[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prospective cohort studies have found that prediagnostic circulating vitamin B6 is inversely associated with both risk of kidney cancer and kidney cancer prognosis. We investigated whether circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 at kidney cancer diagnosis are associated with risk of death using a case-cohort study of 630 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Blood was collected at the time of diagnosis, and vitamin B6 concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regression models. After adjusting for stage, age, and sex, the hazard was 3 times lower among those in the highest compared to the lowest fourth of B6 concentration (HR4vs1 0.33, 95% CI [0.18, 0.60]). This inverse association was solely driven by death from RCC (HR4vs1 0.22, 95% CI [0.11, 0.46]), and not death from other causes (HR4vs1 0.89, 95% CI [0.35, 2.28], p-interaction = 0.008). These results suggest that circulating vitamin B6 could provide additional prognostic information for kidney cancer patients beyond that afforded by tumour stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasing worldwide, and its prevalence is particularly high in some parts of Central Europe. Here we undertake whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the most common form of the disease, in patients from four different European countries with contrasting disease incidence to explore the underlying genomic architecture of RCC. Our findings support previous reports on frequent aberrations in the epigenetic machinery and PI3K/mTOR signalling, and uncover novel pathways and genes affected by recurrent mutations and abnormal transcriptome patterns including focal adhesion, components of extracellular matrix (ECM) and genes encoding FAT cadherins. Furthermore, a large majority of patients from Romania have an unexpected high frequency of A:T>T:A transversions, consistent with exposure to aristolochic acid (AA). These results show that the processes underlying ccRCC tumorigenesis may vary in different populations and suggest that AA may be an important ccRCC carcinogen in Romania, a finding with major public health implications.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 anorexia nervosa genome-wide association scan includes 2907 cases from 15 different populations of European origin genotyped on the Illumina 670K chip. We compared methods for identifying population stratification, and suggest list of markers that may help to counter this problem. It is usual to identify population structure in such studies using only common variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%; we find that this may result in highly informative SNPs being discarded, and suggest that instead all SNPs with MAF >1% may be used. We established informative axes of variation identified via principal component analysis and highlight important features of the genetic structure of diverse European-descent populations, some studied for the first time at this scale. Finally, we investigated the substructure within each of these 15 populations and identified SNPs that help capture hidden stratification. This work can provide information regarding the designing and interpretation of association results in the International Consortia
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14 860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery data sets. Seventy-six (72 independent) single nucleotide polymorphisms were taken forward for in silico (two data sets) or de novo (13 data sets) replication genotyping in 2677 independent AN cases and 8629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication data sets comprised 5551 AN cases and 21 080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1606 AN restricting; 1445 AN binge–purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01 × 10−7) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84 × 10−6) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76 × 10−6) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05 × 10−6) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery with replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P=4 × 10−6), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Molecular Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of the major breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 enables identification of high-risk individuals. Specialized programs enrolling the carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations facilitate an improvement in prevention and early diagnostics in asymptomatic individuals and rationalize the selection of individualized treatment in case of a BC onset. However, the carriers of mutations in the major predisposition genes represent only approximately 25% of cases among high-risk BC patients. Numerous candidate predisposing genes for breast and other cancers have recently been identified. The risk of cancer development associated with alterations in these genes is lower, and there is a considerable population variability in different regions worldwide.
We have performed mutation analyses of moderate-risk cancer susceptibility genes to evaluate their clinical importance for genetic counseling in high-risk patients suffering from breast and other cancers in the Czech population.
Czech oncological patients were analysed for mutation in ATM, CHEK2, NBS1 (NBN) and PALB2 genes. The majority of analyzed individuals represent the population of high-risk BRCA1/2-negative BC patients.
