- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway, that is activated by various stimuli including growth factors and oncogenic driver mutations, is observed in various cancers. However, the difference of the activated levels of the pathway is still unclear in clinical significances. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ERK1/2 pathway activation, assessed by the expression levels of phosphorylated (p) ERK1/2, on the prognosis of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Paraffin-embedded lung biopsy samples were obtained from 85 lung adenocarcinoma patients. Correlation between pERK1/2 expression levels that were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and oncogenic driver mutation status, clinicopathological factors, outcome from standard anticancer therapies, and prognosis was investigated. Varying levels of pERK1/2 expression were observed in 68 (80.0 %) patients. The overall survival was significantly reduced in patients with higher pERK1/2 expression in comparison to those with lower expression levels (P = 0.03). In particular, higher pERK1/2 expression levels correlated with worse performance status and worse clinical outcome. Thus, the IHC analysis of pERK1/2 expression levels may predict patient prognosis in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway activated by various signals may improve the effects of standard chemotherapies and the clinical condition of patients with advanced cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Massive B cell lymphoid hyperplasia and its associated factors may play a role in exacerbating inflammation in allergic disorders. We here investigated the chemokines and CD4-positive T cell subset involved in the development of secondary lymphoid follicles (iCALT) in conjunctival tissues in an atopic keratoconjunctivitis mouse model (AKC mouse). NC/Nga mice were divided into three groups: AKC (percutaneous sensitization and instillation of crude house dust mite antigen), AD (percutaneous sensitization only) and C (untreated control). Pathological changes in the conjunctival tissues of each group were investigated using histological and immunohistochemical detection of CD4 and CD20. Furthermore, tissue sections of iCALT (AKC-iCALT subgroup) and conjunctiva without iCALT (AKC-conjunctiva subgroup) were obtained from AKC mice using laser-assisted microdissection. mRNA expression of chemokine and T cell subset-related transcription factors were compared between the AKC-iCALT and AKC-conjunctiva subgroups using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. iCALT with central aggregation of CD20-positive B cells and CD4-positive T cell infiltration surrounding B cells was observed in the palpebral conjunctival tissue of the AKC group, but not in that of the AD and C groups. Chemokine and T cell subset-related transcription factor expression was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR, with significant increases in Ccl5, Ccl17, Cxl20, Cxcl3, Ccr7, Foxp3 and T-bet mRNA expression in the AKC-iCALT subgroup compared with those in the AKC-conjunctiva subgroup. We concluded that CCL5, CCL17 and CCL20, as well as T-bet- and Foxp3-positive lymphocytes may be iCALT-related factors and that iCALT-related chemokines are worth evaluating as biomarkers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old man revealed a four-month history of muscle weakness of the lower limbs, hypoesthesia of the L5 and S1 area and ischuria. On MRI, the spinal cord was compressed by an encircled mass, which showed hypointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images with gadolinium enhancement at the Th11 to Th12 vertebra. Because of the rapid progression of myelopathy, posterior decompression was performed and idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (HSP) was finally diagnosed. The patient's neurological signs markedly improved with postoperative corticosteroid treatment. Idiopathic HSP is a clinical emergency and early surgical intervention is essential to prevent irreversible damage to the nervous system.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is immunohistochemically characterised by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2). TNBC is known for its poor prognosis and high recurrence probability. There is no effective targeted treatment for TNBC, but only adjuvant chemotherapies. There are two TNBC subtypes, basal-like and non-basal-like, which are defined based on positive cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. In particular, CK5/6 expression is reported to correlate with TNBC recurrence. TNBC lacks ER-α expression, but some TNBCs are known to express the androgen receptor (AR). Moreover, although p53 accumulation is detected in various malignant tumors, its influence on adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TNBC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the combined immunohistochemical expression of CK 5/6, AR, and p53 as a potential prognostic marker of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TNBC. The expression of CK5/6, AR, and p53 in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical sections from 52 patients with TNBC was analysed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the co-expression patterns in individual cells were investigated by immunofluorescent (IF) staining. Low AR expression was correlated with high clinical stage (P
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- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MYC transcription factor plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cellular transformation. Due to its oncogenic activities and over expression in a majority of human cancers, it is an interesting target for novel drug therapies. MYC binding to the E-box (5’-CACGTGT-3’) sequence at gene promoters contributes to more than 4,000 MYC-dependent transcripts. Owing to its importance in MYC regulation, we designed a novel sequence-specific DNA-binding Pyrrole-Imidazole (PI) polyamide, Myc-5, that recognizes E-box consensus sequence. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that Myc-5 binding sequence appeared in 5′ MYC binding E-box sequences at the eIF4G1, CCND1 and CDK4 gene promoters. Furthermore Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with detection by qPCR demonstrated that Myc-5 has the ability to inhibit MYC-binding at the target gene promoters and thus cause down-regulation at m-RNA level and protein expression of its target gene in human Burkitt's lymphoma model cell line, P493.6, carrying an inducible MYC repression system and K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukaemia) cell lines. Single intravenous injection of Myc-5 at 7.5 mg/kg dose caused a significant tumor-growth inhibition in a MYC-dependent tumor xenograft model without evidence of toxicity. We report here a compelling rationale for the identification of a PI polyamide that inhibits a part of an E-box-mediated MYC downstream gene expression and is a model for showing that phenotype-associated MYC downstream gene targets consequently inhibits MYC dependent tumor growth.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apocrine carcinoma is categorized as a special type of breast carcinoma because of its specific morphological features. To clarify the characteristics of apocrine carcinoma from the point of view of the mitochondrial profile, we conducted a comparative study between apocrine and non-apocrine carcinomas. The expressions of mitochondrial related factors (PGC1α, Nrf1, Nrf2, mtTFA and COX4) were examined in a testing set of breast cancer tissue. Apocrine carcinomas showed a clear tendency towards higher mRNA expression levels of PGC1α than non-apocrine carcinomas. The expression of the selected factor, PGC1α, as well as that of p62 was further examined. The results revealed that apocrine carcinomas showed a higher immunohistochemical positivity rate for PGC1α (21.3% vs. 3.2%; P = 0.008), and that the mRNA expression level of PGC1α was significantly higher in apocrine carcinoma than in non-apocrine carcinoma (P = 0.007). The immunohistochemical positivity rate for p62 protein was also higher in apocrine carcinomas (44.7% vs. 21.0%; P = 0.015), although no significant difference in the p62 mRNA expression level was detected between the two types of carcinoma (P = 0.633). In conclusion, this study revealed that apocrine carcinoma overexpressed PGC1α contributing to mitochondrial biogenesis, and also p62 protein accumulation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expressions in neuroblastomas (NBs) have been confirmed employing various methods. High SSTR-2 expression was suggested to be a favorable prognostic marker, though little is known about the relationships between the expressions of SSTR subtypes, other than SSTR-2, and prognosis. We investigated the expressions of all five known SSTR subtypes in 63 neuroblastic tumors (NTs), employing immunohistochemistry, and also conducted quantitative real-time RT-PCR in 37 of these tumors. We evaluated correlations between the expressions of SSTR subtypes and prognosis, based on the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification and patient outcomes. More than 90% of cases expressed, at a minimum, SSTR-1 and/or 2. Ganglioneuromas and ganglioneuroblastomas expressed more than two SSTR subtypes. Among NBs, the favorable histology group showed higher SSTR subtype expressions than the unfavorable histology group. The same tendency was observed when surviving and deceased cases were compared, though SSTR-2 expression was well preserved in some of the deceased cases. In conclusion, NTs highly expressed SSTR-1 and/or 2, and expressions of SSTR generally indicate a good prognosis. However, even those in the unfavorable histology group with NBs expressing SSTR are good candidates for molecular targeting therapy using somatostatin analogues.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma with rhabdoid features is a rare and aggressive subtype of pancreatic carcinoma. Here, we report the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical phenotypes in six autopsy cases of anaplastic carcinoma with rhabdoid features. The patients ranged between 44 and 76 years of age (median, 61 years) and consisted of four males and two females. All patients except one case died within 3 months of diagnosis, as these tumors were found at an advanced stage and were chemoresistant. At autopsy, tumor masses measuring 4-22 cm in maximum diameter were mainly located in the pancreatic body and tail. Microscopically, all cases showed anaplastic carcinoma with rhabdoid features that were discohesive with round to polygonal eosinophilic cytoplasm with occasional inclusions, and that had vesicular nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry showed that the rhabdoid cells, particularly the inclusions, were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin. Meanwhile, downregulation or aberrant cytoplasmic localization with focal aggregation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and EMA were frequently observed in the rhabdoid cells. Moreover, the intracytoplasmic inclusions were labeled with selective autophagy-related molecules including p62/SQSTM1, ubiquitin, and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1). In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and overexpression of its target molecule multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) were commonly observed in the rhabdoid cells. Therefore, these results suggest that p62-mediated aggregation of ubiquitinated intermediate filaments and membranous proteins is an important phenomenon in the rhabdoid phenotype. Indeed, the ubiquitinated aggregates of p62 and KEAP1 would induce activation of NRF2 and upregulation of MRP1, leading to potential chemoresistance of anaplastic carcinoma with rhabdoid features.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though carcinomatous metastasis to various organs, such as the lung and liver, occurs frequently in the end stage of cancer, gastric metastasis is relatively rare. We examined the endoscopic findings and pathological analyses of 16 metastatic gastric cancers from our hospital during the past twenty years. Out of 16 cases, there were a total of 10 primary organs, of which lung and breast cancers were the most frequent sources. In endoscopic diagnosis of the 16 gastric lesions, there were 7 (44%) cases of suspected metastatic tumor, compared with 4 (25%) and 5 (31%) primary and non-tumor lesions, respectively. There were 5 multiple and 11 single lesions of the stomach. There were 5 (31%) cases of metastasis to the stomach alone. Eight cases (50%) were found to be primary cancer and gastric metastasis during the same period. The longest term from the onset of primary cancer to the detection of gastric metastasis was 8 years 4 months. It is difficult to distinguish gastric metastasis from primary gastric cancer and benign ulcerative lesion endoscopically. Strict follow-up observation and pathological assessment of both primary site gastric lesions were important.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney (ASK) is a relatively newly recognized pediatric renal tumor. The present patient, a 13-year-old boy with a large renal mass, underwent surgery. Pathological findings showed proliferation of short spindle-shaped cells with anaplastic features including multiple foci in hyaline cartilage. Complex chromosomal abnormalities were detected in the tumor cells. Postoperative chemotherapy with the regimen for Ewing's sarcoma achieved complete remission but the tumor recurred and the patient died during re-induction chemotherapy. Autopsy indicated the cause of death as duodenal hemorrhage. Because there were no viable tumor cells, the recurrent tumor was considered to have been completely cured by chemotherapy. ASK is a very rare tumor, of unknown pathogenesis, and no standard treatment has yet been established, but the tumor cells may be responsive to chemotherapy. Further study is needed to establish the optimal treatment strategy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 14-year-old girl with acute lymphocytic leukemia complained of right flank pain and fever. As her fever was prolonged, she underwent renal biopsy and was diagnosed with mucormycosis. We performed right nephrectomy, and subsequent pathological examination of her tissue specimen also detected mucormycosis. Here, we report a rare case of renal mucormycotic abscess.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a type I transmembrane protein that is expressed on the surfaces of glandular epithelial cells. The extracellular portion of the pIgR is composed of 6 different domains. Domain 6 is involved in the enzymatic cleavage and release of the pIgR into the intestinal lumen as a free secretory component (fSC). A highly conserved 9-amino acid sequence is present in this region in various species. Although mutations in domain 6 are associated with particular diseases, such as IgA nephropathy and Epstein Barr virus-related nasopharyngeal cancer, and the glutamic acid residues in the conserved 9-amino acid sequence are expected to be indispensable for the secretion of fSC, the importance of these residues has not been examined. In the present study, we attempted to examine the role of these residues in the enzymatic cleavage of the pIgR. The enzymatic cleavage of the pIgR was not affected by the presence of an alanine to valine substitution at position 580 or glutamine to alanine substitutions at positions 606 and/or 607, or the deletion of the whole 9-amino acid conserved sequence. Intriguingly, the 10-amino acid sequences flanking the N- and C-terminal ends of the conserved 9-amino acid sequence had opposite effects on pIgR cleavage. Namely, the N-terminal and C-terminal sequences enhanced and reduced pIgR cleavage efficiency, respectively. These results indicated that the pIgR can be divided into several functionally distinct regions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with inoperable advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), histological subtyping using small-mount biopsy specimens was often required to decide the indications for drug treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of highly sensitive mRNA quantitation for the subtyping of advanced NSCLC using small formalin fixing and paraffin embedding (FFPE) biopsy samples. Cytokeratin (CK) 6, CK7, CK14, CK18, and thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 mRNA expression levels were measured using semi-nested real-time quantitative (snq) reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in microdissected tumor cells collected from 52 lung biopsies. Our results using the present snqRT-PCR method showed an improvement in mRNA quantitation from small FFPE samples, and the mRNA expression level using snqRT-PCR was correlated with the immunohistochemical protein expression level. CK7, CK18, and TTF-1 mRNA were expressed at significantly higher levels (P<0.05) in adenocarcinoma (AD) than in squamous cell carcinoma (SQ), while CK6 and CK14 mRNA expression was significantly higher (P<0.05) in SQ than in AD. Each histology-specific CK, particularly CK18 in AD and CK6 in SQ, were shown to be correlated with a poor prognosis (P=0.02, 0.02, respectively). Our results demonstrated that a quantitative CK subtype mRNA analysis from lung biopsy samples can be useful for predicting the histology subtype and prognosis of advanced NSCLC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that mediate the pattern recognition of, and response toward, pathogens and host-derived danger signals. We reported that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) mRNA were expressed in cases of endometriosis. The relationship between COX-2, mPGES-1, and TLR4 in endometriotic lesions has yet to be determined. Endometriosis samples were obtained from 37 patients with endometrial cysts. Endometrial tissues were obtained from patients undergoing surgical procedures for benign gynecological conditions. COX-2, mPGES-1, and TLR4 mRNA expressions were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and mPGES-1, and TLR4 protein localization was examined by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 proteins were mostly located to the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivities of TLR4 and mPGES-1 from endometriosis lesions were significantly higher than those in eutopic endometrium in the proliferative phase. The expression levels of mPGES-1 mRNA in peritoneal endometriosis were higher than those in eutopic endometrium in the proliferative phase. The expression of TLR4 mRNA correlates with that of mPGES-1 mRNA and not with that of COX-2 in endometriotic lesions. Relationship between TLR4 and mPGES-1 mRNA in endometriotic lesions indicate that innate immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemetrexed inhibits three key folate enzymes: thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT). The relationship between the clinical efficacy of pemetrexed and the expression of folate enzymes in lung cancer cells is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TYMS, DHFR, and GARFT expression affect the therapeutic efficacy of pemetrexed. Participants (n=50) were patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with pemetrexed. Samples were obtained by tumor biopsy before treatment. We isolated cancer cells from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using laser microdissection, and mRNA levels were analyzed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We assessed the association between TYMS, DHFR, and GARFT expression and the therapeutic efficacy of pemetrexed. The median age was 66.8 years. Compared to healthy tissues, the relative TYMS mRNA expression ranged from 0.001 to 41.613 (mean 4.638±1.357), and was significantly lower in responders compared to non-responders (1.671±0.844 versus 5.978±1.895, p=0.0142). Progression-free survival was prolonged in patients with lower TYMS mRNA expression compared to those with higher TYMS mRNA expression, but the difference was not statistically significant (18.0 versus 13.3 weeks, p=0.3001). DHFR and GARFT mRNA expression did not correlate with the efficacy of pemetrexed. We specifically analyzed TYMS, DHFR, and GARFT mRNA expression levels in lung cancer cells from biopsy specimens using laser microdissection. TYMS mRNA expression affected the therapeutic efficacy of pemetrexed and could therefore constitute a useful predictive biomarker for NSCLC patients receiving pemetrexed.
Nihon UniversityEdo, Tokyo, Japan