Michael F Green

VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (263)1534.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with different clinical profiles of disturbances in motivation, yet few studies have compared the neurophysiological correlates of such disturbances. Outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 34), or bipolar disorder I (n = 33), and healthy controls (n = 31) completed a task in which the late positive potential (LPP), an index of motivated attention, was assessed along motivational gradients determined by apparent distance from potential rewards or punishments. Sequences of cues signaling possible monetary gains or losses appeared to loom progressively closer to the viewer; a reaction time (RT) task after the final cue determined the outcome. Controls showed the expected pattern with LPPs for appetitive and aversive cues that were initially elevated, smaller during intermediate positions, and escalated just prior to the RT task. The clinical groups showed different patterns in the final positions just prior to the RT task: the bipolar group's LPPs to both types of cues peaked relatively early during looming sequences and subsequently decreased, whereas the schizophrenia group showed relatively small LPP escalations, particularly for aversive cues. These distinct patterns suggest that the temporal unfolding of attentional resource allocation for motivationally significant events may qualitatively differ between these disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: Although it has been proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by impaired empathy, several recent studies found intact neural responses on tasks measuring the affective subdomain of empathy. This study further examined affective empathy in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 21 healthy controls using a validated pain empathy paradigm with two components: (a) observing videos of people described as medical patients who were receiving a painful sound stimulation treatment; (b) listening to the painful sounds (to create Regions of Interest). The observing videos component incorporated experimental manipulations of perspective taking (instructions to imagine "Self" vs. "Other" experiencing pain) and cognitive appraisal (information about whether treatment was "Effective" vs. "Not Effective"). When considering activation across experimental conditions, both groups showed similar dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI) activation while merely observing others in pain. However, there were group differences associated with perspective taking: controls showed relatively greater dACC and AI activation for the Self vs. Other contrast whereas patients showed relatively greater activation in these and additional regions for the Other vs. Self contrast. Although patients demonstrated grossly intact neural activity while observing others in pain, they showed more subtle abnormalities when required to toggle between imagining themselves versus others experiencing pain.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study evaluated 12 primary and other supplementary neurocognitive and neurophysiological endophenotypes in schizophrenia probands and their families. Previous analyses of prepulse inhibition (PPI) and P50 gating measures in this sample revealed heritability estimates that were lower than expected based on earlier family studies. Here the authors investigated whether gating measures were more heritable in multiply affected families with a positive family history compared with families with only a single affected proband (singleton). Method: A total of 296 nuclear families consisting of a schizophrenia proband, at least one unaffected sibling, and both parents underwent a comprehensive endophenotype and clinical characterization. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was administered to all participants and used to obtain convergent psychiatric symptom information for additional first-degree relatives. Among the families, 97 were multiply affected, and 96 were singletons. Results: Both PPI and P50 gating displayed substantially increased heritability in the 97 multiply affected families (47% and 36%, respectively) compared with estimates derived from the entire sample of 296 families (29% and 20%, respectively). However, no evidence for heritability was observed for either measure in the 96 singleton families. Schizophrenia probands derived from the multiply affected families also displayed a significantly increased severity of clinical symptoms compared with those from singleton families. Conclusions: PPI and P50 gating measures demonstrate substantially increased heritability in schizophrenia families with a higher genetic vulnerability for illness, providing further support for the commonality of genes underlying both schizophrenia and gating measures.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Psychiatry
  • Michael F Green · William P Horan · Junghee Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognition, which manifests as difficulties in identifying emotions, feeing connected to others, inferring people's thoughts and reacting emotionally to others. These social cognitive impairments interfere with social connections and are strong determinants of the degree of impaired daily functioning in such individuals. Here, we review recent findings from the fields of social cognition and social neuroscience and identify the social processes that are impaired in schizophrenia. We also consider empathy as an example of a complex social cognitive function that integrates several social processes and is impaired in schizophrenia. This information may guide interventions to improve social cognition in patients with this disorder.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • Naomi T Tabak · William P Horan · Michael F Green
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    ABSTRACT: Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Effort-based decision making has strong conceptual links to the motivational disturbances that define a key subdomain of negative symptoms. However, the extent to which effort-based decision-making performance relates to negative symptoms, and other clinical and functionally important variables has yet to be systematically investigated. In 94 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, we examined the external validity of 5 effort-based paradigms, including the Effort Expenditure for Rewards, Balloon Effort, Grip Strength Effort, Deck Choice Effort, and Perceptual Effort tasks. These tasks covered 3 types of effort: physical, cognitive, and perceptual. Correlations between effort related performance and 6 classes of variables were examined, including: (1) negative symptoms, (2) clinically rated motivation and community role functioning, (3) self-reported motivational traits, (4) neurocognition, (5) other psychiatric symptoms and clinical/demographic characteristics, and (6) subjective valuation of monetary rewards. Effort paradigms showed small to medium relationships to clinical ratings of negative symptoms, motivation, and functioning, with the pattern more consistent for some measures than others. They also showed small to medium relations with neurocognitive functioning, but were generally unrelated to other psychiatric symptoms, self-reported traits, antipsychotic medications, side effects, and subjective valuation of money. There were relatively strong interrelationships among the effort measures. In conjunction with findings from a companion psychometric article, all the paradigms warrant further consideration and development, and 2 show the strongest potential for clinical trial use at this juncture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
  • L Felice Reddy · William P Horan · Michael F Green
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    ABSTRACT: Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in motivational disturbances in schizophrenia . This is largely driven by the recognition that these disturbances are central to the "experiential" subdomain of negative symptoms and are particularly important determinants of functional disability. Research into the causes and treatment of experiential negative symptoms is therefore a high priority. This chapter reviews findings from experimental psychopathology and affective science relevant to understanding the neurobehavioral processes that underlie these negative symptoms. We focus on abnormalities in four processes that have received the most attention as likely contributors: anticipatory pleasure, reward learning, effort-based decision-making, and social motivation. We also review the research literature on pharmacological and psychosocial approaches to reduce functional deficits attributable to negative symptoms. Translational research is beginning to inform the development of new treatments specifically designed to target the experiential subdomain of negative symptoms.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: Impairments in willingness to exert effort contribute to the motivational deficits characteristic of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of 5 new or adapted paradigms to determine their suitability for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. This study included 94 clinically stable participants with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. The effort-based decision-making battery was administered twice to the schizophrenia group (baseline, 4-week retest) and once to the control group. The 5 paradigms included 1 that assesses cognitive effort, 1 perceptual effort, and 3 that assess physical effort. Each paradigm was evaluated on (1) patient vs healthy control group differences, (2) test-retest reliability, (3) utility as a repeated measure (ie, practice effects), and (4) tolerability. The 5 paradigms showed varying psychometric strengths and weaknesses. The Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task showed the best reliability and utility as a repeated measure, while the Grip Effort Task had significant patient-control group differences, and superior tolerability and administration duration. The other paradigms showed weaker psychometric characteristics in their current forms. These findings highlight challenges in adapting effort and motivation paradigms for use in clinical trials. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic medical condition, characterized by positive and negative symptoms, as well as pervasive social cognitive deficits. Despite the functional significance of the social cognition deficits affecting many aspects of daily living, such as social relationships, occupational status, and independent living, there is still no effective treatment option for these deficits, which is applied as standard of care. To address this need, we developed a novel, internet-based training program that targets social cognition deficits in schizophrenia (SocialVille). Preliminary studies demonstrate the feasibility and initial efficacy of Socialville in schizophrenia patients (Nahum et al., 2014). The purpose of the current trial (referred to as the TReatment of Social cognition in Schizophrenia Trial or TRuSST) is to compare SocialVille to an active control training condition, include a larger sample of patients, and assess both social cognitive functioning, and functional outcomes. We will employ a multi-site, longitudinal, blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with a target sample of 128 patients with schizophrenia. Patients will perform, at their home or in clinic, 40 sessions of either the SocialVille training program or an active control computer game condition. Each session will last for 40-45 minutes/day, performed 3-5 days a week, over 10-12 weeks, totaling to 30 hours of training. Patients will be assessed on a battery of social cognitive, social functioning and functional outcomes immediately before training, mid-way through training (after 20 training sessions) and at the completion of the 40 training sessions. The strengths of this protocol are that it tests an innovative, internet-based treatment that targets fundamental social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, employs a highly sensitive and extensive battery of functional outcome measures, and incorporates a large sample size in an RCT design. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02246426 Registered 16 September 2014.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Clinical neuroimaging
  • Michael F Green · William P Horan
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    ABSTRACT: Effort-based decision making requires one to decide how much effort to expend for a certain amount of reward. As the amount of reward goes up most people are willing to exert more effort. This relationship between reward level and effort expenditure can be measured in specialized performance-based tasks that have only recently been applied to schizophrenia. Such tasks provide a way to measure objectively motivational deficits in schizophrenia, which now are only assessed with clinical interviews of negative symptoms. The articles in this theme provide reviews of the relevant animal and human literatures (first 2 articles), and then a psychometric evaluation of 5 effort-based decision making paradigms (last 2 articles). This theme section is intended to stimulate interest in this emerging area among basic scientists developing paradigms for preclinical studies, human experimentalists trying to disentangle factors that contribute to performance on effort-based tasks, and investigators looking for objective endpoints for clinical trials of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
  • Michael F Green · William P Horan · Deanna M Barch · James M Gold
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    ABSTRACT: Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
  • Amy E Pinkham · David L Penn · Michael F Green · Philip D Harvey
