Itaru Kojima

Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan

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Publications (285)1217.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. High concentration of glucose has been thought to exert its action solely through its metabolism. In this regard, we have recently reported that glucose also activates a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and facilitates its own metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor and elicits receptor-mediated rapid actions. In MIN6 cells and isolated mouse β-cells, glucose induced triphasic changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c); glucose evoked an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]c, which was followed by a decrease in [Ca2+]c, and after a certain lag period it induced large oscillatory elevations of [Ca2+]c. Initial rapid peak and subsequent reduction of [Ca2+]c were independent of glucose metabolism and reproduced by a nonmetabolizable glucose analogue. These signals were also blocked by an inhibitor of T1R3, a subunit of the glucose-sensing receptor, and by deletion of the T1R3 gene. Besides Ca2+, glucose also induced an immediate and sustained elevation of intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]c). The elevation of [cAMP]c was blocked by transduction of the dominant-negative Gs, and deletion of the T1R3 gene. These results indicate that glucose induces rapid changes in [Ca2+]c and [cAMP]c by activating the cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor. Hence, glucose generates rapid intracellular signals by activating the cell-surface receptor.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 and facilitates its own metabolism in pancreatic β-cells. An inhibitor of this receptor would be helpful in elucidating the physiological function of the glucose-sensing receptor. The present study was conducted to examine whether or not lactisole can be used as an inhibitor of the glucose-sensing receptor. In MIN6 cells, in a dose-dependent manner, lactisole inhibited insulin secretion induced by sweeteners, acesulfame-K, sucralose and glycyrrhizin. The IC50 was approximately 4 mmol/l. Lactisole attenuated the elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) evoked by sucralose and acesulfame-K but did not affect the elevation of intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]c) induced by these sweeteners. Lactisole also inhibited the action of glucose in MIN6 cells. Thus, lactisole significantly reduced elevations of intracellular [NADH] and intracellular [ATP] induced by glucose, and also inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion. To further examine the effect of lactisole on T1R3, we prepared HEK293 cells stably expressing mouse T1R3. In these cells, sucralose elevated both [Ca2+]c and [cAMP]c. Lactisole attenuated the sucralose-induced increase in [Ca2+]c but did not affect the elevation of [cAMP]c. Finally, lactisole inhibited insulin secretion induced by a high concentration of glucose in mouse islets. These results indicate that the mouse glucose-sensing receptor was inhibited by lactisole. Lactisole may be useful in assessing the role of the glucose-sensing receptor in mouse pancreatic β-cells.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Subunits of the sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Compared with T1R3, mRNA expression of T1R2 is considerably lower. At the protein level, expression of T1R2 is undetectable in β-cells. Accordingly, a major component of the sweet taste-sensing receptor in β-cells may be a homodimer of T1R3 rather than a heterodimer of T1R2/T1R3. Inhibition of this receptor by gurmarin or deletion of the T1R3 gene attenuates glucose-induced insulin secretion from β-cells. Hence the T1R3 homodimer functions as a glucose-sensing receptor (GSR) in pancreatic β-cells. When GSR is activated by the T1R3 agonist sucralose, elevation of intracellular ATP concentration ([ATP]i) is observed. Sucralose increases [ATP]i even in the absence of ambient glucose, indicating that sucralose increases [ATP]i not simply by activating glucokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. In addition, sucralose augments elevation of [ATP]i induced by methylsuccinate, suggesting that sucralose activates mitochondrial metabolism. Nonmetabolizable 3-O-methylglucose also increases [ATP]i and knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]i induced by high concentration of glucose. Collectively, these results indicate that the T1R3 homodimer functions as a GSR; this receptor is involved in glucose-induced insulin secretion by activating glucose metabolism probably in mitochondria.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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    Masahiro Nagasawa · Itaru Kojima
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of focal mechanical stress on the localization of TRPV2 was investigated in HT1080 cells, where only mRNA for TRPV2 was detected among members of the TRPV channel family. Mechanical stress was applied by adding negative pressure using a glass pipette. When focal mechanical stress was applied, subplasma membrane Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]s) was increased beneath the pipette, which propagated throughout the cell. The increase in [Ca(2+)]s was blocked by ruthenium red or by knocking down TRPV2. Elevation of [Ca(2+)]s was not observed by removal of extracellular Ca(2+), by an addition of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY29034, and by transfection of dominant-negative Rac. In cells expressing GFP-TRPV2 and RFP-Akt, administration of focal mechanical stress induced accumulation of GFP-TRPV2 beneath the pipette. RFP-Akt was also accumulated to the same site. Gadolinium blocked the elevation of [Ca(2+)]s induced by focal mechanical stress and also attenuated accumulation of TRPV2. When GFP-TRPV1, GFP-TRPV3, GFP-TRPV4, GFP-TRPV5, or GFP-TRPV6 was transfected ectopically in HT1080 cells, only GFP-TRPV4 was accumulated beneath the pipette in response to the focal mechanical stress. These results indicate that TRPV2 translocates to the site receiving a focal mechanical stress and increases [Ca(2+)]s. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of the present study was to clarify the anatomy between the left triangular ligament (LTL) and the appendix fibrosa hepatis (AFH) in order not to sever the AFH when dissecting the LTL. Methods: Totals of 43 and 27 cadaveric livers were examined macroscopically and histologically, respectively. Results: The LTL attached itself to the diaphragmatic surface of the AFH through almost all lengths of the AFH. This might be the reason why AFH is so often dissected together with the LTL. There were two types of relation between the LTL and the AFH; in one type, the starting point of the LTL existed on the left liver and in the other type, it was on the AFH. Twenty-five of 27 AFH included remnants of the bile duct and 12 of 25 AFH had comparatively large bile ducts, which was unexceptionally accompanied by the well-developed peribiliary vascular plexus. AFH showed a variety of shapes, such as rectangular (6/43), long triangular (4/43), short triangular (7/43), triangular plus cordlike (11/43), cordlike (12/43) and bifurcated (3/43) types. Conclusions: As AFH sometimes includes relatively large bile ducts, it is recommended for surgeons to sever the AFH not just simply by electrocautery but by ligating its stump securely.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Subunits of the sweet taste receptor namely T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed in mouse pancreatic islets. Quantitatively, the expression of messenger RNA for T1R2 is much lower than that of T1R3, and immunoreactive T1R2 is in fact undetectable. Presumably, a homodimer of T1R3 may function as a signaling receptor. Activation of this receptor by adding an artificial sweetener sucralose leads to an increase in intracellular ATP ([ATP]c). This increase in [ATP]c is observed in the absence of ambient glucose. Sucralose also augments elevation of [ATP]c induced by methylsuccinate, a substrate for mitochondria. Consequently, activation of T1R3 promotes metabolism in mitochondria and increases [ATP]c. 3-O-Methylglucose, a nonmetabolizable analogue of glucose, also increases [ATP]c. Conversely, knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]c induced by glucose. Hence, glucose promotes its own metabolism by activating T1R3 and augments ATP production. Collectively, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and participates in the action of glucose on insulin secretion. The glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 may be the putative glucoreceptor proposed decades ago by Niki and colleagues. The glucose-sensing receptor is involved in the action of glucose and modulates glucose metabolism in pancreatic β-cells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Sweet taste receptor regulates GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L-cells. We investigated the signaling system activated by this receptor using Hutu-80 cells. We stimulated them with sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin. These sweeteners stimulated GLP-1 secretion, which was attenuated by lactisole. All these sweeteners elevated cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ([cAMP]c) whereas only sucralose and saccharin induced a monophasic increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c). Removal of extracellular calcium or sodium and addition of a Gq/11 inhibitor greatly reduced the [Ca2+]c responses to two sweeteners. In contrast, acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained reduction of [Ca2+]c. In addition, glycyrrhizin first reduced [Ca2+]c which was followed by an elevation of [Ca2+]c. Reductions of [Ca2+]c induced by acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin were attenuated by a calmodulin inhibitor or by knockdown of the plasma membrane calcium pump. These results indicate that various sweet molecules act as biased agonists and evoke strikingly different patterns of intracellular signals.