Houshang Rafatpanah

Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran

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Publications (104)210.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an important health issue that affects a variety of endemic areas. The Khorasan province, mainly its capital Mashhad in northeastern Iran, was reported to be as one of these endemic regions. Torbat-e Heydarieh, a large city Southwest border to Mashhad with a segregated population was investigated for the prevalence and associated risk factors of HTLV-1 infection in 400 randomly selected individuals. Blood samples were tested for the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies via the ELISA method and then were confirmed by an Immunoblot test. For the presence of HTLV-1 in lymphocytes of infected subjects, PCR was performed on LTR and TAX regions. DNA sequencing of LTR fragment was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic of HTLV-1, using the Maximum likelihood method. HTLV-1 sero-reactivity (sero-prevalence) among the study population was 2% (8/400), of which 1.25% had HTLV-1 provirus in lymphocytes (actual prevalence). HTLV-1 infection was significantly associated with the age, marital status, and history of blood transfusion (p < 0.05). However there were no statistical differences between HTLV-1 infection, and gender, surgery, and hospitalization. In regression analysis, age showed the most significant correlation with the infection (p = 0.006, OR = 4.33). Based on our phylogenetic study, the HTLV-1 prevalent sequence type of Torbat-e Heydarieh belongs to the cosmopolitan subtype A. HTLV-1 prevalence in Torbat-e Heydarieh (1.25%) is low comparing to those of both Mashhad (2-3%) and Neishabour (3.5-5%) in the province of Khorasan. Thus, traveling mobility and population mixing such as marriage, bureaucratic affairs, occupation and economic activities could be the usual routs of HTLV-1 new wave of spreading in this segregated city. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an apoptotic molecule with a key role in the apoptosis of tumors and virus-infected cells. The association of 1525G/A and 1595C/T polymorphisms in the region of 3’ UTR on the TRAIL gene has been shown in many cancers and diseases. Polymorphism at the positions of 1525G/A and 1595C/T might influence the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the role of the TRAIL gene polymorphisms in clinical outcome of HBV infection. Patients and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) was applied to genotype TRAIL polymorphisms at positions 1525G/A and 1595C/T. To evaluate the TRAIL gene polymorphism in the 3’ UTR region at position 1525G/A and 1595C/T, 147 patients with HBV infection were divided into three different groups of chronic hepatitis (n = 52), cirrhosis (n = 33), and carrier (n = 62) and there was a group of 101 healthy controls. Results: Our data showed that genotypes 1525G/A and 1595C/T were in complete linkage disequilibrium and the genotype frequencies at the two positions were the same. No significant differences in frequencies of genotype and alleles at positions 1525G/A and 1595C/T were observed between all the three groups (P value > 0.05). Conclusions: According to our result, 1525G/A and 1595C/T were in strong linkage disequilibrium and the polymorphisms of the TRAIL gene in the 3’ UTR region were not associated with the outcome of HBV infection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Toxicology Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Three different concentrations of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) ethanolic extract, thymoquinone (TQ), dexamethasone, and saline were examined to see whether they had any effects on cell viability, proliferation, and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in non-stimulated, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concavaline A (Con A)-stimulated splenocytes. In PHA and Con A-stimulated splenocytes, cell viability and proliferation were increased and Con A shifted cytokine profile towards Th2 balance. Dexamethasone treatment showed a suppression in viability, IFNγ and IL-4 secretion in non-stimulated and stimulated splenocytes. Extract and TQ reduced the viability and inhibited the proliferation of stimulated and non-stimulated splenocytes concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of N. sativa (1000 mg/ml) and TQ (5 and 10 mg/ml) reduced the secretion of IL-4 in stimulated cells. Two higher concentrations of N. sativa had decreased IFNγ secretion in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells. In non-stimulated cells, only the highest and in Con A-stimulated cells, all TQ concentrations had inhibited IFNγ secretion. The highest concentration of N. sativa increased IFNγ/IL-4 ratio in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells while higher concentrations of TQ only had the same effect on stimulated cells. N. sativa and TQ showed cytotoxic inhibitory effect on rat splenocytes and on Th1/Th2 cytokines concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of extract and TQ increased cytokines balance in Th1/Th2.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Iranian chronic HBV carrier's population has shown a unique pattern of genotype D distribution all around the country. The aim of this study was to explore more details of evolutionary history of carriers based on structural surface proteins from different provinces. Materials and methods: Sera obtained from 360 isolates from 12 Different regions of country were used for amplification and sequencing of surface proteins. A detailed mutational analysis was undertaken. Results: The total ratio for Missense/Silent nucleotide substitutions was 0.96. Sistan and Kermanshah showed the lowest rate of evolution between provinces (P = 0.055). On the other hand, Khorasan Razavi and Khoozestan contained the highest ratio (P = 0.055). The rest of regions were laid between these two extremes. Azarbayjan and Guilan showed the highest proportion of immune epitope distribution (91.3% and 96%, respectively). Conversely, Sistan and Tehran harbored the least percentage (66.6% and 68.8%, respectively). Kermanshah province contained only 5.2%, whereas Isfahan had 54.5% of B cell epitope distribution. In terms of T helper epitopes, all provinces showed a somehow homogeneity: 22.58% (Fars) to 46.6% (Khuzestan). On the other hand, distribution of substitutions within the CTL epitopes showed a wide range of variation between 6.6% (Khuzestan) and 63% (Kermanshah). Conclusion: Further to low selection pressure found in Iranian population, the variations between different regions designate random genetic drift within the surface proteins. These finding would have some applications in terms of specific antiviral regimen, design of more efficient vaccine and public health issues.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes have demonstrated complex molecular responses to induced stress by ionizing radiation. Many of these reactions are mediated through modifications in gene expressions, including the genes involved in apoptosis. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on the apoptotic genes, expression levels. The secondary goal was to estimate the time-effect on the modified gene expression caused by low doses of ionizing radiation. Mononuclear cells in culture were exposed to various dose values ranged from 20 to 100 mGy by gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 source. Samples were taken for gene expression analysis at hours 4, 24, 48, 72, and 168 following to exposure. Expression level of two apoptotic genes; BAX (pro-apoptotic) and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) were examined by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), at different time intervals . Radio-sensitivity of peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) was measured by the Bcl-2/BAX ratio (as a predictive marker for radio-sensitivity). The non-parametric two independent samples Mann-Whitney U-test were performed to compare means of gene expression. The results of this study revealed that low doses of gamma radiation can induce early down-regulation of the BAX gene of freshly isolated human PBMCs; however, these changes were restored to near normal levels after 168 hours. In most cases, expression of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic gene was up-regulated. Four hours following to exposure to low doses of gamma radiation, apoptotic gene expression is modified, this is manifested as adaptive response. Modification of these gene expressions seems to be a principle pathway in the early radioresistance response. In our study, we found that these changes were temporary and faded completely within a week.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Medical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC) as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran. HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCR amplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls. HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01) among UC patients. This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC) as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran. HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCR amplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls. HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01) among UC patients. This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC) as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran. HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCR amplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls. HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01) among UC patients. This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC) as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran. HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCR amplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls. HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01) among UC patients. This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Suitable methods for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected patients are very crucial in resource-poor setting areas. Demographic data, clinical staging and laboratory findings for 112 HIV asymptomatic subjects were assessed at the first admission and the last visit from 2002 to 2010. On Cox regression analysis, hemoglobin (Hb) (HR=0.643, p=0.021) was predictive indicator for disease progression, however; in spite of having significant probability values, CD4, CD8 and platelet counts showed low hazard ratios. Hb and total lymphocyte count (TLC) demonstrated a phase of rapid declining rates (10.9 and 29.6%, respectively) from stage II to III. Lower count of CD4, platelet and Hb at the stage-I were associated with disease progression, and TLC was correlated with CD4 count at the last follow-up (p<0.001). However, WHO cutoff point of 1200 cell/mm(3) for TLC had 26.1% sensitivity and 98.6% specificity. Using ROC curve, TLC count of 1800 cell/mm(3) was more reliable in this region. Statistical analysis and data mining findings showed that Hb, TLC and their rapid decline from stage II to III and lower platelet count could be considered as valuable markers for introducing a surrogate algorithm for monitoring of HIV-infected subjects and starting anti-viral therapy in the absence of sophisticated detection assays.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's second most common infectious disease after Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AID) and the most frequent cause of mortality especially in developing countries. T regulatory (Treg) cells, which have suppressive activity and express forkhead winged-helix family transcriptional repressor p3 (FoxP3), suppress the immune responses against pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are controversial results regarding the role of FoxP3 expressing cells in the blood of patients with TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, and FoxP3 and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene expressions in peripheral blood of patients with tuberculosis and patients with positive tuberculin skin test before and after Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) activation with Purified Protein Derivative (PPD). In this cross-sectional study, Peripheral Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood of 29 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB and 19 patients with positive tuberculin skin test. The PBMCs were activated with PPD for 72 hours. Activated cells were harvested, RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized. A real-time Taqman method was designed and optimized for evaluation of Foxp3 gene expression and SYBR Green method was used and optimized for evaluation of CTLA-4 gene expression. A flow cytometry analysis was used to evaluate the frequency of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in both groups. There was no significant difference in the frequency of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells between the two groups. Expression of FoxP3 and CTLA-4 in peripheral blood of patients with newly diagnosed TB was significantly lower than the control group after and before activation with PPD. The expression of FoxP3 and CTLA-4 in PBMCs of patients with newly diagnosed TB was low, which might suggest that Treg cells may be sequestered in the lungs.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Northeastern Iran, particularly Mashhad city, is an endemic area for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) infection; although, there is no data on the prevalence of HTLVII in this region. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-II infection in general population of Mashhad. Methods: From general population of Mashhad, 1678 individuals were selected using multistage cluster sampling method. Serum samples were tested for the presence of HTLV antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. To confirm HTLV-II infection, TAX gene and long terminal repeat (LTR) region were amplified using designed specific primers by nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) technique. Findings: From 1678 individuals, 1654 serum samples were taken, of which, 56 were positive for HTLV antibodies via ELISA method. All reactive samples were examined by nested PCR for the presence of HTLV-II provirus. None of the cases were positive for HTLV-II infection. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate no evidence of HTLV-II infection in the general population of Mashhad. However, it is recommended to investigate the prevalence of the virus among high-risk groups, specially injecting drug users in this region. © 2015, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences(IUMS). All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Isfahan Medical School
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    ABSTRACT: Globally, almost 20% of cancers are related to infectious agents that can be prevented. Oncogenicity refers to viruses that may cause cancers, more importantly in immunocompromised subjects such as transplant and hemodialysis patients. Therefore, epidemiological studies are the first line for understanding the importance of these agents in public health, particularly, in mobile populations, tourism and pilgrimage regions. Oncogenic viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Epstein-barr virus (EBV) are the most common viral agents in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, human T lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I), due to endemicity in Khorasan Razavi province located northeast of Iran as a pilgrimage region, and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV), as an oncogenic herpesvirus in immunocompromised subjects have been investigated among the general population and those with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1227 randomly selected individuals; 25 donors and 195 patients with ESRD, including 60 kidney transplant recipients and 135 dialysis patients from the Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Serological tests were carried out using commercial enzyme-immunoassay kits. To confirm positive serology tests, the extracted viral DNA or RNA was examined for the presence of KSHV, HTLV-I and HCV by conventional PCR. The prevalence of KSHV infection in the general population was 1.71% (21/1227); 2.60% (10/384) males and 1.30% (11/843) females. In kidney transplants, viral infections occurred in 23.3% of subjects; including EBV, HTLV-I and HBV-HCV co-infection in 8.3%, 3.3% and 1.7%, respectively. In patients on hemodialysis, viral infections were present in 29.6% including EBV, HTLV-I and HBV-HCV co-infection in 2.2%, 5.9% and 16.3%, respectively. Seroprevalence of KSHV in patients with kidney transplants was 1.7% and in patients on dialysis was 3.0%. Furthermore, KSHV and HTLV-I genome was detected in 25% and 100% of seropositive subjects, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that these tumor virus infections including HTLV-I, KSHV and particularly hepatitis viruses (HBV plus HCV) are prevalent in the general population and in patients on hemodialysis, which might be an important health concern in this region due to the mobile population.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3, and IL-6 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has long been reported in literature. In this case-control study, the concentrations of these cytokines in altered T lymphocytes, as well as serum vitamin B12, have been compared in terms of factors such as, age, the clinical course and the patients' disease risk. 40 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria of AD were selected and an age- and gender-matched control group was recruited. The participants' cognitive performance was measured according to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and Clinical Dementia Ratio (CDR). The levels of cytokines were measured in supernatants of lymphocytes culture, using assays of ELISA and atomic absorption. Higher levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ were found more in the altered T lymphocytes of the AD patients rather than in the control individuals. Furthermore, a marginal significant difference was found between the TGF-β levels of the two study groups. Regression analysis of CDR score and cytokines showed the inverse significant correlation between CDR score and IFN-γ levels. Furthermore, the relation between MMSE scores and IFN-γ was significant, meaning that by increasing MMSE score, IFN-γ level was significantly increased. This study suggests that the levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ are significantly increased in altered T lymphocytes of AD patients, as compared to those who are not inflicted with AD, and that they are related to the patient's age. Also, IFN-γ is related to the severity stage of the AD.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and the most common gastrointestinal cancer in Iran. Chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5/RANTES) is one of the most potent angiogenic factors that plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. We aimed to assess the serum level of CCL5 in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and its relation with histological grade and tumor stage, as well as the disease prognosis. Methods Seventy-four patients with gastric adenocarcinoma that had undergone gastrectomy and 96 non-tumoral cases in which gastric cancer was ruled out by gastroscopy and biopsy were enrolled. Demographic and epidemiological characteristics and patient survival data were reviewed. Histological type, grade, and tumor stage (TNM) were determined by a single expert pathologist. Helicobacter pylori infection status and CCL5 serum level were measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma had significantly higher serum CCL5 level compared with control group (P
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a third leading cause of death. In this case control study, we prepared 5 cc bloods from the antecubital vein of 100 COPD patients and 40 healthy individuals as control group. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression protein level was measured by ELISA in both groups. We found that concentration of VEGF in blood serum of patients with COPD (189.9±16pg/ml) was significantly higher than the control group (16.4±3.48pg/ml) (p<0.001). While VEGF serum level in emphysematous patients wasn't significantly different with control group (p=0.07). Furthermore VEGF serum level in COPD patients was proportionally increased with severity of disease (p<0.001). Besides all COPD patients, regardless of their smoking status, were experienced significantly higher levels of VEGF than healthy ones (p=0.001; z=4.3). Our results suggest VEGF serum concentration as the sensitive index for severity and activity of COPD and its prognosis.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Publication Stats

739 Citations
210.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2015
    • Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Immunology Research Center
      Mashad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran
  • 2013
    • Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2011
    • Tehran University of Medical Sciences
      • School of Medical Biotechnology
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2005
    • Mexican Institute of Social Security
      Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 2004
    • The University of Manchester
      • Psychology Research Group
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom