risk for incident cerebrovascular events conferred by the top category.
Increased insulin resistance did not predict incident cerebrovascular events amongst patients with pre-existing atherothrombotic disease.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · European Journal of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence of the effectiveness of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) within continuum of atherothrombotic conditions and particularly in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well established. Large-scale, randomized, prospective trials involving patients with CHD have shown that statins reduce the clinical consequences of atherosclerosis, including cardiovascular deaths, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, as well as the need for coronary revascularization. Direct testing of varying degrees of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- cholesterol lowering has now been carried out in 4 large outcomes trials: PROVE IT-TIMI 22, A to Z, TNT and IDEAL. However, the question whether more aggressive LDL-cholesterol lowering by high-dose statins monotherapy is an appropriate strategy is still open: higher doses of statins are more effective mainly for the prevention of the nonfatal cardiovascular events but such doses are associated with an increase in hepatotoxicity, myopathy and concerns regarding noncardiovascular death. Moreover, despite the increasing use of statins, a significant number of coronary events still occur and many such events take place in patients presenting with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. More and more attention is now being paid to combined atherogenic dyslipidemia which typically presented in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This mixed dyslipidemia (or ’lipid quartet’) - hypertriglyceridemia, low highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, a preponderance of small, dense LDL particles and an accumulation of cholesterol-rich remnant particles - emerged as the greatest ’competitor’ of LDL-cholesterol among lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Most recent extensions of the fibrates trials (BIP, HHS, VAHIT and FIELD) give further support to the hypothesis that patients with insulin-resistant syndromes such as diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome might be the ones to derive the most benefit from therapy with fibrates. However, different fibrates may have a somewhat different spectrum of effects. Other lipid-modifying strategies included using of niacin, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, CETP inhibitors and omega-3 fatty acids. Particularly, ezetimibe/statins combinations provide superior lipid-modifying benefits compared Tenenbaum/Fisman/Motro/Adler 128 with any statins monotherapy in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with increased levels of chylomicrons and their remnants containing 3 main components: apolipoprotein B-48, triglycerides and cholesterol ester of intestinal origin. Reduction in accessibility for one of them (specifically cholesteryl ester lessening due to ezetimibe administration) could lead to a decrease of the entire production of chylomicrons and result in a decrease of the hepatic body triglycerides pool as confirmed in number of clinical studies. However, the ENHANCE study showed no difference in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis between ezetimibe/simvastatin vs. simvastatin alone over a 2-year period. Conclusions regarding ezetimibe/statins combinations should not be made until the three large clinical outcome trials will be completed within the next 2-3 years. In addition, bezafibrate as a pan-PPAR activator has clearly demonstrated beneficial pleiotropic effects related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell protection. Because fibrates, niacin, ezetimibe, omega-3 fatty acids and statins each regulate serum lipids by different mechanisms, combination therapy - selected on the basis of their safety and effectiveness, could be more helpful in achieving a comprehensive lipid control as compared with statins monotherapy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Advances in cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of a multidrug protocol in recurrent acute pericarditis. We tried also to assess the specific role of colchicine.
We studied 58 patients (34 males) in the largest monocentric observational study. All patients received prolonged courses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; generally we do not start a corticosteroid in recurrent acute pericarditis, but if a steroid had already been started, we planned a very slow tapering; if necessary azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, and other immunosuppressive drugs were used; 44 patients (27 males, 61.4%) were treated also with colchicine and 14 patients (7 males, 50%) were not given this drug.
After starting our protocol recurrences dropped from 0.48 to 0.03 attacks/patient/month (p < 0.00001) within 12 months and remained at the same level till the end of the follow-up (mean 8.1 years) in the whole cohort. In the 44 patients treated with colchicine recurrences dropped from 0.54 to 0.03 attacks/patient/month (p < 0.00001) within 12 months, and in 14 patients not given colchicine recurrences decreased from 0.31 to 0.06 attacks/patient/month (p = 0.002). In patients treated with colchicine the decrease was significantly higher (0.51) than in patients not taking this drug (0.25) (p = 0.006). Colchicine was discontinued by 16.3% of patients because of side effects.
A multidrug protocol including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at high dosage, slow tapering of corticosteroid, colchicine, reassurance and close clinical monitoring is very effective in recurrent pericarditis; this improvement is more dramatic in colchicine treated patients, but also patients who do not tolerate it can achieve good control of the disease.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Clinical and experimental rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between mitral valve disease and atrial fibrillation (AF) is well known, but few data exist regarding the impact of AF after mitral valve replacement (MVR) on NYHA functional class, atrial size and hemodynamic parameters. The present study was conducted to evaluate these issues.
Eighty-six patients (26 men, 60 women) who underwent MVR were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. Fifty-nine patients had chronic AF (AF group), and 27 were in sinus rhythm (sinus group). Variables analyzed included end-systolic left atrial and right atrial areas, tricuspid regurgitation, and presence and duration of AF. Peak and mean transprosthetic mitral valve gradients and pulmonary pressure were estimated by Doppler echocardiography.
Groups were matched for age, sex and time from MVR (mean 6.6 years). Sixty-four patients (77%) had rheumatic heart disease, 18 (21%) had mitral valve disease, and two (2%) had mitral valve prolapse. Mean duration of AF was 11+/-12 years (range: 8-50 years). Preoperatively, AF patients had a worse NYHA class than sinus patients (2.8+/-0.8 versus 1.1+/-0.7, p = 0.001), but both had similar fractional shortening of the left ventricle and preserved prosthetic mitral valve function. Multivariate analysis identified AF as a single predictor of NYHA class after MVR. Although left and right atrial areas were larger in AF patients (47+/-25 versus 27+/-7 cm2, p = 0.0001 and 30+/-12 versus 17+/-5 cm2, p = 0.0001, respectively), the left:right atrial size ratio was not significantly different between groups. Multivariate analysis identified mean transmitral gradient and duration of AF as independent predictors of left atrial size after MVR (p = 0.01 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Tricuspid regurgitation and duration of AF were independent predictors of right atrial size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0001, respectively).
The presence of AF after MVR is associated with a worse NYHA functional class, increased transmitral gradients, and larger areas of both atria, when compared with sinus rhythm. Hence, a special effort should be made to correct arrhythmia during surgery, and in case of paroxysmal arrhythmia, earlier surgery should be considered before the condition becomes chronic.
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · The Journal of heart valve disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitral annulus calcification (MAC) is best diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography. MAC is associated with known atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. It is also known from the literature that patients with MAC have higher prevalence of left atrial and left ventricular enlargement, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, aortic valve calcification and stenosis, various cardiac conduction defects, bacterial endocarditis, cardiovascular events and stroke, though the etiological basis is unknown. Pathological studies from the 80's present a theory that MAC is a form of atherosclerosis. During the past few years we conducted a few clinical studies in order to test this theory and to examine the association between MAC and known atherosclerotic phenomena. We found higher prevalence of aortic atheroma in patients with MAC, especially complex atheroma, and we also found a continuous correlation between the MAC and atheroma thickness. We also noted that MAC patients have a higher prevalence of carotid artery stenosis, coronary artery stenosis, peripheral artery stenosis and higher levels of anti beta 2-Glycoprotein I antibodies in patients with MAC thickness equal or greater than 5 mm. These studies support the theory that MAC is a form of atherosclerosis and define a group of patients with higher prevalence of atherosclerotic disease in multiple blood vessels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in detecting cardiac and thoracic aortic sources of retinal emboli.
Retrospective observational case series.
The study population consisted of 18 patients who were initially seen with retinal artery occlusion (7 central, 11 branch) and underwent TEE as part of the systemic evaluation.
All patients underwent TEE, consisting of complete two-dimensional and Doppler color flow examinations. TEE was done immediately after transthoracic echo (TTE) examination. The medical records were reviewed.
Detection of a possible cardiac or thoracic aortic source of retinal embolus.
Cardiac or thoracic aortic pathologic conditions, which were a possible source of the retinal emboli, were detected by TEE in 13 of the 18 patients (72%). They included aortic arch atheroma (n = 7), mitral annulus calcification (n = 4), left atrial appendage thrombus (n = 2), valvular abnormalities (n = 5), left atrial smoke (n = 3), and patent foramen ovale (n = 3). In 11 patients (61%), at least one cardiac or aortic source of emboli detected by TEE was missed by TTE. Significant carotid artery disease (>or=40% stenosis) was present in 3 of 16 patients (17%).
TEE is a potentially useful modality for detecting possible sources of retinal artery emboli and may be considered as an adjunct to the routine evaluation of affected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke and its consequences are of global concern. Although stroke can affect individuals of any age, it primarily affects the elderly. It is among the leading causes of severe disability and mortality. In recent years, acute stroke has become a medical emergency requiring urgent evaluation and treatment. Effective management of patients with acute stroke starts with organisation of the entire stroke care chain, from the community and prehospital scene, through the emergency department, to a dedicated stroke unit and then to comprehensive rehabilitation.
Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; rt-PA) 0.9 mg/kg (maximum dose 90mg) was shown to significantly improve outcome of acute ischaemic stroke, despite an increased rate of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, if treatment is initiated within 3 hours after the onset of symptoms to patients who meet strict eligibility criteria. Post-marketing studies have demonstrated that intravenous alteplase can be administered appropriately in a wide variety of hospital settings. However, strict adherence to the published protocol is mandatory, as failure to comply may be associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage. Intra-arterial revascularisation may provide more complete restitution of flow than intravenous thrombolytic therapy and improve the clinical outcome if it can be undertaken in patients with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, and possibly the basilar artery, within the first hours from stroke onset. However, further data are needed.
Although intravenous alteplase is recommended for any age beyond 18 years, elderly patients, in particular patients aged ≥80 years, were often excluded or under-represented in randomised clinical trials of thrombolysis, so that available data on risk/benefit ratio for the very elderly are limited. Small post-marketing series suggest that despite elderly patients over 80 years having greater pre-stroke disability, the use of intravenous alteplase in this patient group does not significantly differ in effectiveness and complications compared with the same treatment in patients aged under age 80 years. Further studies are necessary and elderly patients with acute stroke should be included in future trials of the merits of thrombolytic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitral annulus calcification has been associated with embolic events, but the precise pathophysiology has not been elucidated. The authors describe four patients who experienced embolic events whose transesophageal echocardiograms showed a mitral annulus calcification, with a mobile component that exhibited the same echogenicity as the calcification. Three patients had no other conditions known to be associated with embolism. On follow-up transesophageal echocardiography, the mobile component of the mitral annulus calcification had disappeared in three patients. These findings support the hypothesis that mitral annulus calcification not only is associated with but also is possibly a direct cause of embolic events in some patients.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · The American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that long-term diuretic therapy may be associated with increased risk of renal cell carcinoma. This carcinoma is not a common malignancy, but it shares risk factors with the considerably more widespread colon cancer (CC). However, there are no data whether or not a relationship between long-term diuretic therapy and CC mortality exists. In this study we tested the hypothesis that long-term diuretic therapy may be associated with increased CC mortality over a 5.6-year follow-up period.
The study sample comprised 14 166 patients aged 45 to 74 years with a previous myocardial infarction and/or stable anginal syndrome, screened for participation in the bezafibrate infarction prevention (BIP) study. There were 2153 patients receiving diuretics and 12 013 patients receiving no diuretics.
During the follow-up 139 (6.5%) new cases of cancer were diagnosed in the diuretic-treated group compared with 622 (5.2%) in the group receiving no diuretics (P = 0.02). Colon cancer mortality was significantly higher in the diuretic-treated patients (0.1 vs 0.5%, P = 0.001), whereas mortality differences for other cancer types were not documented. Multivariate analysis identified diuretics as an independent predictor of increased colon cancer incidence and colon cancer mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.2) for colon cancer incidence and 3.7 (95% CI 1.7-8.3) for mortality. However, the association between diuretic therapy and higher incidence of colon cancer was observed only among non-users of aspirin. A relatively lower colon cancer incidence was observed in the furosemide subgroup, and higher in the small combined amiloride/hydrochlorthiazide subgroup (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.15-8.65).
Long-term exposure to diuretic therapy may be associated with an increased colon cancer-related mortality.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2001 · Journal of Human Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitral annulus calcification (MAC) is a chronic, non-inflammatory, degenerative process of the fibrous support structure of the mitral valve. It occurs more often in women and the elderly. MAC is associated with known atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. It is also known that patient with MAC have higher prevalence of left atrial and left ventricular enlargement, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, aortic valve calcification and stenosis, various cardiac conduction defects, bacterial endocarditis, cardiovascular events and stroke, though the etiological basis is unknown. Pathological studies from the 80s present a theory that MAC is a form of atherosclerosis. In order to test this theory we conducted during the last years a few clinical studies to examine the association of MAC and known atherosclerotic phenomena. We found higher prevalence of aortic atheroma in patients with MAC and atheroma thickness. We also found in MAC patients higher prevalence of carotid artery stenosis, coronary artery stenosis, peripheral artery stenosis and higher levels of beta2-Glycoprotein I antibodies in patients with MAC thickness equal or greater than 5 mm. These studies support the theory that MAC is a form of atherosclerosis and define a group of patients with higher prevalence of atherosclerotic disease in multiple blood vessels. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data concerning MAC and atherosclerotic processes, emphasizing that MAC in itself may be an atherosclerotic process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro studies showed that low-frequency ultrasound (US) causes blood clot dissolution. This effect is augmented with thrombolytics, microbubbles and microparticles. However, in animal models of transcutaneous delivery, US alone is not effective, probably due to attenuation of US energy by overlying skin. When combined with thrombolytics or microbubbles, transcutaneous US is highly effective.
To assess the synergistic effect of low-intensity low-frequency US and saline, hydroxyethyl starch (HAES) (a non-gas filled microparticle containing solution), streptokinase (STK), and their combination on blood clot disruption.
Human blood clots from 4 healthy donors, 2-4 hours old, were immersed for 0, 15, or 30 min in 37 degrees C in 10 ml of the above-mentioned solutions, and then were randomized to 10 sec of 20 kHz US or no US. The % difference in weight was calculated.
Immersion for 30 min without US resulted in 13.8 +/- 1.2% clot lysis in saline, and 22.0 +/- 1.3%, 21.7 +/- 2.1%, and 23.2 +/- 1.9% in STK, HAES, and STK + HAES, respectively (p = 0.002). US augmented clot lysis in all groups and at all time points. With low-intensity US, HAES was not better than saline. However, the combination of HAES + STK with US resulted in larger clot disruption at 15 sec incubation time (46.7 +/- 3.2%) than with saline (29.6 +/- 2.1%), HAES (29.6 +/- 2.5%), and STK (32.8 +/- 3.6%) (p < 0.001).
low-frequency, low-intensity US combined with HAES and STK resulted in greater clot disruption at short incubation times. This combination may assist in achieving faster reperfusion in in vivo models.
No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sulfonylurea--usually glyburide--plus metformin constitute the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic combination in clinical practice. Both medications present undesirable cardiovascular effects. The issue whether the adverse effects of each of these pharmacologic agents may be additive and detrimental to the prognosis for coronary patients has not yet been specifically addressed.
This study was designed to examine the survival in type 2 diabetics with proven coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving a combined glyburide/metformin antihyperglycemic treatment over a long-term follow-up period.
The study sample comprised 2,275 diabetic patients, aged 45-74 years, with proven CAD, who were screened but not included in the bezafibrate infarction prevention study. In addition, 9,047 nondiabetic patients with CAD represented a reference group. Diabetics were divided into four groups on the basis of their therapeutic regimen: diet alone (n = 990), glyburide (n = 953), metformin (n = 79), and a combination of the latter two (n = 253).
The diabetic groups presented similar clinical characteristics upon recruitment. Crude mortality rate after a 7.7-year follow-up was lower in nondiabetics (14 vs. 31.6%, p<0.001). Among diabetics, 720 patients died: 260 on diet (mortality 26.3%), 324 on glyburide (34%), 25 on metformin alone (31.6%), and 111 patients (43.9%) on combined treatment (p<0.000001). Time-related mortality was almost equal for patients on metformin and on combined therapy over an intermediate follow-up period of 4 years (survival rates 0.80 and 0.79, respectively). The group on combined treatment presented the worst prognosis over the long-term follow-up, with a time-related survival rate of 0.59 after 7 years, versus 0.68 and 0.70 for glyburide and metformin, respectively. After adjustment to variables for prognosis, the use of the combined treatment was associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality of 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.96), whereas glyburide and metformin alone yielded HR 1.22 (95% CI 1.02-1.45) and HR 1.26 (95% CI 0.81-1.96), respectively. Conclusions: We conclude that after a 7.7-year follow-up, monotherapy with either glyburide or metformin in diabetic patients with CAD yielded a similar outcome and was associated with a modest increase in mortality. However, time-related mortality was markedly increased when a combined glyburide/metformin treatment was used.
Preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Clinical Cardiology