[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Mammary tumors were developed by intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in 21-day-old, sexually immature female Wistar rats. Injection of MNU was repeated 14 weeks after the first one. When palpable tumors were evident in all of the rats, various dietary treatments were initiated for a period of 8 weeks. The treatments were designed to provide 30 mg green tea extract either alone or as a nutrient mixture (E). E was then expanded to include either a nutrient supplement (N), quercetin (Q) or both (N+Q). At the end of the treatment, tumor size/rat measured in the live rats was significantly lower in the groups receiving E, E+Q, E+N and E+N+Q than in the positive control (PC) group which did not receive any dietary treatment. Tumor number/rat, tumor volume/rat and tumor weight/rat were evaluated after sacrificing the rats on the 60th day. The rats receiving E+N+Q showed significantly lower values for the three parameters as compared to the PC group. The PC group showed 24 carcinomas mostly of grade III severity, while the E+N+Q group had only 6 carcinomas, all of which were of grade II severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a main anticancer component in green tea, has a poor bioavailability in rats and humans due to oxidation, metabolism and its efflux. It was hypothesized that nutrients that address these problems might result in increased bioavailability. Plasma concentrations of EGCG at various time intervals were determined to calculate and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of green tea extract (GTE) or GTE as a nutrient mixture (E) or E + quercetin (Q)/red onions. In rat studies, supplementation of GTE with other nutrients (E) or E + Q raised the plasma C(max) from 55.29 +/- 1.70 to 61.94 +/- 1.70 ng/mL and 94.44 +/- 1.59 ng/mL, respectively. The corresponding t((1/2)) elimination was 2.04 +/- 0.2 h, 3.63 +/- 0.66 h and 2.28 +/- 0.049 h. The AUC(0-24h) were 510.16 +/- 9.88 for GTE, 601.72 +/- 19.10 ng.h/mL for E and 794.08 +/- 15.27 ng x h/mL (p < or = 0.05) for E + Q. In human studies when GTE was fed as GTE or E or E + red onions, the C(max) values were 348.4 +/- 76.6, 384.0 +/- 78.5 ng/mL and 468.4 +/- 131.4. AUC(0-8h) was 1784.1 +/- 56.06 (GTE), 1971.5 +/- 566.5 ng x h/mL (E) and 2490 +/- 878.1 (E + Q), but the change in t((1/2)) elimination was not significant.In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of EGCG by supplementing it with nutrients and quercetin.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Phytotherapy Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The whole cell of Bacillus pumilus was immobilized on different chitosan based materials while attempts were also made to immobilize carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme. The screening of materials for esterase activity resulted in the selection of biopolymer based beads as the potential material for whole cell and CA immobilization. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while physical characteristics like BET surface area, particle size etc. were also determined. Esterase activity and other parameters, like effect of swelling, were determined on immobilized cells. After cell immobilization, the esterase activities of chitosan-NH4OH beads, multilayered beads, and sodium alginate were found to be 42, 36, and 30.5U/ml, respectively, as compared to 27.15U/ml for the free organism.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea component, has been attributed with anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activities. The extent and rate of absorption of EGCG by the small intestine depends on various factors such as molecular size, lipophilicity, solubility, pKa, gastric and intestinal transit time, lumen pH, membrane permeability and first pass metabolism.
The bioavailability of EGCG can be increased by decreasing the presystemic elimination by stabilizing EGCG in the lumen, helping its transfer across the intestinal apical membrane and its accumulation and thus its availability by inhibiting phase I and II enzymes and phase III transporters. In a crossover study, five human volunteers were given a single oral dose of GTE (A), nutrient mixture (NM) containing GTE (B) and formulation B along with black grapes 250 g (C). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed by WinNonLin (Vs 5.0.1.) using a non-compartmental approach. Supplementation with nutrient mixture normally prescribed to cancer patients containing ascorbic acid, selenium, N-acetyl cysteine and other nutrients (formulation B) resulted in an increase of the systemic availability of EGCG by 14% and formulation C further increased it by 13%, thus leading to a total increase of 27%. Copyright
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Phytotherapy Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Dietary foods and fruits possess an array of flavonoids with unique chemical structure and diverse bioactivities relevant to cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have validated the inverse relation between the consumption of flavonoids and the risk of cancer. Flavonoids possess cancer blocking and suppressing effects. Flavonoids modulate various CYPs involved in carcinogen activation and scavenging reactive species formed from carcinogens by CYP-mediated reactions. They induce biosynthesis of several CYPs. They are involved in the regulation of enzymes of phase-II responsible for xenobiotic biotransformation and colon microflora. Since cytochromes P450, P-gp and phase-II enzymes are involved in the metabolism of drugs and in the processes of chemical carcinogenesis, interactions of flavonoids with these systems hold great promise for their therapeutic potential. The role of flavonoids also includes the inhibition of activation of pro-carcinogens, inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells, selective death of cancer cells by apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis and angiogenesis, activation of immune response against cancer cells, modulation of the inflammatory cascade and the modulation of drug resistance. This has greatly extended the goal of cancer therapy from eradicating the affected cells to control of the cancer phenotype. Phytotherapy is being used in combination with other therapies as phytonutrients have been shown to work by nutrient synergy.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Phytotherapy Research