[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic syndromes involving both brain and eye abnormalities are numerous and include syndromes such as Warburg micro syndrome, Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome, Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome, Kahrizi syndrome and others. Using exome sequencing, we have been able to identify homozygous mutation p.(Tyr39Cys) in MED25 as the cause of a syndrome characterized by eye, brain, cardiac and palatal abnormalities as well as growth retardation, microcephaly and severe intellectual disability in seven patients from four unrelated families, all originating from the same village. The protein encoded by MED25 belongs to Mediator complex or MED complex, which is an evolutionary conserved multi-subunit RNA polymerase II transcriptional regulator complex. The MED25 point mutation is located in the von Willebrand factor type A (MED25 VWA) domain which is responsible for MED25 recruitment into the Mediator complex; co-immunoprecipitation experiment demonstrated that this mutation dramatically impairs MED25 interaction with the Mediator complex in mammalian cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a Bedouin family with a novel autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy and septo-optic dysplasia. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous missense mutation in TAX1BP3, which encodes a small PDZ-containing protein implicated in regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, as the causative mutation. The mutation affects a conserved residue located at the core of TAX1BP3 binding pocket and is predicted to impair the nature of a crucial hydrophobic patch, thereby interrupting the structure and stability of the protein, and its ability to interact with other proteins. TAX1BP3 is highly expressed in heart and brain and consistent with the clinical findings observed in our patients, a knockdown of TAX1BP3 causes elongation defects, enlarged pericard and enlarged head structures in zebrafish embryos. Thus, we describe a new genetic disorder that expands the monogenic cardiomyopathy disease spectrum and suggests that TAX1BP3 is essential for heart and brain development.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is caused by ovarian follicle depletion or follicle dysfunction. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from absence of pubertal maturation to early menopause. Genes involved in essential steps in chromosome synapsis and recombination during meiosis, such as synaptonemal complex central element 1 (SYCE1), have been shown to cause POI in animal models. We describe for the first time a homozygous mutation in SYCE1 in humans. Objective: To identify the genetic cause of POI in an Israeli Arab family with a consanguineous pedigree. Design and Setting: Family-based genetic study conducted at a tertiary medical center. Patients: Two daughters of consanguineous parents (first cousins) from a 13-member family were diagnosed with POI. Genotyping was performed in the index patients, their parents, and four unaffected siblings. Intervention: DNA from the affected sisters was subjected to whole-exome sequencing. The genotypes of interest were confirmed, and genotypes of the additional family members were determined by Sanger sequencing. Genotyping was also performed in 90 ethnically matched control individuals. Results: A nonsense homozygous mutation (c.613C>T) was identified in the SYCE1 gene in both affected sisters. The parents and three brothers were heterozygous for the mutation, and an unaffected sister did not carry the mutation. The mutation was not identified in the DNA samples from the 90 control subjects. Conclusion: Given the known function of the SYCE1 gene, we suggest that the nonsense mutation identified accounts for the POI phenotype. These results highlight the importance of the synaptonemal complex and meiosis in ovarian function.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To characterize a new subset of early myoclonic encephalopathy usually associated with metabolic etiologies with a new genetic entity.
We describe two siblings with early myoclonic encephalopathy born to consanguineous parents of Arab Muslim origin from Israel. We used homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequencing to reveal the genetic basis of the myoclonic syndrome.
We found a rare missense mutation in the gene encoding one of the two mitochondrial glutamate/H symporters, SLC25A22. The phenotype of early myoclonic encephalopathy was first linked to the same mutation in 2005 in patients of the same ethnicity as our family.
Owing to the devastating nature of this encephalopathy, we focus attention on its clinical history, epileptic semiology, distinct electroencephalography features, and genetic basis. We provide the evidence that an integrated diagnostic strategy combining homozygosity mapping with candidate gene sequencing is efficient in consanguineous families with highly heterogeneous autosomal recessive diseases.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: R1a-M420 is one of the most widely spread Y-chromosome haplogroups; however, its substructure within Europe and Asia has remained poorly characterized. Using a panel of 16 244 male subjects from 126 populations sampled across Eurasia, we identified 2923 R1a-M420 Y-chromosomes and analyzed them to a highly granular phylogeographic resolution. Whole Y-chromosome sequence analysis of eight R1a and five R1b individuals suggests a divergence time of ∼25 000 (95% CI: 21 300-29 000) years ago and a coalescence time within R1a-M417 of ∼5800 (95% CI: 4800-6800) years. The spatial frequency distributions of R1a sub-haplogroups conclusively indicate two major groups, one found primarily in Europe and the other confined to Central and South Asia. Beyond the major European versus Asian dichotomy, we describe several younger sub-haplogroups. Based on spatial distributions and diversity patterns within the R1a-M420 clade, particularly rare basal branches detected primarily within Iran and eastern Turkey, we conclude that the initial episodes of haplogroup R1a diversification likely occurred in the vicinity of present-day Iran.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 26 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.50.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntington disease (HD), an autosomal dominant disorder involving HTT, is characterized by chorea, psychiatric illness and cognitive decline. Diagnosis and age of onset depend on the degree of expansion of the trinucleotide CAG repeat within the gene. The prevalence of HD is known for Europeans but has not been studied in the Israeli population. Between 2006 and 2011 we diagnosed in our adult genetics clinic 10 HD probands, nine of whom were Caucasus Jews (CJ) (Azerbaijani), and one Ashkenazi Jewish. We performed haplotype analysis to look for evidence of a founder mutation, and found that of the nine CJ, eight shared the same haplotype that was compatible with the A1 haplogroup. We calculated the coalescence age of the mutation to be between 80 and 150 years. Ninety percent of our HD patients are CJ, as are 27% of the HD patients in Israel, although the CJ comprise only 1.4% of the Israeli population. Our findings suggest a higher prevalence of HD among CJ compared to the general Israeli population and are consistent with a recent founder mutation. We recommend a higher degree of suspicion for HD in CJ with subtle clinical findings.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dramatic progress has been made in our understanding of the highly heterogeneous molecular bases of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), demonstrating the involvement of all known forms of inheritance and a plethora of genes tangled in various molecular pathways. This progress permits the provision of prognostic information and genetic counseling for affected families, which might, nevertheless, be exceedingly challenging. Here, we describe an intricate genetic investigation that included Sanger-type sequencing, BeadArray technology, and next-generation sequencing to resolve a complex case involving one family presenting syndromic and nonsyndromic SNHL phenotypes in two consecutive generations. We demonstrate and conclude that such an effort can be completed during pregnancy.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous Y-chromosome studies have demonstrated that Ashkenazi Levites, members of a paternally inherited Jewish priestly caste, display a distinctive founder event within R1a, the most prevalent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Eastern Europe. Here we report the analysis of 16 whole R1 sequences and show that a set of 19 unique nucleotide substitutions defines the Ashkenazi R1a lineage. While our survey of one of these, M582, in 2,834 R1a samples reveals its absence in 922 Eastern Europeans, we show it is present in all sampled R1a Ashkenazi Levites, as well as in 33.8% of other R1a Ashkenazi Jewish males and 5.9% of 303 R1a Near Eastern males, where it shows considerably higher diversity. Moreover, the M582 lineage also occurs at low frequencies in non-Ashkenazi Jewish populations. In contrast to the previously suggested Eastern European origin for Ashkenazi Levites, the current data are indicative of a geographic source of the Levite founder lineage in the Near East and its likely presence among pre-Diaspora Hebrews.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region ~1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics. Furthermore, because only limited genetic data have been available from the Caucasus region, and because these data have been concentrated in populations that are genetically close to populations from the Middle East, the attribution of any signal of Ashkenazi-Caucasus genetic similarity to Khazar ancestry rather than shared ancestral Middle Eastern ancestry has been problematic. Here, through integration of genotypes from newly collected samples with data from several of our past studies, we have assembled the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins. This data set contains genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,774 samples from 106 Jewish and non-Jewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi ancestry: Europe, the Middle East, and the region historically associated with the Khazar Khaganate. The data set includes 261 samples from 15 populations from the Caucasus region and the region directly to its north, samples that have not previously been included alongside Ashkenazi Jewish samples in genomic studies. Employing a variety of standard techniques for the analysis of population-genetic structure, we found that Ashkenazi Jews share the greatest genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations and, among non-Jewish populations, with groups from Europe and the Middle East. No particular similarity of Ashkenazi Jews to populations from the Caucasus is evident, particularly populations that most closely represent the Khazar region. Thus, analysis of Ashkenazi Jews together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar Khaganate corroborates the earlier results that Ashkenazi Jews derive their ancestry primarily from populations of the Middle East and Europe, that they possess considerable shared ancestry with other Jewish populations, and that there is no indication of a significant genetic contribution either from within or from north of the Caucasus region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital pancreatic lipase deficiency is a rare, monoenzymatic form of exocrine pancreatic failure, characterized by decreased absorption of dietary fat, greasy and voluminous stools but apparent normal development and an overall good state of health. While considered to be an autosomal recessive state affecting a few dozens of individuals world-wide and involving the PNLIP gene, no causative mutations for this phenotype were so far reported. Here, we report the identification of the homozygote missense mutation, Thr221Met [c.662C>T], in two brothers from a consanguineous family of Arab ancestry. The observed genotypes among the family member were concordant with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance but moreover a clear segregation between the genotype state and the serum pancreatic lipase activity was evident. Based on biophysical computational tools, we suggest the mutation disrupts the protein stability and impairs its normal function. Although the role of pancreatic lipase is well established, our observation provides genetic evidence that PNLIP mutations are causative for this phenotype.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key Clinical Message
A patient with syndromic Duane retraction syndrome harbors a chromosome 811.1q13.2 inversion and 8p11.1-q12.3 marker chromosome containing subregions with differing mosaicism and allele frequencies. This case highlights the potential requirement for multiple genetic methods to gain insight into genotype–phenotype correlation, and ultimately into molecular mechanisms that underlie human disease.