Based on results of this study, we recommend an analysis of recurrent truncating mutations in the CHEK2 gene (the c.1100delC mutation and a large deletion affecting exons 9-10) in BRCA1/2-negative patients from high-risk BC families. A clinical assessment of missense variants in CHEK2 is not suitable. A routine mutation analysis of the ATM and NBS1 (NBN) genes is not recommended in BC patients due to the low frequency of alterations in these genes in the Czech Republic. An identification of truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene is important in BRCA1/2-negative BC patients from families with a strong history of BC (HBC families). The frequency of PALB2 mutations may be comparable to the frequency of mutations in the BRCA2 gene in Czech HBC families.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Klinická onkologie: casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is one of the most serious hereditary cancer syndromes with high risk of malignancy already in childhood. Adrenocortical carcinoma, brain tumor, leukemia, sarcoma are the most frequent malignancies in children. Early breast cancer, brain tumor, sarcoma, skin cancer, gastrointestinal, lung, gynecological, hematological and other malignancies can be seen in adults. Predictive testing in families with detected LFS and TP53 mutation is offered from the age of 18 for various reasons. One of the most important reasons is a very limited effectivity of prevention especially in children, also the possible risk of psychological harm to the child and his family caused by the diagnosis of this syndrome. Progress in diagnostic methods, especially total body MRI, enables to propose preventive care for early cancer diagnoses for children and adults. Biochemical tests, ultrasound, MRI may improve survival of these high risk individuals and support the possibility of predictive testing in children.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Klinická onkologie: casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preventive oncology clinic of MMCI provides complex preventive care for women with high hereditary risk of breast and ovarian cancer due to germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Clinical follow-up is also provided to women with mutations in other genes causing a higher risk of different tumors, and also to women with increased lifetime empirical risk of breast cancer due to positive family history. Our clinic was established in 2000 and takes care for about 700 women. The goal of the clinic is to extend the life expectancy of these women to the level of the regular population. The risk of breast cancer can be reduced by prophylactic surgeries. Prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy are offered to women at a high risk. Other modality in breast cancer risk reduction is a chemoprevention by Tamoxifen. Most women accept only secondary prevention with the goal of the detection of breast cancer in clinical stage I, where the tumor is smaller than 1 cm and the risk of recurrence is less than 10%. The algorithm of prevention care was changed over the time and our diagnostic methods were improved by magnetic resonance imaging of breasts. During the 11 years of clinical follow-up 32 breast cancers in 31 women were detected. High risk women are examined every 6 month by physical examination, breast ultrasound and MRI plus mammography yearly.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Klinická onkologie: casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Array comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify copy number alterations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patient tumors to identify associations with patient/clinical characteristics. Of 763 ccRCC patients, 412 (54%) provided frozen biopsies. Clones were analyzed for significant copy number differences, adjusting for multiple comparisons and covariates in multivariate analyses. Frequent alterations included losses on: 3p (92.2%), 14q (46.8%), 8p (38.1%), 4q (35.4%), 9p (32.3%), 9q (31.8%), 6q (30.8%), 3q (29.4%), 10q (25.7%), 13q (24.5%), 1p (23.5%) and gains on 5q (60.2%), 7q (39.6%), 7p (30.6%), 5p (26.5%), 20q (25.5%), 12q (24.8%), 12p (22.8%). Stage and grade were associated with 1p, 9p, 9q, 13q and 14q loss and 12q gain. Males had more alterations compared with females, independent of stage and grade. Significant differences in the number/types of alterations were observed by family cancer history, age at diagnosis and smoking status. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene inactivation was associated with 3p loss (P<E-05), and these cases had fewer alterations than wild-type cases. The fragile site flanking the FHIT locus (3p14.2) represented a unique breakpoint among VHL hypermethylated cases, compared with wild-type cases and those with sequence changes. This is the first study of its size to investigate copy number alterations among cases with extensive patient, clinical/risk factor information. Patients characterized by VHL wild-type gene status (vs sequence alterations) and male (vs female) cases had more copy number alterations regardless of diagnostic stage and grade, which could relate to poor prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal urologic cancer. Only two common susceptibility loci for RCC have been confirmed
to date. To identify additional RCC common susceptibility loci, we conducted an independent genome-wide association study
(GWAS). We analyzed 533 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with RCC in 894 cases and 1516 controls
of European descent recruited from MD Anderson Cancer Center in the primary scan, and validated the top 500 SNPs in silico in 3772 cases and 8505 controls of European descent involved in the only published GWAS of RCC. We identified two common
variants in linkage disequilibrium, rs718314 and rs1049380 (r2 = 0.64, D ′ = 0.84), in the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) gene on 12p11.23 as novel susceptibility loci for RCC (P = 8.89 × 10−10 and P = 6.07 × 10−9, respectively, in meta-analysis) with an allelic odds ratio of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–1.26] for rs718314
and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12–1.25) for rs1049380. It has been recently identified that rs718314 in ITPR2 is associated with waist–hip ratio (WHR) phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic locus associated with both
cancer risk and WHR.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In follow-up of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) that identified a locus in chromosome 2p21 associated with risk
for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we conducted a fine mapping analysis of a 120 kb region that includes EPAS1. We genotyped 59 tagged common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2278 RCC and 3719 controls of European background
and observed a novel signal for rs9679290 [P = 5.75 × 10−8, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.39]. Imputation of common SNPs surrounding rs9679290
using HapMap 3 and 1000 Genomes data yielded two additional signals, rs4953346 (P = 4.09 × 10−14) and rs12617313 (P = 7.48 × 10−12), both highly correlated with rs9679290 (r2 > 0.95), but interestingly not correlated with the two SNPs reported in the GWAS: rs11894252 and rs7579899 (r2 < 0.1 with rs9679290). Genotype analysis of rs12617313 confirmed an association with RCC risk (P = 1.72 × 10−9, per-allele OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.39) In conclusion, we report that chromosome 2p21 harbors a complex genetic architecture
for common RCC risk variants.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukocyte global DNA methylation levels are currently being considered as biomarkers of cancer susceptibility and have been associated with risk of several cancers. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1) methylation levels, as a biomarker of global DNA methylation in blood cell DNA, and renal cell cancer risk.
LINE-1 methylation of bisulfite-converted genomic DNA isolated from leukocytes was quantified by pyrosequencing measured in triplicate, and averaged across 4 CpG sites. A total of 328 RCC cases and 654 controls frequency-matched(2∶1) on age(±5years), sex and study center, from a large case-control study conducted in Central and Eastern Europe were evaluated.
LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly higher in RCC cases with a median of 81.97% (interquartile range[IQR]: 80.84-83.47) compared to 81.67% (IQR: 80.35-83.03) among controls (p = 0.003, Wilcoxon). Compared to the lowest LINE-1 methylation quartile(Q1), the adjusted ORs for increasing methylation quartiles were as follows: OR(Q2) = 1.84(1.20-2.81), OR(Q3) = 1.72(1.11-2.65) and OR(Q4) = 2.06(1.34-3.17), with a p-trend = 0.004. The association was stronger among current smokers (p-trend<0.001) than former or never smokers (p-interaction = 0.03). To eliminate the possibility of selection bias among controls, the relationship between LINE-1 methylation and smoking was evaluated and confirmed in a case-only analysis, as well.
Higher levels of LINE-1 methylation appear to be positively associated with RCC risk, particularly among current smokers. Further investigations using both post- and pre-diagnostic genomic DNA is warranted to confirm findings and will be necessary to determine whether the observed differences occur prior to, or as a result of carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folate and one-carbon metabolism are linked to cancer risk through their integral role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, particularly MTHFR, has been associated with risk of a number of cancers in epidemiologic studies, but little is known regarding renal cancer.
Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected to produce high genomic coverage of 13 gene regions of one-carbon metabolism (ALDH1L1, BHMT, CBS, FOLR1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, TYMS) and the closely associated glutathione synthesis pathway (CTH, GGH, GSS) were genotyped for 777 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases and 1,035 controls in the Central and Eastern European Renal Cancer case-control study. Associations of individual SNPs (n = 163) with RCC risk were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and study center. Minimum p-value permutation (Min-P) tests were used to identify gene regions associated with risk, and haplotypes were evaluated within these genes.
The strongest associations with RCC risk were observed for SLC19A1 (P(min-P) = 0.03) and MTHFR (P(min-P) = 0.13). A haplotype consisting of four SNPs in SLC19A1 (rs12483553, rs2838950, rs2838951, and rs17004785) was associated with a 37% increased risk (p = 0.02), and exploratory stratified analysis suggested the association was only significant among those in the lowest tertile of vegetable intake.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively examine variation in one-carbon metabolism genes in relation to RCC risk. We identified a novel association with SLC19A1, which is important for transport of folate into cells. Replication in other populations is required to confirm these findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal tumor heterogeneity studies have utilized the von Hippel-Lindau VHL gene to classify disease into molecularly defined subtypes to examine associations with etiologic risk factors and prognosis. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of VHL inactivation in clear cell renal tumors (ccRCC) and to evaluate relationships between VHL inactivation subgroups with renal cancer risk factors and VHL germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). VHL genetic and epigenetic inactivation was examined among 507 sporadic RCC/470 ccRCC cases using endonuclease scanning and using bisulfite treatment and Sanger sequencing across 11 CpG sites within the VHL promoter. Case-only multivariate analyses were conducted to identify associations between alteration subtypes and risk factors. VHL inactivation, either through sequence alterations or promoter methylation in tumor DNA, was observed among 86.6% of ccRCC cases. Germline VHL SNPs and a haplotype were associated with promoter hypermethylation in tumor tissue (OR = 6.10; 95% CI: 2.28-16.35, p = 3.76E-4, p-global = 8E-5). Risk of having genetic VHL inactivation was inversely associated with smoking due to a higher proportion of wild-type ccRCC tumors [former: OR = 0.70 (0.20-1.31) and current: OR = 0.56 (0.32-0.99); P-trend = 0.04]. Alteration prevalence did not differ by histopathologic characteristics or occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. ccRCC cases with particular VHL germline polymorphisms were more likely to have VHL inactivation through promoter hypermethylation than through sequence alterations in tumor DNA, suggesting that the presence of these SNPs may represent an example of facilitated epigenetic variation (an inherited propensity towards epigenetic variation) in renal tissue. A proportion of tumors from current smokers lacked VHL alterations and may represent a biologically distinct clinical entity from inactivated cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead.
The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression.
The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796(CT/TT) was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73, p-value = 0.02) when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles ((GG)OR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17-6.12, p = 0.01; (GA)OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06-3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (p(int) = 0.06). No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N). Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results.
A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case-control study.
General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression.
Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2-5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed.
Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk.
Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure.
No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02).
Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine