Publications (49)67.45 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide, and both high and low blood pressures are associated with various chronic diseases. Thyroid hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular function, including on blood pressure. Recent studies have shown that childhood hypertension can lead to adult hypertension. Therefore, adequate blood pressure control is important from early life. Employing a life-course approach, we aimed to investigate the association between thyroid hormones and blood pressure in children. A total of 290 children from the Ewha Woman’s University Hospital birth cohort participated in a preadolescent check-up program. We assessed the levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) and the blood pressure status in these children. Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured using an electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and hypertension was defined according to the guideline of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The sex-, age-, and height-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 27.0% in the present study. On regression analysis, serum FT4 showed significantly negative association with diastolic blood pressure (DBP; β=–8.24, 95% CI: –14.19–2.28, p=0.007). However, these relationships were not significant after adjustment for sex, age, and current body mass index. The levels of serum TSH showed no relationship with mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) after adjustment. No significant differences in serum TSH and FT4 levels according to hypertension status were found. These findings suggest that thyroid hormone is not independently associated with increased blood pressure in euthyroid preadolescents.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: -Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limit international comparisons of prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents using seven nationally representative data (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia and USA). Methods and results: -Data on BP for 52,636 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-19 years were obtained from seven large nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and USA. BP values were obtained with certified mercury sphygmomanometers in all seven countries, using standard procedures for BP measurement. Smoothed BP percentiles (50th, 90th, 95th and 99th) by age and height were estimated using the Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) model. BP values were similar between males and females until the age of 13 years and were higher in males than females thereafter. Compared to BP level of the 90th and 95th percentiles of the U.S. Fourth Report at median height, systolic BP of the corresponding percentiles of these international references was lower while diastolic BP was similar. Conclusions: -These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS. Methods: Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85(th) percentile and those being overweight and obese with a BMI greater than 85(th) percentile. Results: Hemoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (r-GT), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 2-hour postglucose load plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in the lean PCOS group than in the lean control group. In the overweight/obese PCOS group, hemoglobin and r-GT levels were significantly elevated than in the overweight/obese control group. In the normal weight group, none of the subjects had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the overweight/obese PCOS group was 8.3% and that in the overweight/obese control group was 6.7%. Conclusion: PCOS in adolescents causes metabolic abnormalities, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis of PCOS in oligomenorrheic adolescents.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD) is frequently associated with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Delayed diagnosis leads to increasing risk of coronary artery aneurysm. Anterior uveitis is an important ocular sign of KD. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in laboratory findings, including echocardiographic measurements, clinical characteristics such as fever duration and treatment responses between KD patients with and those without uveitis. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with 110 KD patients from January 2008 to June 2013. The study group (n=32, KD with uveitis) was compared with the control group (n=78, KD without uveitis). Laboratory data were obtained from each patient including complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count, and level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, serum total protein, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP). Echocardiographic measurements and intravenous immunoglobulin responses were compared between the two groups. Results: The incidence of uveitis was 29.0%. Neutrophil counts and patient age were higher in the uveitis group than in the control group. ESR and CRP level were slightly increased in the uveitis group compared with the control group, but the difference between the two groups was not significant. No significant differences in coronary arterial complication and treatment responses were observed between the two groups. Conclusion: Uveitis is an important ocular sign in the diagnosis of incomplete KD. It is significantly associated with patient age and neutrophil count.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and the lipid and metabolic levels of the prepubertal normal population is unclear. Our goals were to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid and metabolic levels in Korean prepubertal children ages 7-9 y. We followed 205 children, ages 7-9 y in the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort study, a prospective cohort sample established in 2001-2006, from July to August 2011. We studied the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels with components of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance indices using multivariate regression analysis adjusted for body mass index (BMI) z-scores. The mean age of the 205 subjects was 7.89 ± 0.85 y, and the sample included 109 boys (53.2%). The average 25(OH)D levels of all participants was 25.0 ± 5.4 ng/mL. After adjustment for age and sex, triacylglycerol levels were significantly associated with 25(OH)D (β = -0.02, P = 0.02) concentrations even after adjustment for BMI z-scores (β = -0.02, P = 0.04). However, other metabolic components were not correlated with 25(OH)D status. Those with the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D levels had the highest serum triacylglycerol levels (P = 0.04, Ptrend = 0.01). We found that serum 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with serum triacylglycerol levels, even independently of adiposity, in prepubertal children. This study suggests that 25(OH)D insufficiency is related to metabolic syndrome via the derangement of triacylglycerol metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to investigate whether breast-feeding is associated with early pubertal development among children 7-9 years old in Korea. Children were divided into those who did and did not receive breast-feeding for 6 months or longer in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO. Pubertal status was determined by clinical examination using Tanner staging. Prospective observational study. We conducted a follow-up study of children aged 7-9 years in 2011 who had taken part in the Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort study. Fifty (22·8 %) of the total of 219 children were in early puberty, with the proportion being slightly higher for girls (24·1 %) than boys (21·4 %). Children who had entered early puberty were taller, weighed more and had a higher concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1. Moreover, the change in weight Z-score from birth to follow-up was significantly lower in children who were breast-fed than in those who were not (weight Z-score change: 0·32 (sd 1·59) v. 0·77 (sd 1·61), respectively, P=0·04). Comparison of breast-feeding by puberty status indicated a preventive association with early puberty in children who were breast-fed for 6 months or longer (OR=0·37; 95 % CI 0·18, 0·74). This association remained significant after adjustment for relevant covariates. These results demonstrate a beneficial association between breast-feeding and early pubertal development, especially in those breast-fed for 6 months or longer. The study suggests that interventions would need to start early in life to prevent early pubertal development.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose The incidence of Kawasaki disease (KD) is rare in young infants (less than 3 months of age), who present with only a few symptoms that fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria. The diagnosis for KD can therefore be delayed, leading to a high risk of cardiac complications. We examined the clinical characteristics and measured the serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels of these patients for assessing its value in the early detection of KD. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of young infants diagnosed with KD from 2004 to 2012. The control group included 20 hospitalized febrile patients. Laboratory data, including NT-proBNP were obtained for each patient in both groups. Results Incomplete KD was observed in 21/24 patients (87.5%). The mean fever duration on admission was 1.36±1.0 days in the KD group. Common symptoms included erythema at the site of Bacille Calmette-Guerin inoculation (70.8%), skin rash (50.0%), changes of oropharyngeal mucosa (29.1%), and cervical lymphadenopathy (20.8%). The mean number of major diagnostic criteria fulfilled was 2.8±1.4. Five KD patients (20.8%) had only one symptom matching these criteria. The incidence of coronary artery complications was 12.5%. The mean serum NT-proBNP level in the acute phase, in the KD and control groups, were 4,159±3,714 pg/mL and 957±902 pg/mL, respectively, which decreased significantly in the convalescent phase. Conclusion Incomplete KD was observed in 87.5% patients. Serum NT-proBNP might be a valuable biomarker for the early detection of KD in febrile infants aged <3 months.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Obesity in adolescence is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The patterns of obesity and body composition differ between boys and girls. It is uncertain how body composition correlates with the cardiovascular system and whether such correlations differ by sex in adolescents. Methods: Body composition (fat-free mass (FFM), adipose mass, waist circumference (WC)) and cardiovascular parameters and functions were studied in 676 healthy Korean adolescents aged 12-16 years. Partial correlation and path analyses were done. Results: WC correlated with stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP), cardiac diastolic function (ratio of early to late filling velocity (E/A ratio)), and vascular function (pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in boys. Adipose mass was related to