[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Neuraminidase (NA), an influenza virus envelope glycoprotein, removes sialic acid from receptors for virus release from infected cells. For this study, we used a baculovirus-insect cell expression system to construct and purify recombinant NA (rNA) proteins of H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) and pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) (A/Texas/05/2009) influenza viruses. BALB/c mice immunized with these proteins had high titers of NA-specific IgG and NA-inhibiting (NI) antibodies against H5N1, pH1N1, H3N2, and H7N9 viruses. H5N1 rNA immunization resulted in higher quantities of NA-specific antibody-secreting B cells against H5N1 and heterologous pH1N1 viruses in the spleen. H5N1 rNA and pH1N1 rNA immunizations both provided complete protection against homologous virus challenges, with H5N1 rNA immunization providing better protection against pH1N1 virus challenges. Cross-reactive NI antibodies were further dissected via pH1N1 rNA protein immunizations with I149V (NA with a change of Ile to Val at position 149), N344Y, and I365T/S366N NA mutations. The I365T/S366N mutation of pH1N1 rNA enhanced cross-reactive NI antibodies against H5N1, H3N2, and H7N9 viruses. It is our hope that these findings provide useful information for the development of an NA-based universal influenza vaccine.
Neuraminidase (NA) is an influenza virus enzymatic protein that cleaves sialic acid linkages on infected cell surfaces, thus facilitating viral release and contributing to viral transmission and mucus infection. In currently available inactivated or live, attenuated influenza vaccines based on the antigenic content of hemagglutinin proteins, vaccine efficacy can be contributed partly through NA-elicited immune responses. We investigated the NA immunity of different recombinant NA (rNA) proteins associated with pH1N1 and H5N1 viruses. Our results indicate that H5N1 rNA immunization induced more potent cross-protective immunity than pH1N1 rNA immunization, and three mutated residues, I149V, I365T, and S366N, near the NA enzyme active site(s) are linked to enhanced cross-reactive NA-inhibiting antibodies against heterologous and heterosubtypic influenza A viruses. These findings provide useful information for the development of an NA-based universal influenza vaccine.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oseltamivir is a potent neuraminidase inhibitor for influenza treatment. By replacing the carboxylate group in oseltamivir with phosphonate monoalkyl ester, a series of tamiphosphor derivatives were synthesized and shown to exhibit high inhibitory activities against influenza viruses. Our molecular modeling experiments revealed that influenza virus neuraminidase contains a 371-cavity near the S1-site to accommodate the alkyl substituents of tamiphosphor monoesters to render appreciable hydrophobic interactions for enhanced affinity. Furthermore, guanidino-tamiphosphor (TPG) monoesters are active to the oseltamivir-resistant mutant. TPG monohexyl ester 4e having a more lipophilic alkyl substituent showed better cell permeability and intestinal absorption than the corresponding monoethyl ester 4c, but both compounds showed similar bioavailability. Intranasal administration of TPG monoesters at low dose greatly improved the survival rate of mice infected with lethal dose of H1N1 influenza virus, whereas 4c provided better protection of the infected mice than oseltamivir and other phosphonate congeners by oral administration.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: H5N1 influenza virus is a highly pathogenic virus, posing a pandemic threat. Previously, we showed that phenyl analogs of α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) displayed greater NKT stimulation than α-GalCer. Here, we examined the adjuvant effects of one of the most potent analogs, C34, on consensus hemagglutinin based DNA vaccine (pCHA5) for H5N1 virus. Upon intramuscular electroporation of mice with pCHA5 with/without various α-GalCer analogs, C34-adjuvanted group developed the highest titer against consensus H5 and more HA-specific IFN-γ secreting CD8 cells (203 ± 13.5) than pCHA5 alone (152.6 ± 13.7, p < 0.05). Upon lethal challenge of NIBRG-14 virus, C34-adjuvanted group (84.6%) displayed higher survival rate than pCHA5 only group (46.1%). In the presence of C34 as adjuvant, the anti-sera displayed broader and greater neutralizing activities against virions pseudotyped with HA of clade 1, and 2.2 than pCHA5 only group. Moreover, to simulate an emergency response to a sudden H5N1 outbreak, we injected mice intramuscularly with single dose of a new consensus H5 (pCHA5-II) based on 1192 full-length H5 sequences, with C34 as adjuvant. The latter not only enhanced the humoral immune response and protection against virus challenge, but also broadened the spectrum of neutralization against pseudotyped HA viruses. Our vaccine strategy can be easily implemented for any H5N1 virus outbreak by single IM injection of a consensus H5 DNA vaccine based on updated HA sequences using C34 as an adjuvant.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Antiviral research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, a known trigger of diseases in poultry and humans, is perceived as a serious threat to public health. There is a clear need for a broadly protective H5N1 vaccine or vaccines for inducing neutralizing antibodies against multiple clades/subclades. We constructed single, double, and triple mutants of glycan-masked hemagglutiinin (HA) antigens at residues 83, 127 and 138 (i.e., g83, g127, g138, g83+g127, g127+g138, g83+g138 and g83+g127+g138), and then obtained their corresponding HA-expressing adenovirus vectors and recombinant HA proteins using a prime-boost immunization strategy. Our results indicate that the glycan-masked g127+g138 double mutant induced more potent HA-inhibition, virus neutralization antibodies, cross-clade protection against heterologous H5N1 clades, correlated with the enhanced bindings to the receptor binding sites and the highly conserved stem region of HA. The immune refocusing stem-specific antibodies elicited by the glycan-masked H5HA g127+g138 and g83+g127+g138 mutants overlapped with broadly neutralizing epitopes of the CR6261 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes most group 1 subtypes. These findings may provide useful information in the development of a broadly protective H5N1 influenza vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human lung epithelial cells natively offer terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) α(2→6)-linked to galactose (Gal) as binding sites for influenza virus hemagglutinin. N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in place of Neu5Ac is known to affect hemagglutinin binding in other species. Not normally generated by humans, Neu5Gc may find its way to human cells from dietary sources. To compare their influence in influenza virus infection, six trisaccharides with Neu5Ac or Neu5Gc α(2→6) linked to Gal and with different reducing end sugar units were prepared using one-pot assembly and divergent transformation. The sugar assembly made use of an N-phthaloyl-protected sialyl imidate for chemoselective activation and α-stereoselective coupling with a thiogalactoside. Assessment of cytopathic effect showed that the Neu5Gc-capped trisaccharides inhibited the viral infection better than their Neu5Ac counterparts.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2009 H1N1 pandemic and recent human cases of H5N1, H7N9, and H6N1 in Asia highlight the need for a universal influenza vaccine that can provide cross-strain or even cross-subtype protection. Here, we show that recombinant monoglycosylated hemagglutinin (HAmg) with an intact protein structure from either seasonal or pandemic H1N1 can be used as a vaccine for cross-strain protection against various H1N1 viruses in circulation from 1933 to 2009 in mice and ferrets. In the HAmg vaccine, highly conserved sequences that were originally covered by glycans in the fully glycosylated HA (HAfg) are exposed and thus, are better engulfed by dendritic cells (DCs), stimulated better DC maturation, and induced more CD8+ memory T cells and IgG-secreting plasma cells. Single B-cell RT-PCR followed by sequence analysis revealed that the HAmg vaccine activated more diverse B-cell repertoires than the HAfg vaccine and produced antibodies with cross-strain binding ability. In summary, the HAmg vaccine elicits cross-strain immune responses that may mitigate the current need for yearly reformulation of strain-specific inactivated vaccines. This strategy may also map a new direction for universal vaccine design.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses can result in poultry and occasionally in human mortality. A safe and effective H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed to reduce the pandemic potential. Hemagglutinin (HA), a major envelope protein accounting for approximately 80% of spikes in influenza virus, is often used as a major antigen for subunit vaccine development. In this study, we conducted a systematic study of the immune response against influenza virus infection following immunization with recombinant HA proteins expressed in insect (Sf9) cells, insect cells that contain exogenous genes for elaborating N-linked glycans (Mimic) and mammalian cells (CHO). While the antibody titers are higher with the insect cell derived HA proteins, the neutralization and HA inhibition titers are much higher with the mammalian cell produced HA proteins. Recombinant HA proteins containing tri- or tetra-antennary complex, terminally sialylated and asialyated-galactose type N-glycans induced better protective immunity in mice to lethal challenge. The results are highly relevant to issues that should be considered in the production of fragment vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oseltamivir phosphonic acid (tamiphosphor, 3a), its monoethyl ester (3c), guanidino-tamiphosphor (4a), and its monoethyl ester (4c) are potent inhibitors of influenza neuraminidases. They inhibit the replication of influenza viruses, including the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y strain, at low nanomolar to picomolar levels, and significantly protect mice from infection with lethal doses of influenza viruses when orally administered with 1 mg/kg or higher doses. These compounds are stable in simulated gastric fluid, liver microsomes, and human blood and are largely free from binding to plasma proteins. Pharmacokinetic properties of these inhibitors are thoroughly studied in dogs, rats, and mice. The absolute oral bioavailability of these compounds was lower than 12%. No conversion of monoester 4c to phosphonic acid 4a was observed in rats after intravenous administration, but partial conversion of 4c was observed with oral administration. Advanced formulation may be investigated to develop these new anti-influenza agents for better therapeutic use.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza therapy with a single targeted compound is often limited in efficacy due to the rapidly developed drug resistance. Moreover, the uncontrolled virus-induced cytokines could cause the high mortality of human infected by H5N1 avian influenza virus. In this study, we explored the novel dual-targeted bifunctional anti-influenza drugs formed by conjugation with anti-inflammatory agents. In particular, the caffeic acid (CA)-bearing zanamivir (ZA) conjugates ZA-7-CA (1) and ZA-7-CA-amide (7) showed simultaneous inhibition of influenza virus neuraminidase and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These ZA conjugates provided remarkable protection of cells and mice against influenza infections. Intranasal administration of low dosage (<1.2 μmol/kg/day) of ZA conjugates exhibited much greater effect than the combination therapy with ZA and the anti-inflammatory agents in protection of the lethally infected mice by H1N1 or H5N1 influenza viruses.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid genetic drift of influenza virus hemagglutinin is an obstacle to vaccine efficacy. Previously, we found that the consensus hemagglutinin DNA vaccine (pCHA5) can only elicit moderate neutralization activities toward the H5N1 clade 2.1 and clade 2.3 viruses. Two approaches were thus taken to improve the protection broadness of CHA5. The first one was to include certain surface amino acids that are characteristic of clade 2.3 viruses to improve the protection profiles. When we immunized mice with CHA5 harboring individual mutations, the antibodies elicited by CHA5 containing P157S elicited higher neutralizing activity against the clade 2.3 viruses. Likewise, the viruses pseudotyped with hemagglutinin containing 157S became more susceptible to neutralization. The second approach was to update the consensus sequence with more recent H5N1 strains, generating a second-generation DNA vaccine pCHA5II. We showed that pCHA5II was able to elicit higher cross-neutralization activities against all H5N1 viruses. Comparison of the neutralization profiles of CHA5 and CHA5II, and the animal challenge studies, revealed that CHA5II induced the broadest protection profile. We concluded that CHA5II combined with electroporation delivery is a promising strategy to induce antibodies with broad cross-reactivities against divergent H5N1 influenza viruses.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC 50) and 50% of viral replication (EC 50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC 50 /EC 50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC 50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A library of 27 sialosides, including seventeen 2,3-linked and ten 2,6-linked glycans, has been prepared to construct a glycan array and used to profile the binding specificity of different influenza hemagglutinins (HA) subtypes, especially from the 2009 swine-originated H1N1 and seasonal influenza viruses. It was found that the HAs from the 2009 H1N1 and the seasonal Brisbane strain share similar binding profiles yet different binding affinities toward various α2,6 sialosides. Analysis of the binding profiles of different HA subtypes indicate that a minimum set of 5 oligosaccharides can be used to differentiate influenza H1, H3, H5, H7, and H9 subtypes. In addition, the glycan array was used to profile the binding pattern of different influenza viruses. It was found that most binding patterns of viruses and HA proteins are similar and that glycosylation at Asn27 is essential for receptor binding.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent cases of avian influenza H5N1 and the swine-origin 2009 H1N1 have caused a great concern that a global disaster like the 1918 influenza pandemic may occur again. Viral transmission begins with a critical interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which is on the viral coat of influenza, and sialic acid (SA) containing glycans, which are on the host cell surface. To elucidate the role of HA glycosylation in this important interaction, various defined HA glycoforms were prepared, and their binding affinity and specificity were studied by using a synthetic SA microarray. Truncation of the N-glycan structures on HA increased SA binding affinities while decreasing specificity toward disparate SA ligands. The contribution of each monosaccharide and sulfate group within SA ligand structures to HA binding energy was quantitatively dissected. It was found that the sulfate group adds nearly 100-fold (2.04 kcal/mol) in binding energy to fully glycosylated HA, and so does the biantennary glycan to the monoglycosylated HA glycoform. Antibodies raised against HA protein bearing only a single N-linked GlcNAc at each glycosylation site showed better binding affinity and neutralization activity against influenza subtypes than the fully glycosylated HAs elicited. Thus, removal of structurally nonessential glycans on viral surface glycoproteins may be a very effective and general approach for vaccine design against influenza and other human viruses.