[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parasitoid wasps are abundant and diverse hymenopteran insects that lay their eggs into the internal body (endoparasitoid) or on the external surface (ectoparasitoid) of their hosts. To make a more conducive environment for the wasps’ young, both ecto- and endoparasitoids inject venoms into the host to modulate host immunity, metabolism and development. Endoparasitoids have evolved from ectoparasitoids independently in different hymenopteran lineages. Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of various butterflies, represents a relatively recent evolution of endoparasitism within pteromalids. Using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we have identified 70 putative venom proteins in P. puparum. Most of them show higher similarity to venom proteins from the related ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis than from other more distantly related endoparasitoids. In addition, 13 venom proteins are similar to venoms of distantly related endoparasitoids but have no detectable venom matches in Nasonia. These venom proteins may have a role in adaptation to endoparasitism. Overall, these results lay the groundwork for more detailed studies of venom function and adaptation to the endoparasitic lifestyle.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6 h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6 h after injection. Dose–response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Insect Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) are present in many species and they act in a variety of biological processes. We analyzed a Pteromalus puparum venom apparatus proteome and transcriptome and identified a partial gene encoding a possible CBP. Here, we report cloning a full-length cDNA of a sequence encoding a chitin-binding-like protein (PpCBP) from P. puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae. The cDNA encoded a 96-amino-acid protein, including a secretory signal peptide and a chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain. Phylogenetic analysis of chitin binding domains (CBDs) of cuticle proteins and peritrophic matrix proteins in selected insects revealed that the CBD of PpCBP clustered with the CBD of Nasonia vitripennis. The PpCBP is specifically expressed in the venom apparatus of P. puparum, mostly in the venom gland. PpCBP expression was highest at day one after adult eclosion and much lower for the following five days. We produced a recombinant PpCBP and binding assays showed the recombinant protein selectively binds chitin but not cellulose in vitro. We infer that PpCBP serves a structural role in the venom reservoir, or may be injected into the host to help wound healing of the host exoskeleton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pyrene-based 2-aryl-benzothiazole derivative, 2-(1'-hydroxypyrenyl)benzothiazole (1H2PBT), was synthesized. Its crystal structure and photophysical properties were investigated. In comparison with the generally studied parent compound, 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT), 1H2PBT exhibited red-shifted absorption and emission in solution, as well as impressive solid state emission with high efficiency (0.35).
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several cyclized indole derivatives have been synthesized, and their structures been determined. The C3-symmetric single-chiral N-phenyltriindole (Tr-Ph3) crystallized in the P1 space group, and the S4-symmetric saddle-like tetraindole (TTr) crystallized in the I4̅ space group. The Tr-Ph3 and TTr crystals exhibit remarkable powder SHG intensities 5 and 11 times that of KH2PO4 (KDP), respectively. TTr is a useful octupolar core to build S4-symmetric molecules and crystals for second-NLO materials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two cDNA sequences of Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs) in Nasonia vitripennis, NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2, were characterized and their open reading frames (ORFs) were 198 and 264 bp, respectively. Both NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 contained a typical Kazal-type domain. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results revealed that NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 mRNAs were mostly detected specifically in the venom apparatus, while they were expressed at lower levels in the ovary and much lower levels in other tissues tested. In the venom apparatus, both NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 transcripts were highly expressed on the fourth day post eclosion and then declined gradually. The NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 genes were recombinantly expressed utilizing a pGEX-4T-2 vector, and the recombinant products fused with glutathione S-transferase were purified. Inhibition of recombinant GST-NvKSPI-1 and GST-NvKSPI-2 to three serine protease inhibitors (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and proteinase K) were tested and results showed that only NvKSPI-1 could inhibit the activity of trypsin. Meanwhile, we evaluated the influence of the recombinant GST-NvKSPI-1 and GST-NvKSPI-2 on the phenoloxidase (PO) activity and prophenoloxidase (PPO) activation of hemolymph from a host pupa, Musca domestica. Results showed PPO activation in host hemolymph was inhibited by both recombinant proteins; however, there was no significant inhibition on the PO activity. Our results suggested that NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 could inhibit PPO activation in host hemolymph and trypsin activity in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotransmitter signaling systems play crucial roles in multiple physiological and behavioral processes in insects. Genome wide analyses of de novo transcriptome sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for studying neurotransmitter signaling pathways. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis is a destructive rice pest in China and other Asian countries. The characterization of genes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport could identify potential targets for disruption of the neurochemical communication and for crop protection.
Here we report de novo sequencing of the C. suppressalis central nervous system transcriptome, identification and expression profiles of genes putatively involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis, packaging, and recycling/degradation. A total of 54,411 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome analysis. Among these unigenes, we have identified 32 unigenes (31 are full length genes), which encode 21 enzymes and 11 transporters putatively associated with biogenic aminergic signaling, acetylcholinergic signaling, glutamatergic signaling and GABAergic signaling. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that 12 enzymes were highly expressed in the central nervous system and all the transporters were expressed at significantly high levels in the central nervous system. In addition, the transcript abundances of enzymes and transporters in the central nervous system were validated by qRT-PCR. The high expression levels of these genes suggest their important roles in the central nervous system.
Our study identified genes potentially involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport in C. suppressalis and these genes could serve as targets to interfere with neurotransmitter production. This study presents an opportunity for the development of specific and environmentally safe insecticides for pest control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three regioisomeric sulfone-bridged phenyl-pyrene derivatives have been synthesized by post-oxidizing the corresponding sulfide-bridged phenyl-pyrene isomers. The photophysical properties and two crystal structures of these sulfones were investigated and compared with those of their parent compounds. These sulfones all display remarkable solid-state photoluminescence efficiencies as well as good fluorescence quantum yield in solutions.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the title indolinone derivative, C
INO, all the non-H atoms, except the terminal methyl C atom, are almost coplanar. The molecules are arranged into columns extending along the
-axis direction and interact with the molecules in adjacent columns
C—H...O hydrogen bonds [H...O distance = 2.57 (3) Å] and I...I short contacts of 3.8986 (3) Å. A one-dimensional zigzag iodine chain along the
axis is apparent between two neighbouring columns.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two pyrene derivatives were prepared by the condensation between diaminomaleonitrile and 1-pyrene-aldehyde or 2-pyrene-aldehyde. Both of them exhibit high selectivity for Cu2 + and ClO− in combination with significant fluorescence enhancement in certain buffer solutions, respectively.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Inorganic Chemistry Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three 1-phenylindolin-2-one derivatives, namely 1-phenylindolin-2-one, C14H11NO, (I), 5-bromo-1-phenylindolin-2-one, C14H10BrNO, (II), and 5-iodo-1-phenylindolin-2-one, C14H10INO, (III), have been synthesized and their structures determined. Compounds (I) and (II) crystallized in the centrosymmetric space groups Pbca and P21/c, respectively, while compound (III) crystallized in the polar space group Aea2. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the molecular dipole moment gradually decreases in the order (I) > (II) > (III). The relatively smaller dipole moment of (III) and the larger non-electrostatic intermolecular interactions may be the main reasons for the noncentrosymmetric and polar structure of (III).
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Acta crystallographica. Section C
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily, mediating fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system in insects. Insect nAChRs are the molecular targets of economically important insecticides, such as neonicotinoids and spinosad. Identification and characterization of the nAChR gene family in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, could provide beneficial information about this important receptor gene family and contribute to the investigation of the molecular modes of insecticide action and resistance for current and future chemical control strategies. We searched our C. suppressalis transcriptome database using B. mori nAChR sequences in local BLAST searches and obtained the putative nAChR subunit cDNAs via RT-PCR and RACE methods. Similar to B. mori, C. suppressalis possesses 12 nAChR subunits, including nine α-type and three β-type subunits. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the expression profiles of the nAChR subunits in various tissues, including the brain, suboesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, hemocytes, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, and Malpighian tubules. Developmental expression analyses showed clear differential expression of nAChR subunits throughout the C. suppressalis life cycle. The identification of nAChR subunits in this study will provide a foundation for investigating the diverse roles played by nAChRs in the C. suppressalis and for exploring specific target sites for chemicals that control agricultural pests while sparing beneficial species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chitin binding protein has been studied in many oganisms, like invertebrates, plants and bacterial. Many studies shows it can binding to chitins, carbohydrates and pathogenic bacterias. In this study, we cloned a chitin binding protein-like venom protein(CBPL) from Pteromalus puparum, a pupal parasitoid of pieris rapae. The full length of the cDNA is 448bp and encoded 97aa. The predicted results showed that theoretical isoelectric points of PpCBPL were 4.4, and the related molecular weights were 10.5KD. Its cDNA encoding a typical Peritrophin-A domain. Real time quantitative RT-PCR results verified that the mRNA expression levels of PpCBPL were remarkable high in venom gland. We expressed the recombinant PpCBPL in E.coli. The chitin binding assay shows that the recombinant PpCBPL can binding to chitin beads, but can’t binding to cellulose. The recombinant PpCBPL did not possess the antimicrobial ability for E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pichia pastoris.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By pi-extending and ring-capping the bis-fused TTF moiety (namely TTP), several electrically conductive crystals of 12-S-atom TTP derivatives have been synthesized: (1) bis(vinylenedithio)-TTP which can be isolated as triclinic P-1 (t-BV-TTP) and monoclinic P21 (m-BV-TTP) polymorphs separately, (2) bis(ethylenedithio)-TTP (BE-TTP), (3) ethylenedithio-methylenedithio-TTP (EM-TTP), (4) ethylenedithio-vinylenedithio-TTP (EV-TTP). The structure of t-BV-TTP and EM-TTP crystals can be classified as all-parallel beta-type, in which all molecules in the same 2-D molecular slab or in different slabs are all parallel packed. Differently, m-BV-TTP and BE-TTP crystals can be described as herring-bone beta-type, in which the molecules in neighbouring 2-D slabs are alternately in two directions. Among the above four beta-type structures, EM-TTP crystal shows highest conductivity (sigma= 7×10-3 omega-1cm-1 along  direction). The EV-TTP crystal belongs to a kind of three-by-three kappa-type structure and its conductivity was measured to be 3×10-3 omega-1cm-1 along  direction. The calculated hole mobilities of the title TTP derivatives, by DFT method and by the host-caged approach, are larger than that of the dithiophene-TTF (DT-TTF) crystal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For successful parasitization, parasitiods usually depend on the chemosensory cues for the selection of hosts, as well as a variety of virulence factors introduced into their hosts to overcome host immunity and prevent rejection of progeny development. In bracovirus-carrying wasps, the symbiotic polydnaviruses act in manipulating development and immunity of hosts. The endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis carrying bracovirus as a key host immunosuppressive factor is a superior endoparasitoid of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. So far, genomic information for C. chilonis is not available and transcriptomic data may provide valuable resources for global studying on physiological processes of C. chilonis, including chemosensation and parasitism at molecular level. Here, we performed RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptome of C. chilonis adults. We obtained 27,717,892 reads, assembled into 38,318 unigenes with a mean size of 690 bp. Approximately, 62.1% of the unigenes were annotated using NCBI databases. A large number of chemoreception-related genes encoding proteins including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, odorant-binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, transient receptor potential ion channels, and sensory neuron membrane proteins were identified in silico. Totally, 72 transcripts possessing high identities with the bracovirus-related genes were identified. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of several transcripts at different developmental stages (including egg, larva, pupae, and adult) by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results revealed that some genes had adult-specific expression, indicating their potential significance for mating and parasitism. Overall, these results provide comprehensive insights into transcriptomic data of a polydnavirus-carrying parasitoid of a rice pest.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are crucial for insects to detect food, mates, predators, or other purposes. They are mostly located on antennae and other olfactory sensilla. In this study, we identified an OBP from the venom of Pteromalus puparum, designated as PpOBP. The cDNA of PpOBP is 517 bp in length, encoding 132 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PpOBP was clustered with OBP68 and OBP67 of Nasonia vitripennis. PpOBP was highly expressed in the venom apparatus at the transcriptional and translational levels. PpOBP was located in all parts of venom apparatus including venom gland, venom reservoir, and Dufour's gland. During 0–6 days post adult eclosion, the PpOBP mRNA level peaked at 2 days in the venom apparatus, whereas the protein remained at a high level. In the venom apparatus, the PpOBP mRNA was significantly upregulated following feeding with honey and parasitization. We propose that PpOBP is involved in parasitoid-host interactions.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H8INO2, which differ in the degree of planarity. The iodo-indoline-2,3-dione skeleton of mol-ecule 1 is essentially planar [mean deviation = 0.003 (2) Å for the nine non-H atoms of the indoline core, with a maximum deviation of 0.033 (1) Å for the I atom]. The I atom and O atom in the 3-position of mol-ecule 2 deviate by 0.195 (1) and 0.120 (2) Å, respectively, from the least-squares plane through the nine non-H atoms of the indoline core. Mol-ecules 1 and 2 are roughly coplanar, the mean planes through their cores making a dihedral angle of 6.84 (1)°. This coplanarity results in a layer-like structure parallel to (6,11,17) in the crystal, the distance between adjacent least-squares planes through the cores of mol-ecules 1 and 2 being 3.37 (1) Å. In such a layer, mol-ecules 1 and 2 are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [11-1]. The chains are further coupled to construct a kind of double-chain structure via I⋯O inter-actions [3.270 (2) Å].
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Acta Crystallographica Section E Structure Reports Online