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of social cognition in treatment trials remains problematic due to poor and limited psychometric data for many tasks. As part of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, the psychometric properties of 8 tasks were assessed. One hundred and seventy-nine stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and a 2-4-week retest period at 2 sites. Tasks included the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task (BLERT), Penn Emotion Recognition Task (ER-40), Relationships Across Domains (RAD), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (Eyes), The Awareness of Social Inferences Test (TASIT), Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Tasks were evaluated on: (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) utility as a repeated measure, (iii) relationship to functional outcome, (iv) practicality and tolerability, (v) sensitivity to group differences, and (vi) internal consistency. The BLERT and Hinting task showed the strongest psychometric properties across all evaluation criteria and are recommended for use in clinical trials. The ER-40, Eyes Task, and TASIT showed somewhat weaker psychometric properties and require further study. The AIHQ, RAD, and Trustworthiness Task showed poorer psychometric properties that suggest caution for their use in clinical trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 145) and healthy individuals (n = 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on social cognition in 36 individuals with schizophrenia. Participants received a baseline assessment and one week later received either anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS, with 12 participants randomized to each condition. A single 20-minute session tDCS was administered bilaterally over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (centered at positions Fp1 and Fp2) at 2mA. Among the 4 social cognitive tasks, participants showed a significant improvement on one of them, emotion identification, following anodal stimulation. Findings demonstrate the safety of this procedure and suggest potential therapeutic effects on one aspect of social cognition in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia patients exhibit well-documented visual processing deficits. One area of disruption is visual integration, the ability to form global objects from local elements. However, most studies of visual integration in schizophrenia have been conducted in the context of an active attention task, which may influence the findings. In this study we examined visual integration using electroencephalography (EEG) in a passive task to elucidate neural mechanisms associated with poor visual integration. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls had EEG recorded while passively viewing figures comprised of real, illusory, or no contours. We examined visual P100, N100, and P200 event-related potential (ERP) components, as well as neural synchronization in the gamma (30-60 Hz) band assessed by the EEG phase locking factor (PLF). The N100 was significantly larger to illusory vs. no contour, and illusory vs. real contour stimuli while the P200 was larger only to real vs. illusory stimuli; there were no significant interactions with group. Compared to controls, patients failed to show increased phase locking to illusory versus no contours between 40-60 Hz. Also, controls, but not patients, had larger PLF between 30-40 Hz when viewing real vs. illusory contours. Finally, the positive symptom factor of the BPRS was negatively correlated with PLF values between 40-60 Hz to illusory stimuli, and with PLF between 30-40 Hz to real contour stimuli. These results suggest that the pattern of results across visual processing conditions is similar in patients and controls. However, patients have deficits in neural synchronization in the gamma range during basic processing of illusory contours when attentional demand is limited.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Michael F Green · Katiah Llerena · Robert S Kern
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    ABSTRACT: It has been about 15 years since we published our article asking whether we are measuring the "Right Stuff" as we search for predictors and determinants of functional outcome in schizophrenia. At that time, we raised the question as to whether the neurocognitive assessments used to study outcome in schizophrenia were too narrow to capture the wide variability in factors that determine daily functioning. While the study of the determinants of functioning in schizophrenia has grown and matured, we are struck by 3 aspects of the article that evolved in different directions. First, the selection of outcome domains in the Right Stuff meta-analysis reflects a focus at that time on predictors of psychiatric rehabilitation. Second, expansion beyond traditional neurocognitive domains occurred in one suggested area (social cognition), but not another (learning potential). Third, the field has responded assertively to the recommendation to evaluate more informed and informative theoretical models. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Attention/vigilance impairments are present in individuals with schizophrenia across psychotic and remitted states and in their first-degree relatives. An important question is whether deficits in attention/vigilance can be consistently and reliably measured across sites varying in many participant demographic, clinical, and functional characteristics, as needed for large-scale genetic studies of endophenotypes. We examined Continuous Performance Test (CPT) data from phase 2 of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-2), the largest-scale assessment of cognitive and psychophysiological endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. The CPT data from 2251 participants from five sites were examined. A perceptual-load vigilance task (the Degraded Stimulus CPT or DS-CPT) and a memory-load vigilance task (CPT-Identical Pairs or CPT-IP) were utilized. Schizophrenia patients performed more poorly than healthy comparison subjects (HCS) across sites, despite significant site differences in participant age, sex, education, and racial distribution. Patient-HCS differences in signal/noise discrimination (d') in the DS-CPT varied significantly across sites, but averaged a medium effect size. CPT-IP performance showed large patient-HCS differences across sites. Poor CPT performance was independent of or weakly correlated with symptom severity, but was significantly associated with lower educational achievement and functional capacity. Current smoking was associated with poorer CPT-IP d'. Patients taking both atypical and typical antipsychotic medication performed more poorly than those on no or atypical antipsychotic medications, likely reflecting their greater severity of illness. We conclude that CPT deficits in schizophrenia can be reliably detected across sites, are relatively independent of current symptom severity, and are related to functional capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
  • Carol Jahshan · J. K. Wynn · A. C. McNair · L. M. Maes · Michael F. Green

    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2015

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,534.78 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2016
    • VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • University of Houston
      • Department of Psychology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2015
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1994-2015
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences
      • • Division of Adult Psychiatry
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2011-2013
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Douglas Mental Health University Institute
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2007
    • Los Angeles Neurosurgical Institute
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2005-2007
    • California State University, Northridge
      • Department of Psychology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2002
    • The Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Bergen
      • Department of Biological and Medical Psychology
      Bergen, Hordaland Fylke, Norway
  • 1998
    • MFG Chemical
      Georgia, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States