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant causative agent of pyogenic liver abscess, an emerging infectious disease that often complicates metastatic meningitis or endophthalmitis. The capsular polysaccharide on K. pneumoniae surface was determined as the key to virulence. Although the regulation of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis is largely unclear, it was found that protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are involved. Therefore, the identification and characterization of such kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates would advance our knowledge of the underlying mechanism in capsule formation and could contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we analyzed the phosphoproteome of K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044 with a shotgun approach and identified 117 unique phosphopeptides along with 93 in vivo phosphorylated sites corresponding to 81 proteins. Interestingly, three of the identified tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, namely protein-tyrosine kinase (Wzc), phosphomannomutase (ManB), and undecaprenyl-phosphate glycosyltransferase (WcaJ), were found to be distributed in the cps locus and thus were speculated to be involved in the converging signal transduction of capsule biosynthesis. Consequently, we decided to focus on the lesser studied ManB and WcaJ for mutation analysis. The capsular polysaccharides of WcaJ mutant (WcaJY5F) were dramatically reduced quantitatively, and the LD(50) increased by 200-fold in a mouse peritonitis model compared with the wild-type strain. However, the capsular polysaccharides of ManB mutant (ManBY26F) showed no difference in quantity, and the LD(50) increased by merely 6-fold in mice test. Our study provided a clear trend that WcaJ tyrosine phosphorylation can regulate the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharides and result in the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: H5N1 influenza viruses have spread extensively among wild birds and domestic poultry. Cross-species transmission of these viruses to humans has been documented in over 380 cases, with a mortality rate of approximately 60%. There is great concern that a H5N1 virus would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. An H5N1 influenza vaccine must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan. However, traditional methods of making influenza vaccines have yet to produce a candidate that could induce potently neutralizing antibodies against divergent strains of H5N1 influenza viruses. To address this need, we generated a consensus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) sequence based on data available in early 2006. This sequence was then optimized for protein expression before being inserted into a DNA plasmid (pCHA5). Immunizing mice with pCHA5, delivered intramuscularly via electroporation, elicited antibodies that neutralized a panel of virions that have been pseudotyped with the HA from various H5N1 viruses (clades 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.2, and 2.3.4). Moreover, immunization with pCHA5 in mice conferred complete (clades 1 and 2.2) or significant (clade 2.1) protection from H5N1 virus challenges. We conclude that this vaccine, based on a consensus HA, could induce broad protection against divergent H5N1 influenza viruses and thus warrants further study.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, 221 phytocompounds were evaluated for activity against anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) activities using a cell-based assay measuring SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect on Vero E6 cells. Ten diterpenoids (1-10), two sesquiterpenoids (11 and 12), two triterpenoids (13 and 14), five lignoids (15-19), curcumin (20), and reference controls niclosamide (21) and valinomycin (22) were potent inhibitors at concentrations between 3.3 and 10 microM. The concentrations of the 22 compounds to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and viral replication (EC50) were measured. The selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most potent compounds 1, 5, 6, 8, 14, and 16 were 58, >510, 111, 193, 180, and >667, respectively. Betulinic acid (13) and savinin (16) were competitive inhibitors of SARS-CoV 3CL protease with Ki values = 8.2 +/- 0.7 and 9.1 +/- 2.4 microM, respectively. Our findings suggest that specific abietane-type diterpenoids and lignoids exhibit strong anti-SARS-CoV effects.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity of HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) peptide in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nuclear capsid (N) and spike (S) proteins was determined by testing the proteins' ability to elicit a specific cellular immune response after immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice and in vitro vaccination of HLA-A2.1 positive human peripheral blood mononuclearcytes (PBMCs). First, we screened SARS N and S amino acid sequences for allele-specific motif matching those in human HLA-A2.1 MHC-I molecules. From HLA peptide binding predictions (http://thr.cit.nih.gov/molbio/hla_bind/), ten each potential N- and S-specific HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were synthesized. The high affinity HLA-A2.1 peptides were validated by T2-cell stabilization assays, with immunogenicity assays revealing peptides N223-231, N227-235, and N317-325 to be the first identified HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of SARS-CoV N protein. In addition, previous reports identified three HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of S protein (S978-986, S1203-1211, and S1167-1175), here we found two novel peptides S787-795 and S1042-1050 as S-specific CTL epitopes. Moreover, our identified N317-325 and S1042-1050 CTL epitopes could induce recall responses when IFN-gamma stimulation of blood CD8+ T-cells revealed significant difference between normal healthy donors and SARS-recovered patients after those PBMCs were in vitro vaccinated with their cognate antigen. Our results would provide a new insight into the development of therapeutic vaccine in SARS.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications