Yuri N Antonenko

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moskva, Moscow, Russia

Are you Yuri N Antonenko?

Claim your profile

Publications (140)479.01 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation is currently being widely considered as alternative to antibiotic chemotherapy of infective diseases, attracting much attention to design of novel effective photosensitizers. Carboranyl-chlorin-e6 (the conjugate of chlorin e6 with carborane), applied here for the first time for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation, appeared to be much stronger than chlorin e6 against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphyllococcus aureus and Mycobacterium sp. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy and membrane leakage experiments indicated that bacteria cell death upon photodynamic treatment with carboranyl-chlorin-e6 is caused by loss of cell membrane integrity. The enhanced photobactericidal activity was attributed to the increased accumulation of the conjugate by bacterial cells, as evaluated both by centrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Gram-negative bacteria were rather resistant to antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation mediated by carboranyl-chlorin-e6. Unlike chlorin e6, the conjugate showed higher (compared to the wild-type strain) dark toxicity with Escherichia coli ΔtolC mutant, deficient in TolC-requiring multidrug efflux transporters.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Content to "Mitochondria-targeted cationic plastoquinone derivatives: Synthesis and in vitro studies" of Y.N. Antonenko et al.: S1: Structures, Methods of Synthesis, and Certain Physicochemical Properties of Cationic Quinone Derivatives; S2: SkQs in BLM and Isolated Mitochondria; S3: SkQ1 in Human Cell Cultures
    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
  • T.I. Rokitskaya · A.M. Firsov · E.A. Kotova · Y.N. Antonenko
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The impact of double bonds in fatty acyl tails of unsaturated lipids on the photodynamic inactivation of ion channels formed by the pentadecapeptide gramicidin A in a planar bilayer lipid membrane was studied. The presence of unsaturated acyl tails protected gramicidin A against photodynamic inactivation, with efficacy depending on the depth of a photosensitizer in the membrane. The protective effect of double bonds was maximal with membrane-embedded chlorin e6-monoethylenediamine monoamide dimethyl ester, and minimal - in the case of water-soluble tri-sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS3) known to reside at the membrane surface. By contrast, the protective effect of the hydrophilic singlet oxygen scavenger ascorbate was maximal for AlPcS3 and minimal for amide of chlorin e6 dimethyl ester. The depth of photosensitizer position in the lipid bilayer was estimated from the quenching of photosensitizer fluorescence by iodide. Thus, the protective effect of a singlet oxygen scavenger against photodynamic inactivation of the membrane-inserted peptide is enhanced upon location of the photosensitizer and scavenger molecules in close vicinity to each other.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Biochemistry (Moscow)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: N-terminally substituted lysine derivatives of gramicidin A (gA), [Lys1]gA and [Lys3]gA, but not glutamate- or aspartate-substituted peptides have been previously shown to cause leakage of carboxyfluorescein from liposomes. Here, the leakage induction was also observed for [Arg1]gA and [Arg3]gA, while [His1]gA and [His3]gA were inactive at neutral pH. The Lys3-containing analogue with all tryptophans replaced by isoleucines did not induce liposome leakage, similar to gA, which favors the presence of both tryptophans and N-terminal cationic residues to be critical for pore formation. Remarkably, the addition of gA blocked the leakage induced by [Lys3]gA. By examining with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy the peptide-induced leakage of fluorescent markers from liposomes, we estimated the diameter of pores responsible for the leakage to be about 1.6 nm. Transmission electron cryo-microscopy imaging of liposomes with [Lys3]gA showed that the liposomal membranes contained high electron density particles with a size of about 40 Å, suggesting formation of peptide clusters. No such clusterization was observed in liposomes incorporating gA or a mixture of gA with [Lys3]gA. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the clusters was compatible with their pentameric arrangement. Based on experimental data and computational modeling, we suggest that the large pore formed by [Lys3]gA represents a barrel-stave oligomeric cluster formed by antiparallel double-stranded helical dimers (DH). In a tentative model, the pentamer of dimers may be stabilized by aromatic Trp-Trp and cation-π Trp-Lys interactions between the neighboring DHs. The inhibiting effect of gA on the [Lys3]gA-induced leakage can be attributed to breaking cation-π interactions, which prevents peptide clusterization and pore formation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conjugation to penetrating cations is a general approach for intramitochondrial delivery of physiologically active compounds, supported by a high membrane potential of mitochondria having negative sign on the matrix side. By using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we found here that Atto520-biotin, a conjugate of a fluorescent cationic rhodamine-based dye with the membrane-impermeable vitamin biotin, accumulated in energized mitochondria in contrast to biotin-rhodamine 110. The energy-dependent uptake of Atto520-biotin by mitochondria, being slower than that of the conventional mitochondrial dye tetramethyl-rhodamine ethyl ester, was enhanced by the hydrophobic anion tetraphenylborate (TPB). Atto520-biotin also exhibited accumulation in liposomes driven by membrane potential resulting from potassium ion gradient in the presence valinomycin. The induction of electrical current across planar bilayer lipid membrane by Atto520-biotin proved the ability of the compound to permeate through lipid membrane in a cationic form. Atto520-biotin stained mitochondria in a culture of L929 cells, and the staining was enhanced in the presence of TPB. Therefore, the fluorescent Atto520 moiety can serve as a vehicle for intramitochondrial delivery of hydrophilic drugs. Of importance for biotin-streptavidin technology, binding of Atto520-biotin to streptavidin was found to cause quenching of its fluorescence similar to the case of fluorescein-4-biotin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes
  • Yuri N Antonenko · Tatyana I Rokitskaya · Adam Huczyński
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monensin is a carrier of cations through lipid membranes capable of exchanging sodium (potassium) cations for protons by an electroneutral mechanism, whereas its ethyl ester derivative ethyl-monensin is supposed to transport sodium (potassium) cations in an electrogenic manner. To elucidate mechanistic details of the ionophoric activity, ion fluxes mediated by monensin and ethyl-monensin were measured on planar bilayer lipid membranes, liposomes, and mitochondria. In particular, generation of membrane potential on liposomes was studied via the measurements of rhodamine 6G uptake by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. In mitochondria, swelling experiments were expounded by the additional measurements of respiration, membrane potential, and matrix pH. It can be concluded that both monensin and ethyl-monensin can perform nonelectrogenic exchange of potassium (sodium) ions for protons and serve as electrogenic potassium ion carriers similar to valinomycin. The results obtained are in line with the predictions based on the crystal structures of the monensin complexes with sodium ions and protons (Huczyński et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1818 (2012) pp. 2108-2119). The functional activity observed for artificial membranes and mitochondria can be applied to explain the activity of ionophores in living systems. It can also be important for studying the antitumor activity of monensin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interaction of cytochrome c with mitochondrial cardiolipin converting this electron transfer protein into peroxidase is accepted to play an essential role in apoptosis. Cytochrome c/cardiolipin peroxidase activity was found here to cause leakage of carboxyfluorescein, sulforhodamine B and 3-kDa (but not 10-kDa) fluorescent dextran from liposomes. A marked decrease in the amplitude of the autocorrelation function was detected with a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy setup upon incubation of dye-loaded cardiolipin-containing liposomes with cytochrome c and H2O2, thereby showing release of fluorescent markers from liposomes. The cytochrome c/H2O2-induced liposome leakage was suppressed upon increasing the ionic strength, in contrast to the leakage provoked by Fe/ascorbate, suggesting that the binding of cyt c to negatively-charged membranes was required for the permeabilization process. The cyt c/H2O2-induced liposome leakage was abolished by cyanide presumably competing with H2O2 for coordination with the central iron atom of the heme in cyt c. The cytochrome c/H2O2 permeabilization activity was substantially diminished by antioxidants (trolox, butylhydroxytoluene and quercetin) and was precluded if fully saturated tetramyristoyl-cardiolipin was substituted for bovine heart cardiolipin. These data favor the involvement of oxidized cardiolipin molecules in membrane permeabilization resulting from cytochrome c/cardiolipin peroxidase activity. In agreement with previous observations, high concentrations of cyt c induced liposome leakage in the absence of H2O2, however this process was not sensitive to antioxidants and cyanide suggesting direct membrane poration by the protein without the involvement of lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Linking decyl-triphenyl-phosphonium to fluorescein yields a fluorescent probe that accumulates in energized mitochondria, facilitates proton transfer across membranes and stimulates mitochondrial respiration. This features a mitochondria-targeted uncoupler, being of potential interest for therapeutic use against oxidative stress-related diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Chemical Communications
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species are grossly produced in the brain after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion causing neuronal cell death. Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species is nonlinearly related to the value of the mitochondrial membrane potential with significant increment at values exceeding 150 mV. Therefore, limited uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation could be beneficial for cells exposed to deleterious oxidative stress-associated conditions by preventing excessive generation of reactive oxygen species.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Limited uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is known to be beneficial in various laboratory models of diseases. The search for cationic uncouplers is promising as their protonophorous effect is self-limiting because these uncouplers lower membrane potential which is the driving force for their accumulation in mitochondria. In this work, the penetrating cation Rhodamine 19 butyl ester (C4R1) was found to decrease membrane potential and to stimulate respiration of mitochondria, appearing to be a stronger uncoupler than its more hydrophobic analog Rhodamine 19 dodecyl ester (C12R1). Surprisingly, C12R1 increased H(+) conductance of artificial bilayer lipid membranes or induced mitochondria swelling in potassium acetate with valinomycin at concentrations lower than C4R1. This paradox might be explained by involvement of mitochondrial proteins in the uncoupling action of C4R1. In experiments with HeLa cells, C4R1 rapidly and selectively accumulated in mitochondria and stimulated oligomycin-sensitive respiration as a mild uncoupler. C4R1 was effective in preventing oxidative stress induced by brain ischemia and reperfusion in rats: it suppressed stroke-induced brain swelling and prevented the decline in neurological status more effectively than C12R1. Thus, C4R1 seems to be a promising example of a mild uncoupler efficient in treatment of brain pathologies related to oxidative stress.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The environmentally sensitive fluorescent probe 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) is generally utilized to monitor dynamic properties of membrane lipids and proteins. Here we studied the behavior of a homologous series of 4-n-alkylamino-substituted NBD derivatives (NBD-Cn; n=4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12) in planar lipid bilayers, liposomes and isolated mitochondria. NBD-C10 induced proton conductivity in planar lipid membranes, while NBD-C4 was ineffective. The NBD-Cn compounds readily provoked proton permeability of neutral liposomes being less effective in negatively charged liposomes. NBD-Cn increased the respiration rate and reduced the membrane potential of isolated rat liver mitochondria. Remarkably, the bell-shaped dependence of the uncoupling activity of NBD-Cn on the alkyl chain length was found in mitochondria in contrast to the monotonous dependence in liposomes. The effect of NBD-Cn on the respiration correlated with that on proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, as measured by mitochondria swelling. Binding of NBD-Cn to mitochondria increased with n, as shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. It was concluded that despite a pKa value of the amino group in NBD-Cn being about 10, i.e. far from the physiological pH range, the expected hindering of the uncoupling activity could be overcome by inserting the alkyl chain of a certain length.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In contrast to expectations that unsaturated fatty acids contribute to oxidative stress by providing a source of lipid peroxides, we demonstrated the protective effect of double bonds in lipids on oxidative damage to membrane proteins. Photodynamic inactivation of gramicidin channels was decreased in unsaturated lipid compared to saturated lipid bilayers. By estimating photosensitizer (boronated chlorine e6 amide) binding to the membrane with the current relaxation technique, the decrease in gramicidin photoinactivation was attributed to singlet oxygen scavenging by double bonds in lipids rather than to the reduction in photosensitizer binding. Gramicidin protection by unsaturated lipids was also observed upon induction of oxidative stress with tert-butyl hydroperoxide.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · FEBS letters
  • E O Omarova · Y N Antonenko
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present work we studied the effect of antioxidants of the SkQ1 family (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium) on the oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by a lipophilic free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) and a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). SkQ1 was found to protect erythrocytes from hemolysis, 2 μM being the optimal concentration. Both the oxidized and reduced SkQ1 forms exhibited protective properties. Both forms of SkQ1 also inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes induced by the lipophilic free radical initiator AMVN as detected by accumulation of malondialdehyde. However, in the case of induction of erythrocyte oxidation by AAPH, the accumulation of malondialdehyde was not inhibited by SkQ1. In the case of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the rhodamine-containing analog SkQR1 exerted a comparable protective effect at the concentration of 0.2 μM. At higher SkQ1 and SkQR1 concentrations, the protective effect was smaller, which was attributed to the ability of these compounds to facilitate hemolysis in the absence of oxidative stress. We found that plastoquinone in the oxidized form of SkQ1 could be reduced by erythrocytes, which apparently accounted for its protective action. Thus, the protective effect of SkQ in erythrocytes, which lack mitochondria, proceeded at concentrations that are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those that were active in isolated mitochondria.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Biochemistry (Moscow)

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photodynamic tumor-destroying activity of the boronated chlorin e6 derivative BACE (chlorin e6 13(1)-N-{2-[N-(1-carba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)methyl]aminoethyl}amide-15(2), 17(3)-dimethyl ester), previously described in Moisenovich et al. (2010) PLoS ONE 5(9) e12717, was shown here to be enormously higher than that of unsubstituted chlorin e6, being supported by the data on much higher photocytotoxicity of BACE in M-1 sarcoma cell culture. To validate membrane damaging effect as the basis of the enhanced tumoricidal activity, BACE was compared with unsubstituted chlorin e6 in the potency to photosensitize dye leakage from liposomes, transbilayer lipid flip-flop, inactivation of gramicidin A ionic channels in planar lipid membranes and erythrocyte hemolysis. In all the models comprising artificial and cellular membranes, the photodynamic effect of BACE exceeded that of chlorin e6. BACE substantially differed from chlorin e6 in the affinity to liposomes and erythrocytes, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry and centrifugation. The results support the key role of membrane binding in the photodynamic effect of the boronated chlorin e6 amide.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In search of fluorescent uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, three esters of fluorescein, n-butyl-, n-octyl-, and n-dodecyl-oxycarbonyl-fluorescein (C4-FL, C8-FL, C12-FL) were synthesized and characterized. With increasing liposomal lipid content, the long-chain alkyl derivatives of fluorescein (C8-FL, C12-FL and commercially available C18-FL), but not C4-FL and unsubstituted fluorescein, exhibited an increase in fluorescence polarization reflecting the dye binding to liposomes. C12-FL induced proton permeability in lipid membranes, while C4-FL was inactive. In contrast to C4-FL and C18-FL, C12-FL and C8-FL increased the respiration rate and decreased the membrane potential of isolated rat liver mitochondria with half-maximal effective concentrations of 700 nM and 300 nM, respectively. The effect of Cn-FL on the respiration correlated with that on proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, as measured by induction of mitochondria swelling in the potassium acetate medium. Binding of C8-FL to mitochondria depended on their energization, which was apparently associated with pH gradient generation across the inner mitochondrial membrane in the presence of a respiratory substrate. In wild-type yeast cells, C12-FL localized predominantly in plasma membrane, whereas in AD1-8 mutants lacking MDR pumps, it stained cytoplasmic organelles with some preference for mitochondria. Fluorescent uncouplers can be useful as a tool for determining its localization in a cell or distribution between different tissues in a living animal by fluorescent microscopy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introducing a charged group near the N-terminus of gramicidin A (gA) is supposed to suppress its ability to form ion channels by restricting its head-to-head dimerisation. The present study dealt with the activity of [Lys1]gA, [Lys3]gA, [Glu1]gA, [Glu3]gA, [Lys2]gA, and [Lys5]gA in model membrane systems (planar lipid bilayers and liposomes) and erythrocytes. In contrast to the Glu-substituted peptides, the lysine derivatives of gA caused non-specific liposomal leakage monitored by fluorescence de-quenching of lipid vesicles loaded with carboxyfluorescein or other fluorescent dyes. Measurements of electrical current through a planar lipid membrane revealed formation of giant pores by Lys-substituted analogues, which depended on the presence of solvent in the bilayer lipid membrane. The efficacy of unselective pore formation in liposomes depended on the position of the lysine residue in the amino acid sequence, increasing in the row: [Lys2]gA < [Lys5]gA < [Lys1]gA < [Lys3]gA. The similar series of potency was exhibited by the Lys-substituted gA analogues in facilitating erythrocyte hemolysis, whereas the Glu-substituted analogues showed negligible hemolytic activity. Oligomerization of the Lys-substituted peptides is suggested to be involved in the process of nonselective pore formation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protonophorous uncouplers causing a partial decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential are promising candidates for therapeutic applications. Here we showed that hydrophobic penetrating cations specifically targeted to mitochondria in a membrane potential-driven fashion increased proton-translocating activity of the anionic uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonylcyanide-p-trifluorophenylhydrazone (FCCP). In planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) separating two compartments with different pH values, DNP-mediated diffusion potential of H(+) ions was enhanced in the presence of dodecyltriphenylphosphonium cation (C12TPP). The mitochondria-targeted penetrating cations strongly increased DNP- and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)-mediated steady-state current through BLM when a transmembrane electrical potential difference was applied. Carboxyfluorescein efflux from liposomes initiated by the plastoquinone-containing penetrating cation SkQ1 was inhibited by both DNP and FCCP. Formation of complexes between the cation and CCCP was observed spectophotometrically. In contrast to the less hydrophobic tetraphenylphosphonium cation (TPP), SkQ1 and C12TPP promoted the uncoupling action of DNP and FCCP on isolated mitochondria. C12TPP and FCCP exhibited a synergistic effect decreasing the membrane potential of mitochondria in yeast cells. The stimulating action of penetrating cations on the protonophore-mediated uncoupling is assumed to be useful for medical applications of low (non-toxic) concentrations of protonophores.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protonophores can be considered as candidates for anti-obesity drugs and tools to prevent excessive reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria by means of a limited decrease in the mitochondrial potential. Experimentally used protonophores are weak acids that can carry protons across a membrane in a neutral (protonated) form, and they come back in an anionic (deprotonated) form. A cationic derivative of rhodamine 19 and plastoquinone (SkQR1) was recently shown to possess uncoupling activity in mitochondria and in intact cells. In this article, we studied the mechanism of action of SkQR1 and its plastoquinone-lacking analog (C12R1) on a planar bilayer lipid membrane by applying voltage jumps. The steady-state current was proportional to the C12R1 concentration in a manner as if the monomeric form of the carrier were operative. As predicted by the carrier model, at high pH, when rhodamines were mainly deprotonated, the current changed immediately following a jump in the applied potential and then remained constant. By contrast, at low pH, the current relaxed from an initially high value to a lower value since the protonated carrier cations were redistributed in the membrane. An inverse pH dependence was revealed with the anionic protonophore CCCP. The dependence of the SkQR1 protonophorous activity on voltage exhibited an increase at high voltages, an effect that might facilitate mild (self-limited) uncoupling of mitochondria.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Biophysics of Structure and Mechanism
  • Source
    Yuri N Antonenko · Andreas Horner · Peter Pohl
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein recruitment to specific membrane locations may be governed or facilitated by electrostatic attraction, which originates from a multivalent ligand. Here we explored the energetics of a model system in which this simple electrostatic recruitment mechanism failed. That is, basic poly-L-lysine binding to one leaflet of a planar lipid bilayer did not recruit the triply-charged peptide (O-Pyromellitylgramicidin). Clustering was only observed in cases where PLL was bound to both channel ends. Clustering was indicated (i) by the decreased diffusional PLL mobility D(PLL) and (ii) by an increased lifetime τ(PLL) of the clustered channels. In contrast, if PLL was bound to only one leaflet, neither D(PLL) nor τ(P) changed. Simple calculations suggest that electrostatic repulsion of the unbound ends prevented neighboring OPg dimers from approaching each other. We believe that a similar mechanism may also operate in cell signaling and that it may e.g. contribute to the controversial results obtained for the ligand driven dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · PLoS ONE

Publication Stats

3k Citations
479.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005-2015
    • Lomonosov Moscow State University
      • • Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics
      • • A. N. Belozersky Research Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1986-2012
    • Moscow State Forest University
      Mytishi, Moskovskaya, Russia
  • 2004
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002-2003
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      West Lafayette, IN, United States
  • 1996-1998
    • Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 1991-1994
    • University at Albany, The State University of New York
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      New York, New York, United States