[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical signs and blood changes were studied in cattle with experimentally produced specific obstructions of the small intestine. Eighteen cows were divided into three groups: group A, obstruction of the duodenum; group B, obstruction in the middle of the small intestine; group C, obstruction 20 cm cranial to the caecum. There were differences in the changes of the parameters studied among the groups; on some occasions these changes were similar, while in others no changes were observed. Thus, in groups B and C the abdominal wall tension was greater and colic more frequent and intense; as a result most animals stopped eating soon after ligation and water intake decreased by more than 50%, even from the first day. In groups A and B, urine volume, pulse pressure and central venous pressure showed a significant decrease, which was non-significant in group C. In group A clincial signs of dehydration were more intense and changes in heart rate and body temperature were significant. In all three groups ruminal atony, discontinuation and rumination and muscular weakness were observed. Respiratory rate, abdominal girth, body weight and arterial blood pressures remained essentially unchanged.
Experimenteller Darmverschluß beim Rind Teil I: Veränderungen des klinischen Bildes
Bei Kühen mit experimentell ausgelöstem Dünndarmverschluß wurden die klinischen Symptome und die Blutveränderungen untersucht. 18 Tiere wurden in 3 Gruppen unterteilt: A: Verschluß des Duodenums; B: Verschluß in der Mitte des Dünndarms; C: Verschluß 20 cm kranial des Caecums. Zwischen den Gruppen bestanden Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Veränderungen der untersuchten Parameter; in Einzelfällen waren die Veränderungen ähnlich, zum Teil wurden keine Veränderungen beobachtet. In den Gruppen B und C war die Bauchdeckenspannung größer und die Kolik häufiger und ausgeprägter; bei den meisten Tieren sistierte daher die Futteraufnahme bald nach der Unterbindung, die Wasseraufnahme ging bereits am ersten Tag auf weniger als 50% zurück. In den Gruppen A und B ergab sich eine Abnahme der Harnmenge, des Pulsdrucks und des zentralen Venendrucks, die im Unterschied zu Gruppe C signifikant war. In der Gruppe A waren die Symptome der Dehydratation intensiver und die Veränderungen der Herzfrequenz und der Körpertemperatur waren signifikant. In allen drei Gruppen wurden Pansenatonie, Sistieren des Wiederkauens und Muskelschwäche beobachtet. Atemfrequenz, Bauchumfang, Körpergewicht und arterieller Blutdruck blieben praktisch unverändert.
Occlusion intestinale expérimentale chez le bovin Première partie: Modifications de l'image clinique
Les symptômes cliniques et les modifications sanguines ont été examinées chez des vaches avec une occlusion intestinale déclenchée expérimentalement. 18 animaux ont été répartis en 3 groupes: A: occlusion du duodenum; B: occlusion de la partir médiane de l'intestin grêle; C: occlusion 20 cm cranialement du caecum. Les modifications des paramètres observés ont été différentes entre les groupes. Les changements furent semblables dans quelques cas et il n'y a pas eu de modification en partie. La tension de la paroi abdominale et la colique furent plus fréquentes et plus étendues dans les groupes B et C. L'anorexie est apparues chez le plupart des animaux peu après la ligature et la consommation de l'eau fut réduite à 50% déjà le premier jour. La différence dans les groupes A et B par rapport au groupe C fut significative dans la diminution de la quantité d'urine, le pouls et la pression veineuse centrale. Les symptômes de deshydratation furent plus forte dans le groupe A et les changements de la fréquence cardiaque et de la température corporelle furent significatifs. Une atonie de la panse, un arrêt de la rumination et des faiblesses musculaires ont été observés dans les trois groupes. La fréquence respiratoire, le poids corporel et la pression sanguine artérielle sont restés pratiquement inchangés.
La oclusión intestinal experimental en vacunos Parte Ia: Cambios en el cuadro clínico
En vacas con oclusión del intestino delgado, producida experimentalmente, se examinaron los síntomas clínicos y las modificaciones en la sangre. 18 animales fueron subdivididos en 3 grupos: grupo A, oclusión del duodeno; grupo B, oclusión en la mitad del intestino delgado; grupo C, oclusión 20 cm en dirección craneal del ciego. Entre los grupos existían diferencias con respecto a las modificaciones de los parámetros examinados; en casos aislados eran similares las modificaciones, a veces estas últimas ni llegaron a ser observadas. En los grupos B y C era mayor la contractura de la pared abdominal y más frecuentes y acentuados los cólicos; en la mayoría de los animales cesaban, por tanto, la ingestión de pienso poco después de la ligadura, mientras que la toma de agua ya se reducía a menos del 50% en el primer día. En los grupos A y B disminuyó la cantidad de orina, presión del pulso y la presión venosa central, la cual era significante a diferencia con el grupo C. En el grupo A eran más intensos los síntomas de deshidratación, y eran significantes las modificaciones de frecuencia de los latidos cardíacos y de la temperatura corporal. En todos los tres grupos se observaron atonía ruminal, cese de la rumia y debilidad muscular. Prácticamente no estaban modificadas la frecuencia respiratoria, el perímetro abdominal, el peso corporal ni la tensión de la sangre arterial.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is a relatively new genetic disease that, so far, appears to be confined to descendants of the American Quarter Horse Impressive, a stallion identified as the link between the pedigrees of all affected horses, and that predominantly affects Quarter Horses but also Paint horses, Appaloosas and Palominos. This study suggests that an episode of muscle weakness, which was reported in a Criollo Argentino genetically unrelated to Impressive, was related to marked hyperkalaemia. The symptoms in this case were reproducible following a KCI challenge test although DNA testing for HYPP was negative. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of a HYPP-like syndrome was made.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The survival time in a group of eight bitches with malignant mammary tumours given adjuvant post-operative chemotherapy was compared with survival in another group of eight bitches with mammary cancer which were treated by surgical excision alone. The same surgical procedure was used in both groups. All bitches had stage III disease according to the World Health Organization clinical staging system. Histologically, 10 of the bitches had complex carcinomas (carcinomatous mixed tumours), the remaining six bitches had carcinosarcomas. The chemotherapeutic protocol used was a combination of 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/m2 of body surface area) and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/m2) given on the same day, intravenously, every week for four consecutive weeks. Chemotherapy was started one week post-surgery. Selected haematological parameters (packed cell volume, white blood cell count, platelet count and differential white blood cell count) and serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) were measured before and during chemotherapy. Survival analysis indicated that the chemotherapeutic regimen had a positive influence on the disease-free interval and the survival time of the eight bitches (P < 0.05). Although leucocyte numbers were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) during chemotherapy, the mean leucocyte counts remained within normal limits. Temporary leukopenia was noted only in one bitch. Packed cell volume and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly (P < 0.05) but within normal limits. Creatinine was also increased significantly (P < 0.01) but the mean creatinine concentrations were within normal limits, although in half of the bitches the concentrations occasionally rose above normal.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angular limb deformities could be congenital or
acquired and could result from: a) asymmetrical growth from the
distal radial epiphysis, b) incomplete growth of the carpal bones, the
second and fourth metacarpal bones and c) laxity of the carpal
joints. The causes of these conditions are numerous. As far as
congenital angular deformities are concerned, the cause may be
due to intrauterine malposition, overnutrition of the mare in the
latter half of pregnancy, joint laxity, twin pregnancy, short gestation
period, defective endochondral ossification of the carpal bones or
maldevelopment of the second and fourth metacarpal bones.
Specifically for the defective endochondral ossification of the carpal
bones, the condition is put down to placentitis or reduced uterine
blood supply, which prohibits the development of the placenta.
Moreover, others claim that toxic and hormonal factors pray a role
in the aetiopathogenesis of the disease. As far as the acquired angular
limb deformity is concerned, it can be due to growth plate injury,
deterioration of an existing subtle congenital deformity, excessive
contralateral limb weight bearing, overnutrition, improper
trimming, excessive exercise or bad training and poor limb
conformation. This report describes the case of a 15-month-old foal,
which was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty
of Veterinary Medicine, A.U.Th. with bilateral forelimb varus,
which was due to overfeeding of the animal. Based on the
radiological findings and the age of the animal, the transection of
the periosteum (periosteal stripping) from the concave side was
the recommended treatment of choice. On re-examination, 4
months post-operatively, carpal varus had resolved completely in
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to study the lymph drainage of the neoplastic mammary glands in the bitch using indirect lymphography. The main conclusions drawn from the study of 41 natural cases were as follows: the first or cranial thoracic and second or caudal thoracic neoplastic mammary glands usually drain into the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes and rarely into the ipsilateral axillary and sternal lymph nodes, simultaneously. The third or cranial abdominal neoplastic mammary gland usually drains into the ipsilateral axillary and superficial inguinal lymph nodes simultaneously, but sometimes only cranially into the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. Rarely, it drains only caudally into the ipsilateral superficial inguinal and medial iliac lymph nodes, simultaneously. The fourth or caudal abdominal neoplastic mammary gland usually drains only caudally into the ipsilateral superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Rarely, it drains into the ipsilateral axillary and superficial inguinal lymph nodes simultaneously. The fifth or inguinal neoplastic mammary gland usually drains into the ipsilateral superficial inguinal lymph nodes but rarely, does it also drain into the ipsilateral popliteal lymph node and into a lymphatic plexus at the medial aspect of the ipsilateral thigh. Lymphatic connections between the neoplastic and adjacent normal mammary glands were demonstrated in only one case. The lymph drainage pattern of the neoplastic mammary glands is slightly different to that described in normal glands using the same radiographic method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasminogen activator activity (PAA), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen level and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen in normal canine gingival tissue samples, gingivitis as well as in different stages of periodontal disease. Gingival tissue from 141 adult dogs were analysed spectrophotometrically in order to determine PAA. The tissues were also examined histopathologically. The Sulcus Bleeding Index was used to evaluate the active and inactive phase of periodontal disease. T-PA antigen as well as PAI-1 antigen level was measured by ELISA. There was a significant increase of PAA and t-PA antigen in samples from inflamed gingival tissue compared with normal gingival tissue, while PAI-1 antigen was not detected in either normal or inflamed gingiva. As the severity of periodontal disease was increasing, PAA and t-PA antigen values were significantly higher in periodontitis tissue sample groups, according to the pattern: gingivitis<early periodontitis<moderate periodontitis<severe periodontitis (P<0.001). PAA and t-PA antigen were increased in samples from the inflamed gingival tissue with higher Bleeding Index, (heavy bleeding>moderate bleeding>slight bleeding, P<0.001). In conclusion, this study indicates that PAA and t-PA antigen level may be used to evaluate the evolution of periodontal disease in dog.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Research in Veterinary Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 8-year-old Dutch warmblood gelding was presented with a mechanical lameness (2/10) because of the presence of a soft tissue injury on the top of the right tuber calcanei. Plain radiographs of the tarsus demonstrated the presence of soft tissue swelling caudal to the right tuber calcanei, without osseous involvement, and ultrasonography revealed excessive scar tissue within and around the superficial digital flexor tendon. Extra-corporeal shock wave therapy was applied on the right hock to decrease the amount of scar tissue. One month after the therapy the lameness was greater (3/10) and a marginal increase in the size of the swelling was found. Periosteal new bone formation associated with an ill-defined radiolucent area and two bony fragments were detected radiographically at the caudo-proximal aspect of the right tuber calcanei. A blister containing oil of croton, camphor, pine and thyme, turpentine and cantharides was applied on the right calcaneus. Twenty days after blister application, the size of the swelling had been reduced by 50% and the degree of lameness had also been decreased (1/10). On clinical re-evaluation 6 months after treatment, the degree of lameness was stable (1/10) and flexion test of the limb was negative.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human "Elston and Ellis grading method" was used in dogs with mammary carcinoma to examine its relation to prognosis in this species, based on a 2-year follow-up period. Of the 85 cases examined, 27(31.8%) had well-differentiated (grade I), 28 (32.9%) had moderately differentiated (grade II) and 30 (35.3%) had poorly differentiated (grade III) carcinomas. Two years after mastectomy, significant differences in survival between cases with different tumour grade were found; thus, survival was worse in dogs with grade III carcinomas than in those with grade II (P<0.05) or grade I (P<0.001) tumours. However, in dogs with simple carcinomas which had a less favourable prognosis than that of other carcinomas (P<0.001), there was no significant difference in survival between grade II and grade III cases (P=0.878), both having a very poor prognosis. Undifferentiated (grade III) carcinoma cases had a 21-fold increased risk of death as compared with differentiated (grade I and II) carcinoma cases. An increased risk (about 10-fold) was also associated with undifferentiated simple carcinomas as compared with differentiated ones. The predictive value of histological grade was not influenced by tumour size or age of the dog at mastectomy; nodal metastasis, however, worsened the prognosis (P<0.001). Routine use of this human grading method would help the clinician to make a more accurate prognosis in the interests of post-surgical management in dogs with mammary carcinomas.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Comparative Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed in 15 young dogs with intestinal intussusception to test the hypothesis that color Doppler findings can be used as a predictor of the manual reducibility of the intussusception at celiotomy. Color flow Doppler ultrasonography indicated blood flow within mesentery of the intussuscepted bowel in 12 of 15 dogs and reduction was achieved in nine of these 12 dogs (75%). In the remaining three dogs and in three dogs where no color Doppler signal were observed, an irreducible intussusception was confirmed at celiotomy. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a useful method for predicting the reducibility of intussusception in dogs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study was conducted on free-ranging raptors (n = 402) presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, during a 3-yr period (1997-2000). Representatives of 19 species were admitted from taxonomic orders Accipitriformes (n = 295), Falconiformes (n = 35), and Strigiformes (n = 72). Traumatic injuries (n = 305, 75.8%) were the most common cause of presentation in all raptors. Starvation (n = 38 birds, 9.4%) was the second most common reason, whereas toxicoses (n = 28, 6.9%) were suspected in a limited number of birds. Orphans (n = 31, 7.7%) were presented during breeding season primarily because of inappropriate human intervention. Surgical and medical treatment was given to all birds when necessary. In total, 229 (56.9%) of the presented raptors were successfully rehabilitated and released, 121 (30%) were rehabilitated but nonreleasable, whereas 52 (12.9%) of them died despite treatment. Human intervention (79.2%) plays the most important role in birds of prey morbidity and mortality.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study was conducted on free-ranging raptors (n = 402) presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, during a 3-yr period (1997-2000). Representatives of 19 species were admitted from taxonomic orders Accipitriformes (n = 295), Falcon-iformes (n = 35), and Strigiformes (n = 72). Traumatic injuries (n = 305, 75.8%) were the most common cause of presentation in all raptors. Starvation (n 38 birds, 9.4%) was the second most common reason, whereas toxicoses (n = 28, 6.9%) were suspected in a limited number of birds. Orphans (n = 31, 7.7%) were presented during breeding season primarily because of inappropriate human intervention. Surgical and medical treatment was given to all birds when necessary. In total, 229 (56.9%) of the presented raptors were successfully rehabilitated and released, 121 (30%) were rehabilitated but nonreleasable, whereas 52 (12.9%) of them died despite treatment. Human intervention (79.2%) plays the most important role in birds of prey morbidity and mortality.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the duration and severity of neurological dysfunction as prognostic indicators for the final outcome in 30 dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease, treated surgically with hemilaminectomy without concurrent prophylactic fenestration. The lesion localization was assessed comparing plain radiographic, myelographic and surgical findings and success rates were evaluated during case follow-up. Evidence of a single disk extrusion existed in 17 dogs on survey spinal radiographs, while myelography revealed definite spinal cord compression in 28 cases and was inconclusive in the remaining two cases. Case follow-up continued for a period ranging from 3 months to 2 years post-operatively, depending on the degree of neurological dysfunction on presentation and owner compliance. The severity of clinical signs and the interval elapsing prior to decompressive surgery did not correlate with the case outcome, with 12 of 20 dogs (60%) that exhibited the most pronounced neurological dysfunction (paraplegia with or without analgesia) regaining voluntary motor function during the follow-up period. Recurrences proven to be disk-related did not occur in any dog throughout the post-surgical observation period. It was concluded that the time elapsing from loss of motor function and the severity of clinical signs is not an objective method to predict the case outcome.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone healing is monitored mainly by physical and serial radiologic examinations of the fracture site. However, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish a delayed union from a nonunion, and advanced imaging techniques may not be available. Serum biochemical markers of bone formation, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, may be clinically useful in evaluating the progress of healing.
The purpose of this study was to correlate serial values of serum ALP activity with the process of fracture healing in dogs and to assess its potential as a postsurgical prognostic indicator.
Changes in serum ALP activity were studied in 83 dogs with closed long bone diaphyseal fractures treated surgically. Physical and radiologic examinations of the fracture site and determination of serum ALP activity and calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) concentrations were performed on admission (day 0); postoperatively on days 10, 20, and 30; and subsequently on a monthly basis until bone union was completed or signs of nonunion were evident. The dogs were allocated into 3 groups with respect to the fracture healing progress as documented by physical and serial radiologic examination.
Group A dogs (n=35) developed a medium-sized callus that led to bone union within 2 months. Group B dogs (n=36) had a hypertrophic callus and delayed union, within 3-5 months. Group C dogs (n=12) had slow progress in fracture healing, with minimal callus formation during a 2-month period. Changes in mean serum ALP activity followed the same pattern in groups A and B, reaching a maximum level on day 10. Group A values returned to normal within 2 months, at which point bone union was complete, whereas group B values remained increased and returned to normal within 3-5 months, thus correlating with delayed union. In Group C, mean serum ALP activities showed no significant changes during the 2-month follow-up period, consistent with failure of bone union (nonunion). Serum P and Ca changes followed a proportional and inverse pattern to ALP changes, respectively.
Serial determination of serum ALP activity during fracture healing could be an additional tool in predicting fractures at risk of developing a nonunion, helping the clinician to choose the appropriate intervention.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Veterinary Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), also known as "periodic ophthalmia" or "moon blindness", is one of the most serious and vision-threatening disorders worldwide. Τhe pathogenesis of the disease is only partially understood, although it is confidently immune mediated, where bacterial (Leptospira interrogans), viral and parasitic infections, trauma and systemic diseases have been implicated. The clinical manifestations of ERU vary considerably depending on the stage of the disease. The ocular lesions are usually unilateral, whereas in approximately 20% of the cases they are seen in both eyes. Diagnosis is based on ophthalmologic examination along with specific serology, aiming at the detection of any specific infectious agent. Aggressive and early undertaken treatment is of paramount importance in an attempt to preserve vision, decrease ocular pain and prevent or minimize further relapses. The conventional treatment includes the use of glucocorticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs along with mydriatics-cycloplegics, while pars plana vitrectomy and cyclosporine A intra-ocular implants may also give encouraging results. Recently, alternative therapeutic methods (homeopathy, acupuncture) have also been used. Prognosis in ERU is always guarded to poor, because the severity and frequency of the future episodes is unpredictable.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen, the appearance of healthy intestine, enteritis secondary to an intestinal foreign body, and postpartum involution of the uterus may be visualized in some imaging planes as a target-like structure that is subsequently misinterpreted as intestinal intussusception. To avoid misdiagnosis, the ultrasonographer should ensure multi-plane scanning of the lesion, paying particular attention to the completeness of the lesion's peripheral ring structure and the overall width of the concentric rings of the target-like lesion. The presence of a semilunar or G-shaped hyperechoic center and the visualization of the inner intussusceptum (extending into the intussusception lumen) can be useful ultrasonographic findings that distinguish an intussusception from other lesions or from healthy tissues. These principles are illustrated through the following case presentations.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The medical records of seven cats with intestinal intussusception that were diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and exploratory laparotomy were reviewed. In transverse ultrasonographic sections the intussusception appeared as a target-like mass consisting of one, two or more hyperechoic and hypoechoic concentric rings surrounding a C-shaped, circular or non-specific shaped hyperechoic centre. Part of the intestine representing the inner intussusceptum, located close to the hyperechoic centre and surrounded by concentric rings, was also detected. In longitudinal sections the intussusception appeared as multiple hyperechoic and hypoechoic parallel lines in four cases and as an ovoid mass in three cases. In one case the ovoid mass had a 'kidney' configuration. Additional ultrasonographic findings associated with intestinal intussusception included an intestinal neoplasm in one cat. The results of the present study demonstrate that the ultrasonographic findings of intestinal intussusception in cats bear some similarities to those described in dogs and humans, are relatively consistent, and facilitate a specific diagnosis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial or complete impaction of the proventriculus and/or the ventriculus is usually seen in juvenile ostriches. Common impaction materials include stones, sand, hay stems and leaves, and even plastic and metallic objects. Six live ostriches showing signs of impaction and three dead ones suspected to have impacted stomachs were presented to the Department of Clinical Sciences of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The birds manifested anorexia, whitish and decreased urine output, scant defecation, unwillingness to rise and consume water. Clinical examination revealed distended and firm proventriculi, while radiographs showed foreign objects in the proventriculi of all birds and the ventriculus of one of them. The living birds were successfully treated surgically and medically. Autopsy of the three dead ostriches revealed severe dehydration and impaction of the stomachs. Bacteriological and parasitological examination was negative. Amendments in management practices were important to minimize losses caused by impaction of the stomachs in ostriches, while proventriculotomy remains the most effective approach to the problem.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ultrasonographic pattern of intestinal intussusception was studied in 19 young dogs with acute enteritis or gastroenteritis. The intussusception was observed to be a target-like mass consisting of a hyperechoic or anechoic center surrounded by multiple hyperechoic and hypoechoic concentric rings in transverse sections. In longitudinal sections, the intussusception appeared as multiple hyperechoic and hypoechoic parallel lines, as a tumor-like or pseudokidney mass, and as a trident-like configuration. Ultrasonography may provide a sensitive, specific, and accurate method of diagnosing intestinal intussusception in young dogs.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association