Brad H Rovin

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (209)1214.72 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is well-established from autopsy studies that gouty tophi can form in the kidney, particularly in the renal medulla. Recently hyperuricemia has been identified as a risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because each collecting duct serves more than 2,000 nephrons, we postulated that obstruction or disruption of collecting ducts by medullary tophi may explain, at least in part, the association between hyperuricemia and progressive CKD. This work was done to determine the prevalence of medullary tophi in CKD patients. Methods: We queried our nephropathology database over the last 10 years for native kidney biopsies that had medullary tophi. The presence or absence of CKD and uric acid levels around the time of biopsy were determined by chart review. Results: Predominant medullary tissue was reported in 796 of 7,409 total biopsies, and 572 of these were from patients with established CKD. Medullary tophi were seen in 36 patients, 35 of whom had CKD, suggesting a minimum prevalence of tophi in CKD and no-CKD of 6.11 and 0.45%, respectively Medullary tophi occurred with and without hyperuricemia or a history of gout. Conclusion: Medullary tophi appear to be far more likely to occur in CKD compared to no-CKD patients. This cross-sectional study cannot determine whether medullary tophi are a cause or consequence of CKD. However, given their location and bulk, it is possible that medullary tophi contribute to progression of established CKD by causing upstream nephron damage.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Autoantibodies to complement C1q (anti-C1q) are associated with the diagnosis of lupus nephritis. In this study, we compare anti-C1q IgG with another complement autoantibody, anti-C3b IgG, as a biomarker of lupus nephritis and lupus nephritis flare. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Our investigation involved the Ohio SLE Study, a prospective observational cohort of patients with recurrently active lupus who were followed bimonthly. Serum anti-C1q and anti-C3b IgG levels were assessed cross-sectionally by ELISA in 40 normal controls and 114 patients in the Ohio SLE Study (41 nonrenal and 73 lupus nephritis) at study entry, and longitudinally in a subset of patients in the Ohio SLE Study with anti-C1q-positive lupus nephritis in samples collected every 2 months for 8 months leading up to lupus nephritis flare (n=16 patients). Results: In the cross-sectional analysis, compared with anti-C1q IgG, anti-C3b IgG was less sensitive (36% versus 63%) but more specific (98% versus 71%) for lupus nephritis. Only anti-C3b IgG was associated with patients with lupus nephritis who experienced at least one lupus nephritis flare during the Ohio SLE Study period (P<0.01). In the longitudinal analysis, circulating levels of anti-C1q IgG increased at the time of lupus nephritis flare only in patients who were anti-C3b positive (P=0.02), with significant increases occurring from 6 (38% increase) and 4 months (41% increase) before flare. Anti-C3b IgG levels also trended up at lupus nephritis flare, although the change did not reach statistical significance (P=0.07). Neither autoantibody increased 2 months before flare. Conclusions: Although not as prevalent as anti-C1q IgG, anti-C3b IgG showed nearly complete specificity for lupus nephritis. The presence of anti-C3b IgG identified patients with lupus nephritis who were prone to flare and in whom serial measurements of markers associated with complement, such as anti-C1q IgG, may be useful to monitor lupus nephritis activity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although an early decrease in proteinuria has been correlated with good long-term renal outcome in lupus nephritis (LN), studies aimed at defining a cut-off proteinuria value are missing, except a recent analysis performed on patients randomised in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, demonstrating that a target value of 0.8 g/day at month 12 optimised sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of good renal outcome. The objective of the current work is to validate this target in another LN study, namely the MAINTAIN Nephritis Trial (MNT). Methods: Long-term (at least 7 years) renal function data were available for 90 patients randomised in the MNT. Receiver operating characteristic curves were built to test the performance of proteinuria measured within the 1st year as short-term predictor of long-term renal outcome. We calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV). Results: After 12 months of treatment, achievement of a proteinuria <0.7 g/day best predicted good renal outcome, with a sensitivity and a specificity of 71% and 75%, respectively. The PPV was high (94%) but the NPV low (29%). Addition of the requirement of urine red blood cells ≤5/hpf as response criteria at month 12 reduced sensitivity from 71% to 41%. Conclusions: In this cohort of mainly Caucasian patients suffering from a first episode of LN in most cases, achievement of a proteinuria <0.7 g/day at month 12 best predicts good outcome at 7 years and inclusion of haematuria in the set of criteria at month 12 undermines the sensitivity of early proteinuria decrease for the prediction of good outcome. The robustness of these conclusions stems from the very similar results obtained in two distinct LN cohorts. Trial registration number: NCT00204022.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The kidney biopsy is used to diagnose and guide initial therapy in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Kidney histology does not correlate well with clinical measurements of kidney injury or predict how patients will respond to standard-of-care immunosuppression. We postulated that the gene expression profile of kidney tissue at the time of biopsy may differentiate patients who will from those who will not respond to treatment. Methods The expression of 511 immune-response genes was measured in kidney biopsies from 19 patients with proliferative LN and 4 normal controls. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies done at flare. After induction therapy, 5 patients achieved a complete clinical response (CR), 10 had a partial response (PR) and 4 patients were non-responders (NRs). Transcript expression was compared with normal controls and between renal response groups. Results A principal component analysis showed that intrarenal transcript expression from normal kidney, CR biopsies and NR biopsies segregated from each other. The top genes responsible for CR clustering included several interferon pathway genes (STAT1, IRF1, IRF7, MX1, STAT2, JAK2), while complement genes (C1R, C1QB, C6, C9, C5, MASP2) were mainly responsible for NR clustering. Overall, 35 genes were uniquely expressed in NR compared with CR. Pathway analysis revealed that interferon signalling and complement activation pathways were upregulated in both groups, while BAFF, APRIL, nuclear factor-κB and interleukin-6 signalling were increased in CR but suppressed in NR. Conclusions These data suggest that molecular profiling of the kidney biopsy at LN flare may be useful in predicting treatment response to induction therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Renal pathologists and nephrologists met on February 20, 2015 to establish an etiology/pathogenesis-based system for classification and diagnosis of GN, with a major aim of standardizing the kidney biopsy report of GN. On the basis of etiology/pathogenesis, GN is classified into the following five pathogenic types, each with specific disease entities: immune-complex GN, pauci-immune GN, antiglomerular basement membrane GN, monoclonal Ig GN, and C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenesis-based classification forms the basis of the kidney biopsy report. To standardize the report, the diagnosis consists of a primary diagnosis and a secondary diagnosis. The primary diagnosis should include the disease entity/pathogenic type (if disease entity is not known) followed in order by pattern of injury (mixed patterns may be present); score/grade/class for disease entities, such as IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and ANCA GN; and additional features as detailed herein. A pattern diagnosis as the sole primary diagnosis is not recommended. Secondary diagnoses should be reported separately and include coexisting lesions that do not form the primary diagnosis. Guidelines for the report format, light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, and ancillary studies are also provided. In summary, this consensus report emphasizes a pathogenesis-based classification of GN and provides guidelines for the standardized reporting of GN.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Noninvasive estimation of the degree of inflammation seen on kidney biopsy with lupus nephritis (LN) remains difficult. The objective of this study was to develop a Renal Activity Index for Lupus (RAIL) that, based solely on laboratory measures, accurately reflects histological LN activity. Methods: We assayed traditional LN laboratory tests and 16 urine biomarkers (UBMs) in children (n=47) at the time of kidney biopsy. Histological LN activity was measured by the NIH Activity Index (NIH-AI) and the Tubulointerstitial Activity Index (TIAI). High LN-activity status (vs. moderate/low) was defined as NIH-AI scores > 10 (vs. ≤ 10) or TIAI scores >5 (vs. ≤ 5). RAIL algorithms that predicted LN-activityNIH-AI and LN-activityTIAI status were derived by stepwise multivariate logistical regression, considering traditional biomarkers and UBMs as candidate components. The accuracy of the RAIL for discriminating by LN-activity status was determined. Results: The differential excretion of six UBMs (NGAL, MCP-1, ceruloplasmin, adiponectin, hemopexin, KIM-1) standardized by urine creatinine was considered in the RAIL. These UBMs predicted LN-activityNIH-AI status with >92% accuracy and LN-activityTIAI status with >80% accuracy. RAIL accuracy was minimally influenced by concomitant LN damage. Accuracies between 71 and 85% were achieved without standardization of the UBMs. The strength of these UBMs to reflect LN-activity status was confirmed by principal component and linear discriminant analyses. Conclusion: The RAIL is a robust and highly accurate noninvasive measure of LN-activity. The measurement properties of the RAIL, which reflect the degree of inflammatory changes as seen on kidney biopsy, will require independent validation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Lupus nephritis (LN) remains a kidney disease with significant unmet medical needs despite extensive clinical and translational research over the past decade. These include the need to (i) predict the individual risk for LN in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, (ii) identify the best therapeutic option for an individual patient, (iii) distinguish chronic kidney damage from active immunologic kidney injury, (iv) develop efficient treatments with acceptable or no side effects and improve the design of randomized clinical trials so that effective drugs demonstrate efficacy. This review discusses the underlying reasons for these unmet medical needs and options of how to overcome them in the future.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal
  • Brad H. Rovin

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Seminars in Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Since its incorporation into clinical practice in the 1950s, the percutaneous kidney biopsy has played an important role in advancing our understanding of lupus nephritis (LN). The biopsy findings have been used to classify and subgroup LN in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis and also to inform treatment decisions and predict prognosis. Several classifications schemes have been applied clinically however despite this evolution in histopathologic classification, our ability to predict treatment response and determine prognosis remains limited. In this review we will examine the evolving role of the kidney biopsy in the management of LN, including the potentially larger role the biopsy could play in the future.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Seminars in Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment response in lupus nephritis (LN) is defined clinically, without consideration of renal histology. Few studies have systematically examined histologic responses to induction therapy. In LN patients who underwent protocol kidney biopsies after induction immunosuppression, we describe the renal histology of the second biopsy and correlate histologic activity and damage with short- and long-term kidney outcomes. Patients with suspected LN were biopsied for diagnosis (Biopsy 1), and those with proliferative LN were rebiopsied after induction (Biopsy 2). Histologic activity and damage at each biopsy were calculated as the National Institutes of Health activity and chronicity indices. Complete and partial renal responses after induction and after long-term follow-up were determined clinically. One-third of patients who achieved a complete clinical response after induction had persistently high histologic activity, and 62% of patients who had complete histologic remission on rebiopsy were still clinically active. Chronic renal damage increased after induction even in complete clinical responders. Chronicity at Biopsy 2 associated with long-term kidney function and development of chronic kidney disease. Early clinical and histologic outcomes are discordant in proliferative LN, and neither correlates with long-term renal outcome. The kidney accrues chronic damage rapidly and despite clinical response in LN. Preservation of kidney function may require therapeutic targeting of both chronic damage and inflammation during LN induction treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: To validate clinical indices of lupus nephritis (LN) activity and damage when used in children against the criterion standard of kidney biopsy findings. In 83 children requiring kidney biopsy the SLE Disease Activity Index Renal Domain (SLEDAI-R); British Isles Lupus Assessment Group index Renal Domain (BILAG-R), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Renal Activity (SLICC-RAS) and Damage Index Renal Domain (SDI-R) were measured. Fixed effect and logistic models were done to predict International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) class; low/moderate vs. high LN-activity [NIH Activity Index (NIH-AI) score: ≤ 10 vs. > 10; Tubulointerstitial Activity Index (TIAI) score: ≤ 5 vs. > 5) or the absence vs. presence of LN chronicity [NIH Chronicity Index (NIH-CI) score: 0 vs. ≥ 1]. There were 10, 50 and 23 patients with class I/II, III/IV and V, respectively. Scores of the clinical indices did not differentiate among patients by ISN/RPS class. The SLEDAI-R and SLICC-RAS but not the BILAG-R differed with LN-activity status defined by NIH-AI scores, while only the SLEDAI-R scores differed between LN-activity status based on TIAI scores. The sensitivity and specificity of the SDI-R to capture LN chronicity was 23.5% and 91.7%, respectively. Despite designed to measure LN-activity, SLICC-RAS and SLEDAI-R scores significantly differed with LN chronicity status. Current clinical indices of LN fail to discriminate ISN/RPS Class in children. Despite its shortcomings, the SLEDAI-R appears to best for measuring LN activity in a clinical setting. The SDI-R is a poor correlate of LN chronicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Brodifacoum (BDF) is a superwarfarin that is used primarily as a rodenticide. There have been increasing numbers of reports of human cases of accidental or intentional BDF ingestion with high mortality rate. Its broad availability and high lethality suggest that BDF should be considered a potential chemical threat. Currently, there is no biomarker for early detection of BDF ingestion in humans; patients typically present with severe coagulopathy. Since we demonstrated earlier that warfarin can induce acute kidney injury with hematuria, we tested whether BDF would also lead to change in urinary biomarkers. BDF was administered to Sprague Dawley rats via oral gavage. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was given per os in drinking water 24 h prior to BDF. Urinalysis was performed at different times after BDF administration. Anticoagulation and serum creatinine levels were analyzed in the blood. We observed that within a few hours the animals developed BDF-dose-dependent transient hemoglobinuria, which ceased within 24 h. This was accompanied by a transient decrease in hematocrit, gross hemolysis and an increase in free hemoglobin in the serum. At later times, animals developed true hematuria with red blood cells in the urine, which was associated with BDF anticoagulation. NAC prevented early hemoglobinuria, but not late hematuria associated with BDF. We propose that transient early hemoglobinuria (associated with oxidative stress) with consecutive late hematuria (associated with anticoagulation) are novel biomarkers of BDF poisoning, and they can be used in clinical setting or in mass casualty with BDF to identify poisoned patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · American Journal of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic membranous nephropathy remains the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in Caucasian adults. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine (CSA) is often successful in reducing proteinuria, but its use is associated with a high relapse rate. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets CD20 on the surface of B-cells, is effective in achieving a complete remission of proteinuria in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, whether rituximab is as effective as CSA in inducing and maintaining complete or partial remission of proteinuria in these patients is unknown. The membranous nephropathy trial of rituximab (MENTOR) hypothesizes that B-cell targeting with rituximab is non-inferior to CSA in inducing long-term remission of proteinuria. Patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, proteinuria ≥5 g/24 h, and a minimum of 3 months of Angiotensin-II blockade will be randomized into a 12-month treatment period with IV rituximab, 1,000 mg (2 infusions, 14 days apart; repeated at 6 months if a substantial reduction in proteinuria (equal to or >25%) is seen at 6 months) or oral CSA 3.5-5 mg/kg/day for 6 months (continued for another 6 months if a substantial reduction in proteinuria (equal to or >25%) is seen at 6 months). The efficacy of treatment will be assessed by the remission status (based on changes in proteinuria) at 24 months from randomization. Patient safety will be assessed via collection of adverse event data and evaluation of pre- and posttreatment laboratory data. At the 6-month post-randomization visit, patients who have been randomized to either CSA or rituximab but who do not have a reduction in proteinuria ≥25% (confirmed on repeat measurements within 2 weeks) will be considered treatment failures and exit the study. This study will test for the first time whether treatment with rituximab is non-inferior to CSA in inducing long-term remission (complete or partial) of proteinuria in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although an early decrease in proteinuria has been correlated with good long-term renal outcome in lupus nephritis (LN), studies aimed at defining a cut-off proteinuria value are missing, except a recent analysis performed on patients randomised in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, demonstrating that a target value of 0.8 g/day at month 12 optimised sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of good renal outcome. The objective of the current work is to validate this target in another LN study, namely the MAINTAIN Nephritis Trial (MNT). Methods Long-term (at least 7 years) renal function data were available for 90 patients randomised in the MNT. Receiver operating characteristic curves were built to test the performance of proteinuria measured within the 1st year as short-term predictor of long-term renal outcome. We calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV). Results After 12 months of treatment, achievement of a proteinuria <0.7 g/day best predicted good renal outcome, with a sensitivity and a specificity of 71% and 75%, respectively. The PPV was high (94%) but the NPV low (29%). Addition of the requirement of urine red blood cells ≤5/hpf as response criteria at month 12 reduced sensitivity from 71% to 41%. Conclusions In this cohort of mainly Caucasian patients suffering from a first episode of LN in most cases, achievement of a proteinuria <0.7 g/day at month 12 best predicts good outcome at 7 years and inclusion of haematuria in the set of criteria at month 12 undermines the sensitivity of early proteinuria decrease for the prediction of good outcome. The robustness of these conclusions stems from the very similar results obtained in two distinct LN cohorts. Trial registration number: NCT00204022.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
  • Brad H Rovin · Jon B Klein
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    ABSTRACT: Proteomics has long been considered an ideal platform, and urine an ideal source for biomarker discovery in human autoimmune kidney diseases. A number of studies have examined the urine proteome to identify biomarkers of disease activity, kidney pathology, and response to therapy. Increasingly, proteomic studies of kidney disease have expanded to include blood, circulating cells and kidney tissue. Recently the clinical potential of renal proteomics has been realized through a handful of investigations whose results appear to be applicable to patient care. In this review, approaches to the proteomic evaluation of autoimmune kidney diseases will be considered in the context of developing clinically useful disease biomarkers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Clinical Immunology
  • Brad H Rovin · Isabelle Ayoub

    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Nature Reviews Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: A spate of recent publications describes a newly recognized form of glomerulonephritis associated with active staphylococcal infection. The key kidney biopsy findings, glomerular immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits dominant or codominant with IgG deposits, resemble those of IgA nephritis. Many authors describe this condition as "postinfectious" and have termed it "poststaphylococcal glomerulonephritis." However, viewed through the prism of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, the prefix "post" in poststaphylococcal glomerulonephritis is historically incorrect, illogical, and misleading with regard to choosing therapy. There are numerous reports describing the use of high-dose steroids to treat poststaphylococcal glomerulonephritis. The decision to use steroid therapy suggests that the treating physician believed that the dominant problem was a postinfectious glomerulonephritis, not the infection itself. Unfortunately, steroid therapy in staphylococcus-related glomerulonephritis can precipitate severe staphylococcal sepsis and even death and provides no observable benefits. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is an authentic postinfectious glomerulonephritis; poststaphylococcal glomerulonephritis is not. Making this distinction is important from the perspective of history, pathogenesis, and clinical management. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,214.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992-2015
    • The Ohio State University
      • • Center for Integrative Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Nephrology
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1990-1991
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States