SV, CO, SBP, PP, left ventricular mass (LVM), and PWV in girls - and to E/A ratio in both sexes. FFM affected SV, CO, SBP, and PP in both sexes and LVM in boys. Cardiac systolic functions had no relation with any body composition variable in either sex. Conclusion: In adolescence, the interdependence of the cardiovascular system and the body composition differs between sexes. Understanding of those relations is required to control adolescent obesity and prevent adult cardiovascular disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of urinary bisphenol A (BPA) on repeated measurements of androgenic hormones and metabolic indices, we used multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) adjusted for potential confounders at baseline. During July to August 2011, 80 preadolescent girls enrolled in the Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort study participated in a follow-up study and then forty-eight of them (60.0%) came back one year later. Baseline levels of estradiol and androstenedione were higher in the BPA group than in the non-BPA group. One year later, girls in the high BPA exposure group showed higher levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, than those in the other groups (p < 0.05). In MANOVA, estradiol and androstenedione showed significant differences among groups, while dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin, and HOMA-IR showed marginally significant differences. Exposure to BPA may affect endocrine metabolism in preadolescents. However, further investigation is required to elucidate the mechanisms linking BPA with regulation of androgenic hormones.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose To examine the relationship between menarcheal age and anthropometric indices and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul. Methods We surveyed 4,218 fertile adolescent girls between the ages of 16 and 18 years to determine their anthropometric indices and menarcheal age. Measurements were taken from June 2008 to October 2009 at seven girl's high schools in Seoul, Korea. Participants were offered self-report questionnaire as a survey tool that included questions on anthropometric indices (height, weight, waist circumference), menarcheal age, menstrual pattern, frequency of menstruation per year. Results The participants were categorized into three groups based on menarcheal age: early menarche group (younger than 2 standard deviations [SD]), mid menarche group (within ±2 SD), late menarche group (older than 2 SD). The mean age of early menarche group was 9.9±0.2 years, mid menarche group 12.5±0.9 years, late menarche group 15.1±0.3 years (P < 0.001). Heights were recorded as 160.4±5.2 cm, 161.8±4.9 cm, 162.3±4.7 cm in early, mid, and late menarche group, respectively (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference significantly were lager in early menarche group than mid and late menarche ones (P < 0.001). The menarcheal age had a positive correlation with height and negative correlations with weight, BMI, waist circumference (P < 0.001). The prevalence of oligomenorrhea was more frequent in late menarche group than early and mid menarche group. Conclusion The menarcheal age have positive relationship with height and inverse relationship with BMI and waist circumference in late adolescent girls in Seoul. Late menarcheal girls are disposed to have menstrual irregularity compared to early menarcheal girls.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background We used Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between maternal homocysteine level, as represented by maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, with the birth weight of offspring. Methods We recruited women at 24 to 28 weeks’ gestation who visited Ewha Womans University Hospital for prenatal care during the period from August 2001 to December 2003. A total of 473 newborns with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks were analyzed in this study. We excluded twin births and children of women with a history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or chronic renal disease. The association of maternal homocysteine concentration with the birth weight of infants was analyzed using 2-stage regression. Results MTHFR C677T genotype showed a dose–response association with homocysteine concentration for each additional T allele (Ptrend < 0.01). Birth weight decreased from 120 to 130 grams as maternal homocysteine level increased, while controlling for confounding factors; however, the association was of marginal significance (P = 0.06). Conclusions Our results suggest an adverse relationship between maternal homocysteine level and birth weight. A reduction in homocysteine levels might positively affect birth outcomes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective: We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and anthropometric indicators of adiposity among Korean preadolescent children aged 7-9 years. Subjects and methods: Children aged 7 to 9 from the Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort were followed up from July to August 2011. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured using radio immunoassay. We assessed the magnitude of cross-sectional association with vitamin D concentrations and indicators of adiposity [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), mid-arm circumference (MAC), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF)] using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, birth order, maternal education, and fruit/fruit juice intake. Results: Thirty-two (16%) out of a total of 205 children showed an optimal level of serum 25(OH)D, but most children did not reach a sufficient level (<30 ng/mL) even in summer. The level of 25(OH)D was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.10, p<0.01), WC (β=-0.28, p<0.01), and BFM (β=-0.12, p=0.02) after adjusting for confounding factors and showed marginal boundary with PBF (β=-0.20, p=0.06) and TSF (β=-0.11, p=0.08). Regarding the risk of overweight, a 13% protective effect per 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OH)D was shown even after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.98). Conclusions: We found that the 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with adiposity indices in preadolescent children. This study suggests that adequate vitamin D intake in growing children is crucial to maintain an optimal vitamin D level to prevent obesity and obesity-related health problems later in life.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is thought to contribute to pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to investigate the effect of infliximab (TNF-α antagonist) treatment on pathologic findings and gene expression in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: control (C), single subcutaneous injection of normal saline (0.1 mL/kg); monocrotaline (M), single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg); and monocrotaline + infliximab (M+I), single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline plus single subcutaneous injection of infliximab (5 mg/kg). The rats were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7, 14, or 28 days. We examined changes in pathology and gene expression levels of TNF-α, endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP). The increase in medial wall thickness of the pulmonary arteriole in the M+I group was significantly lower than that in the M group on day 7 after infliximab treatment (P<0.05). The number of intra-acinar muscular arteries in the M+I group was lower than that in the M group on days 14 and 28 (P<0.05). Expression levels of TNF-α, ET-1, ERA, and MMP2 were significantly lower in the M+I group than in the M group on day 5, whereas eNOS and TIMP expressions were late in the M group (day 28). Infliximab administration induced early changes in pathological findings and expression levels of TNF-α, and MMP2 in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiology for Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unknown, but several studies have suggested the involvement of immune dysregulation and genetic factors. The purpose of this study is to compare gene expressions before and after an infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in KD patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is one of the important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Thus, to know the prevalence of dyslipidemia is the 1(st) step to make guidelines of screening and management plan. Although, American Academy of Pediatrics updated the guidelines for lipid in childhood, Asian study is rare. The authors aimed to make a reference of each serum lipid level of Korean children and adolescents (2,363 subjects aged 10 to 18 years) from the data of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009). The mean serum concentrations for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were 158 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, and 49 mg/dL, respectively. The 95th percentile values for TC, LDL-C, and TG were 203 mg/dL, 129 mg/dL, and 185 mg/dL, respectively. The 5th percentile value for HDL-C was 36 mg/dL. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, high TG, and low HDL-C was 6.5%, 4.7%, 10.1%, and 7.1%, respectively. Considering the risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, approximately 0.41% of the subjects were potentially eligible for pharmacological treatment. This information may be useful in not only Korean but also Asian planning programs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease through lipid control from childhood.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Korea, there hasn't been any previous literature that describes auscultatory blood pressure (BP) normative tables for adolescents. Using BP data, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), we created normative auscultatory BP percentile tables for Korean adolescents. A total of 3508 adolescents (boys 1852, girls 1656), aged 10-17 in 2001, 2005 and 2007 from the KNHANES database years, were included. Auscultatory BP measurement was performed, using a Baumanometer Mercury Gravity Sphygmomanometer. The mean systolic BP of boys was higher than that of girls in adolescents older than 13 years of age, and the mean diastolic BP of boys was higher than that of girls in those older than 15 years. Systolic and diastolic BP was correlated with weight, height and age. Age-specific normative auscultatory systolic and diastolic BP percentiles for boys and girls were completed. The graph that showed age-specific prehypertensive and hypertensive systolic and diastolic BP for boys and girls was presented. For adolescents, the height-specific auscultatory BP percentiles for boys and girls were completed. A graph that shows the height-specific prehypertensive and hypertensive BP for boys and girls was also made. The auscultatory age-and height-specific BP percentiles for Korean adolescents are established. These can be useful in screening the prehypertension and hypertension of Korean adolescents in a clinical setting.
Ewha Womans University
Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
- Department of Pediatrics