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: We reported recently that the taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3), a subunit of the sweet taste receptor, functions as a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor in pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of T1R3 in pancreatic islets. mRNA for T1R2 and T1R3 was detected in mouse pancreatic islets. Quantitatively, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 was less than 1% of that of T1R3. Immunohistochemically, T1R3 was abundantly expressed in mouse islets whereas T1R2 was barely detected. Most immunoreactive T1R3 was colocalized with insulin and almost all β-cells were positive for T1R3. In addition, T1R3 was expressed in some portion of α-cells. Immunoreactivity of T1R3 in β-cells was markedly reduced in fed mice compared to those in fasting mice. In contrast, mRNA for T1R3 was not different in islets of fasting and fed mice. Glucose-induced insulin-secretion was higher in islets obtained from fasting mice compared to those from fed mice. The expression of T1R3 was markedly reduced in islets of ob/ob mice compared to those of control mice. Similarly, the expression of T1R3 was reduced in islet of db/db mice. In addition, the expression of T1R3 was markedly reduced in β-cells of fatty diabetic rats and GK rats, models of obese and non-obese type 2 diabetes, respectively. These results indicate that T1R3 is expressed mainly in β-cells and the expression levels are different depending upon the nutritional and metabolic conditions.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Endocrine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Activin, a member of the TGF- β superfamily, regulates cell growth and differentiation in various cell types. Activin A acts as a negative regulator of renal development as well as tubular regeneration after renal injury. However, it remains unknown whether activin A is involved in renal fibrosis. To clarify this issue, we utilized a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The expression of activin A was significantly increased in the UUO kidneys compared to that in contralateral kidneys. Activin A was detected in glomerular mesangial cells and interstitial fibroblasts in normal kidneys. In UUO kidneys, activin A was abundantly expressed by interstitial α -SMA-positive myofibroblasts. Administration of recombinant follistatin, an activin antagonist, reduced the fibrotic area in the UUO kidneys. The number of proliferating cells in the interstitium, but not in the tubules, was significantly lower in the follistatin-treated kidneys. Expression of α -SMA, deposition of type I collagen and fibronectin, and CD68-positive macrophage infiltration were significantly suppressed in the follistatin-treated kidneys. These data suggest that activin A produced by interstitial fibroblasts acts as a potent profibrotic factor during renal fibrosis. Blockade of activin A action may be a novel approach for the prevention of renal fibrosis progression.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BioMed Research International
  • Article: Trpv2.
    Itaru Kojima · Masahiro Nagasawa
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    ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2, TRPV2, is a calcium-permeable cation channel belonging to the TRPV channel family. This channel is activated by heat (>52 °C), various ligands, and mechanical stresses. In most of the cells, a large portion of TRPV2 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum under unstimulated conditions. Upon stimulation of the cells with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-activating ligands, TRPV2 is translocated to the plasma membrane and functions as a cation channel. Mechanical stress may also induce translocation of TRPV2 to the plasma membrane. The expression of TRPV2 is high in some types of cells including neurons, neuroendocrine cells, immune cells involved in innate immunity, and certain types of cancer cells. TRPV2 may modulate various cellular functions in these cells.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Handbook of experimental pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen reduces fat mass, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we examined the effect of testosterone on heat production and mitochondrial biogenesis. Testosterone-treated mice exhibited elevated heat production. Treatment with testosterone increased the expression level of PGC1α, ATP5B and Cox4 in skeletal muscle, but not that in brown adipose tissue and liver. mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were elevated in skeletal muscle isolated from testosterone-treated male mice, but were down-regulated in androgen receptor deficient mice. These results demonstrated that the testosterone-induced increase in energy expenditure is derived from elevated mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · FEBS letters
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone stimulates erythropoietic differentiation. However, severe anemia is sometimes seen in patients with hyperthyroidism, and the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Bone marrow is comprised about 2-8 % oxygen, and the characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells have been shown to be influenced under hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a critical mediator of cellular responses to hypoxia and an important mediator in signal transduction of thyroid hormone [triiodothyronine (T3)]. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of T3 on erythropoiesis under hypoxia mimicking physiological conditions in the bone marrow. We maintained human erythroleukemia K562 cells under hypoxic atmosphere (2 % O2) and examined their cellular characteristics. Compared to that under normal atmospheric conditions, cells under hypoxia showed a reduction in the proliferation rate and increase in the hemoglobin content or benzidine-positive rate, indicating promotion of erythroid differentiation. T3 had no effect on hypoxia-induced erythroid differentiation, but significantly inhibited activin A/erythroid differentiation factor-induced erythroid differentiation. Moreover, GATA2 mRNA expression was suppressed in association with erythroid differentiation, while T3 significantly diminished that suppression. These results suggest that T3 has a direct suppressive effect on erythroid differentiation under hypoxic conditions.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs). Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP). Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin), distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    Jinhui Ma · Yuko Nakagawa · Itaru Kojima · Hiroshi Shibata
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    ABSTRACT: While insulin acutely stimulates glucose uptake by promotion of GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane in adipocytes and muscles, long-term insulin stimulation causes GLUT4 depletion particularly prominent in the insulin-responsive GLUT4-storage compartment (GSC). This effect is caused mainly by accelerated lysosomal degradation of GLUT4 although the mechanism is not fully defined. Here we show that insulin acutely induced dissociation of retromer components from the low-density microsomal (LDM) membranes of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was accompanied by disruption of the interaction of Vps35 with sortilin. This insulin effect was dependent on the activity of protein kinase CK2 but neither phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase nor extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Knockdown of Vps26 decreased GLUT4 to a level comparable to that with insulin stimulation for 4 hours. Vps35 with a mutation in the CK2 phosphorylation motif (Vps35-Ser7Ala) was resistant to insulin-induced dissociation from the LDM membrane and its overexpression attenuated GLUT4 downregulation with insulin. Furthermore, insulin-generated hydrogen peroxide was an upstream mediator of the insulin action on retromer and GLUT4. These results suggested that insulin-generated oxidative stress switches GLUT4 sorting direction to lysosomes through inhibition of the retromer function in a CK2-dependent manner.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: A homodimer of taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) functions as a sweet taste-sensing receptor in pancreatic β-cells. This receptor is activated by various sweet molecules including sugars such as glucose. To determine the role of this receptor in glucose-induced insulin secretion, we addressed whether or not this receptor modulates glucose metabolism in MIN6 cells. We measured changes in intracellular ATP ([ATP]i) in MIN6 cells expressing luciferase. Sucralose, an agonist of T1R3, induced immediate and sustained elevation of [ATP]i in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. The effect of sucralose was dose-dependent and, at 5 mM, was greater than that induced by 25 mM glucose. In contrast, carbachol, GLP-1 or high concentration of potassium did not reproduce the sucralose action. Sucralose facilitated the increase in [ATP]i induced by a mitochondrial fuel methylsuccinate, and potentiated glucose-induced elevation of [ATP]i. Administration of a non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 3-O-methylglucose, which acts as an agonist of T1R3, induced a small and transient increase in [ATP]i. 3-O-Methylglucose augmented elevation of [ATP]i induced by methylsuccinate, and also enhanced glucose-induced increase in [ATP]i. Knock down of T1R3 by using shRNA attenuated [ATP]i-response to high concentration of glucose and also reduced the glucose-induced insulin secretion. These results indicate that activation of the homodimer of T1R3 facilitates the metabolic pathway in mitochondria and augments ATP production. The results obtained by using 3-O-methylglucose suggest that glucose, by acting on the homodimer of T1R3, promotes its own metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Endocrine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Conophylline (CnP) is a vinca alkaloid purified from a tropical plant and inhibits activation of pancreatic stellate cells. We investigated the effect of CnP on hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro. We also examined whether CnP attenuates hepatic fibrosis in vivo. We examined the effect of CnP on the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen-1, DNA synthesis and apoptosis in rat HSC and Lx-2 cells. We also examined the effect of CnP on hepatic fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA). In rat HSC and Lx-2 cells, CnP reduced the expression of α-SMA and collagen-1. CnP inhibited DNA synthesis induced by serum. CnP also promoted activation of caspase-3 and induced apoptosis as assessed by DNA ladder formation and TUNEL assay. In contrast, CnP did not induce apoptosis in AML12 cells. We then examined the effect of CnP on TAA-induced cirrhosis. In TAA-treated rats, the surface of the liver was irregular and multiple nodules were observed. Histologically, formation of pseudolobules surrounded by massive fibrous tissues was observed. When CnP was administered together with TAA, the surface of the liver was smooth and liver fibrosis was markedly inhibited. Collagen content was significantly reduced in CnP-treated liver. Conophylline suppresses HSC and induces apoptosis in vitro. CnP also attenuates formation of the liver fibrosis induced by TAA in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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    ABSTRACT: The sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste bud and is activated by numerous sweet molecules with diverse chemical structures. It is, however, not known whether these sweet agonists induce a similar cellular response in target cells. Using MIN6 cells, a pancreatic β-cell line expressing endogenous sweet taste receptor, we addressed this question by monitoring changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and cAMP ([cAMP]i) induced by four sweet taste receptor agonists. Glycyrrhizin evoked sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)]i but [cAMP]i was not affected. Conversely, an artificial sweetener saccharin induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]i but did not increase [Ca(2+)]i. In contrast, sucralose and acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained increases in both [Ca(2+)]i and [cAMP]i. Although the latter two sweeteners increased [Ca(2+)]i and [cAMP]i, their actions were not identical: [Ca(2+)]i response to sucralose but not acesulfame K was inhibited by gurmarin, an antagonist of the sweet taste receptor which blocks the gustducin-dependent pathway. In addition, [Ca(2+)]i response to acesulfame K but not to sucralose was resistant to a Gq inhibitor. These results indicate that four types of sweeteners activate the sweet taste receptor differently and generate distinct patterns of intracellular signals. The sweet taste receptor has amazing multimodal functions producing multiple patterns of intracellular signals.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Endocrine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicates that low oxygen tension or hypoxia alters the characteristics of stem cells. The actions of hypoxia are mediated through the hypoxia-inducible factor, a critical mediator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are one of the most promising cell sources for tissue engineering applications. This study investigated the effect of hypoxia on ASCs in terms of the ability to proliferate and differentiate. ASCs were extracted from mice and maintained under hypoxic atmosphere (2% O2) for up to eight in vitro passages. The proliferation rate was examined as a growth curve, and the potency of differentiation was evaluated. To investigate the cell characteristics, we checked several stem-cell markers and growth factors. Compared with the normoxic state (20% O2), hypoxia enhances proliferation with an approximately six- to sevenfold higher ASC expansion over 6 weeks. The expression of Oct3/4 and Nanog (stem-cell marker) and the amount of secreted growth factors were increased under the hypoxic condition. These results suggest that low oxygen tension enhances proliferation and maintains stemness of ASCs. Thus, this study emphasizes the profitability of hypoxic culture for expansion of ASCs and maintenance of their undifferentiated state for further therapeutic use.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Microorganisms and plants produce bioactive metabolites that are potentially useful in the treatment of disease. We have designed and synthesized DHMEQ as a specific inhibitor of NF-κB based on the structure of epoxyquinomicin. It directly binds to NF-κB components to inhibit DNA-binding and was shown to be endowed with inhibiting activity in various inflammatory and cancer models in experimental animals. It was also effective to improve the success of islet transplantation especially when administered to donor mice. We have also isolated from the leaves of Ervatamia microphylla conophylline, a compound that induces differentiation of beta cells from the precursor cells and was recently found to suppress islet fibrosis in diabetes model rats.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Internal and Emergency Medicine

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,217.98 Total Impact Points


  • 1970-2015
    • Gunma University
      • Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation
      Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
  • 2007
    • Boca Raton Regional Hospital
      Boca Raton, Florida, United States
  • 2005
    • Akita University
      Akita, Akita, Japan
  • 2001
    • University of Hamburg
      • Center for Molecular Neurobiology (ZMNH)
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1997-2001
    • Okayama University
      • Faculty of Engineering
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2000
    • Tokyo Gakugei University
      Koganei, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1996
    • Kyushu University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1992
    • Yokohama City University
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1981-1991
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1989
    • Nagai Internal Medicine Clinic
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 1988
    • Tokyo Medical University
      • School of Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1987-1988
    • Shinshu University
      • Department of Medicine
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan
  • 1984-1986
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1983-1985
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Mito Red Cross Hospital
      Mito-shi, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1982
    • National Cancer Center, Japan
      • National Cancer Center Research Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan