T F Zipf

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (49)393.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who remained in remission after successfully completing therapy had leukemia cells detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (N Engl J Med 1997;336(5):317-23). These patients were treated by an institutional protocol (P89-04) that lacked the post-remission intensification features of the contemporary Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) based ALL protocols. In this report, we compared residual leukemia levels for patients on the P89-04 (n=15) and BFM-based Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies (n=23) and for patients stratified according to risk group. Our goal was to establish which risk factors correlated with level of residual disease. Patients enrolled on the CCG protocols had lower levels of residual disease after completion of therapy than the P89-04 patients (P<0.019). Patients with high-risk disease also had lower levels of residual disease than patients with low risk disease (P<0.0001). Three-way analysis including time off treatment, risk group determined by features at presentation, and treatment protocol showed that risk group was the only significant independent variable (P<0.001).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Leukemia Research
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    ABSTRACT: In a patient with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with eosinophilia that completely responded to induction chemotherapy, we assayed serial remission cerebrospinal fluid and bone marrow specimens for minimal residual disease using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to assess for clone-specific immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene cluster (IGH) gene rearrangement. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia and minimal residual disease were detected on day 406, preceding the morphologic diagnosis of central nervous system relapse on day 578. By day 841, the bone marrow had 35% blasts. Despite aggressive therapy, including unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation, the patient developed testicular and bone marrow relapses and died of disease. We conclude that increasing levels of minimal residual disease in cerebrospinal fluid can predict recurrence of ALL prior to clinical and morphologic relapse. Furthermore, we demonstrate a novel translocation in this tumor, the t(5;9)(q31;p24), that possibly led to fusion of the interleukin-3 (IL3) (5q31) and JAK2 (9p24) genes and may explain the concomitant appearance of eosinophilia and ALL.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Relapse is the major obstacle to cure for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT). Development of salvage therapy for post-transplant relapse could be expedited by understanding the post-transplant behaviour of microscopically undetectable leukaemia and the ability to predict impending relapse. We have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (sensitivity of 5.0 x 10-6) to measure residual leukaemia before the conditioning regimen, and at five time-points after transplantation. In total, 18 patients with ALL transplanted in first or second remission were studied for 1 year: For the first year post BMT, 12 remained in remission, four had haematological relapses, one had a cutaneous relapse, and one died of severe graft-versus-host disease. The post-engraftment levels of the leukaemia-specific immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain gene rearrangement for patients with haematological relapses were significantly different from those who remained in remission. The levels for the patients who remained in remission decreased with time, although there were occasional increases consistent with the known standard deviation of the measurement assay. In contrast, all clinical relapses were preceded by a rapid increase in levels. Both the rate of this increase and its timing were variable. These results suggest that residual leukaemia measurements can be used to direct post-transplant interventions and measure their effects.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2003 · British Journal of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: In this prospective cohort study, minocycline-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (M-EDTA) was used as a lock solution in indwelling ports inserted in 14 children with cancer. No port infections, thrombotic events, or other adverse events were observed, compared with 10 port infections that occurred in 48 control patients whose ports were flushed with heparin. M-EDTA is a promising lock solution in long-term catheters.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Clinical Infectious Diseases

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Fever and neutropenia (F&N) is a common complication of cancer chemotherapy. It is conveniently managed by hospitalization and empiric administration of parenteral antibiotics. This study attempted to determine whether pediatric cancer patients with F&N identified as low risk for morbidity and mortality by clinical criteria at the time of presentation could be treated safely as outpatients. Seventy-three episodes of F&N in 41 patients were studied prospectively over 2 years. Eligibility criteria included age > or =2 years, reliable caretakers, and residence within 1 hour of the hospital. Exclusion criteria included hemodynamic instability, dehydration, severe mucositis, pneumonia, leukemia/lymphoma induction therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or other serious comorbidity. Patients were evaluated, received a single dose of intravenous ceftazidime, and were observed for 3-16 hours. They were randomized to receive either oral ciprofloxacin or intravenous ceftazidime as outpatients. Patients were seen daily until they had been afebrile for at least 48 hours and had a rising absolute phagocyte count of >500 cells/microL. Sixty-three of 73 episodes (86%) were successfully managed on an outpatient basis. For 31 of 33 episodes in the ceftazidime arm, the patients remained outpatients, compared with 32 of 40 in the ciprofloxacin arm; this difference was not statistically significant. On average, patients remained febrile for 2.7 days and were treated for 4.7 days. Seventy-seven percent of episodes required no modification of initial antibiotic therapy. Of the 10 patients who were hospitalized, 4 had prolonged fever and 3 had emesis. Protracted neutropenia was associated with the need for hospitalization. There were no deaths, intensive care unit transfers, or serious complications. Carefully selected low risk children with fever and neutropenia can be treated safely as outpatients. Close daily medical scrutiny is required.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: To measure resource allocation in outpatient management of fever and neutropenia in low-risk pediatric patients with cancer and its impact on their families. A prospective clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients received a single dose of intravenous (IV) antibiotics and were observed for several hours in clinic. Patients were randomly assigned to continue either IV or oral antibiotics and were seen daily as outpatients. Charges were calculated based on the number of resources used and Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement schedules. A questionnaire was used to measure the impact of outpatient treatment on the family. Seventy-three episodes of fever and neutropenia were studied. The median duration of treatment was 4 days. Eighty-six percent of the episodes were managed without hospitalization. The median calculated charge was $1840. The median calculated charge for patients receiving oral antibiotics was $1544 and was significantly less than the $2039 median charge for outpatients treated with IV antibiotics. The estimated charge for comparable inpatient treatment was $4503. Nearly all families preferred outpatient care, and few reported a loss of work hours or increased child care expenses. Outpatient treatment of low-risk episodes of fever and neutropenia is substantially less costly than inpatient care and is preferred by most families.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1999 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: High-dose, continuous infusion of intravenous mercaptopurine (HD 6MP) followed by intermediate-dose continuous cytarabine (ID Ara-C) has been shown to produce remissions in children with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility of using this drug regimen as a component of treatment during the first remission of AML. Of 17 children with newly diagnosed AML registered in the study, 14 developed complete remission on conventional induction therapy and subsequently received the HD 6MP and ID Ara-C combination. The dosages of HD 6MP were escalated from 500 mg/m2 to 1250 mg/m2 in 24-hr infusions. The initial dosages of ID Ara-C were escalated from 250 mg/m2 to 650 mg/m2/24 hr and from 1 day to 4 days. Conventional treatment for AML was administered simultaneously. Seven of the 14 children remain in initial complete remission for 15 to 46 months and have completed treatment. Severe pancytopenia was observed in all patients, but there were no toxic deaths and no deaths during remission. The inclusion of HD 6MP and ID Ara-C in the treatment of AML in first remission appears to be feasible. Evaluation of its efficacy will require a comparative clinical trial.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Cancer Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Complete remission of B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has traditionally been defined as the near absence of lymphoblasts in a light-microscopical examination of stained bone marrow smears, but a patient in remission may still harbor up to 10(10) leukemia cells. We investigated whether there is a relation between the outcome of treatment and submicroscopic evidence of residual disease. We conducted a prospective study of patients during a first clinical remission using a quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay capable of detecting 1 viable leukemia cell among 200,000 normal marrow mononuclear cells and a clonogenic blast-colony assay. Bone marrow specimens from 24 children were sequentially evaluated during a five-year period, and the results were compared with the clinical outcome. Seven patients relapsed and 17 remained in remission 2 to 35 months after the completion of treatment. The levels of residual leukemia-cell DNA in the two groups were significantly different (P<0.001; 95 percent confidence interval for the difference in the mean log-transformed ratio of leukemia-cell DNA to normal bone marrow-cell DNA, 0.38 to 1.28). Autoregression analyses identified trends for individual patients that were associated with relapse. Despite continued remission in 17 patients, evidence of residual leukemia was detected by PCR in 15 and by both PCR and blast-colony assays in 7. Molecular signs of residual leukemia can persist up to 35 months after the cessation of chemotherapy in children with ALL in remission. This suggests that eradication of all leukemia cells may not be a prerequisite for cure.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder characterized by a poor prognosis. In recent years hematopoietic growth factors have been used to recruit myeloid leukemia blasts into the proliferative phase of the cell cycle and as supportive agents, both with cytotoxic regimens and in the setting of bone marrow transplantation. This approach prompted us to investigate whether myeloid growth factors have a role in Ph1 positive ALL. To do this, we utilized two newly established Ph1-positive cell lines, Z-119 and Z-181. Both lines have L2 morphology, ultrastructural characteristics of lymphoblasts and typical B-lineage surface markers identical to those observed in the two Ph1-positive ALL patients from whom they were derived. In addition, a single rearranged immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (JH) band was found in both cell lines by Southern blot analysis, confirming B-cell clonality. Cytogenetic analysis of the two lines revealed t(9;22). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified cDNA from both Z-119 and Z-181 cells revealed an e1--a2 BCR-ABL junction, and p190BCR-ABL protein was detected in them by the immune complex kinase assay. Both cell lines produce interleukin (IL)-1 beta, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), but neither IL-1 beta, G-CSF, their corresponding antibodies and inhibitory molecules, nor GM-CSF, affected the cell lines' growth. However, GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies inhibited Z-181 but not Z-119 colony formation in a dose-dependent fashion by up to 77% and addition of GM-SCF reversed this inhibitory effect. Receptor studies with radiolabeled GM-CSF demonstrated specific binding to Z-181 but not to Z-119 cells, and Scatchard analysis revealed that Z-181 cells express high-affinity GM-CSF receptors. Furthermore, PCR analysis showed that Z-181 but not Z-119 bears the transcript for the GM-CSF receptor. Finally, studies using PH1-positive ALL patients' marrow cells revealed similar data. In 3 of 8 samples we detected significant concentrations of GM-CSF (7.5-13 pg/2 x 10(7) cells) and in 2 of 3 cases GM-CSF significantly stimulated Ph1-positive ALL colony proliferation. These data suggest that Ph1-positive ALL cells may produce GM-CSF, express GM-CSF receptors and thus show a proliferative response to this cytokine.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1996 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied to detect occult leukemia cells in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are otherwise considered in complete remission by traditional morphological examination of bone marrow specimens. To determine whether PCR provides unique prognostic information of use for the clinical investigator, we reviewed the 20 clinical studies published to date. From this review, it is evident that discrepancies exist for the detection of residual disease for patients who remain in complete remission and for those who relapse. However, because of the fundamentally different approaches used to apply the PCR method to each of these studies, an entirely different interpretation can be reached when critical technical factors are considered. The combined data from the various studies suggest that a consistent pattern for residual disease disappearance over many months exists for patients who remain in extended complete remission and a pattern of residual disease persistence and reappearance preceding clinical findings exists for the majority of those who ultimately relapse in the bone marrow.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
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    ABSTRACT: The PCR technique appears to be the most sensitive method for detecting residual disease in ALL and can be applied to a high percentage of cases by amplifying sequences of the antigen-receptor genes. The PCR studies to date suggest that this sensitive technique can detect residual disease in virtually all patients during the first year of treatment. The residual disease becomes undetectable in the majority of patients by the end of treatment; however, a subset of patients remain PCR positive at a time when therapy is electively discontinued. The development of a highly accurate quantitative PCR technique may allow the possibility of distinguishing the patterns of residual disease for patients who will be cured by treatment from those who relapse. If such a pattern can be discerned, then an immediate benefit for PCR monitoring will be that clinicians will have the opportunity to test whether treating patients at the time of 'molecular relapse' will help to improve the cure rate for this disease. The PCR studies of remission marrows at the end of treatment raise a number of questions about the biology of disease persistence in patients who remain in extended 'remission.' A commitment to obtaining and analyzing bone marrow specimens in patients who have completed therapy is necessary to discern whether novel strategies, such as immunomodulatory manipulations, are needed to control or eradicated residual disease in patients who have completed planned chemotherapy. Thus, the long-term benefit of residual disease monitoring by PCR may be a better understanding of the biology and definition of 'cure' in ALL.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Cancer treatment and research
  • W M Roberts · Z Estrov · T F Zipf

    No preview · Article · Sep 1995 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied to detect occult leukemia (ALL) cells in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are otherwise considered in complete remission by traditional morphological examination of bone marrow specimens. The combined data from the clinical studies published to date suggest that a consistent pattern for residual disease disappearance over many months exists for patients who remain in complete remission for an extended period of time. Conversely, a pattern of residual disease persistence and reappearance preceding clinical findings exists for the majority of patients who ultimately relapse. The ability to detect residual ALL disease near the end of chemotherapy or after the completion of treatment in some patients who otherwise are deemed likely to be cured of their malignancy raises the possibility that mechanisms other than leukemia cell cytotoxicity are influencing the outcome for this disease.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1995 · Cytokines and molecular therapy
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    ABSTRACT: The detection of residual leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients during morphologic remission has been greatly facilitated by use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify leukemia-specific sequences. While the current PCR strategies for estimating the amount of residual leukemia claim a detection sensitivity of one leukemia cell amongst 10(5) or 10(6) normal cells, a rigorous assessment of the relative error associated with these techniques has not been presented. We have developed a method of estimating the amount of residual leukemia in remission marrows that is analogous to the limiting dilution assays used to determine the frequency of immunocompetent cells in a responder cell population. Using this method we measured the fraction of all-or-none (i.e. positive or negative) reactions of the PCR amplification of the leukemia-specific IgH gene rearrangement in replicate samples of serial dilutions of DNA obtained from diagnostic bone marrow specimens from 15 children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A sigmoid curve representing the fraction of positive PCR reactions at a given dilution of leukemia DNA was found to be the best fit to the data. The narrowness of the log-linear region of this curve prevents the direct application of the analysis methodology that has previously been described for limiting dilution assays. However, the residual leukemia burden during morphological remission in these 15 patients and in two additional patients who experienced relapse could be estimated by the described dilution analysis method using the best-fit equation. Furthermore, the data generated for diagnostic, remission and relapse marrow samples exhibited a small interspecimen variation. The results suggest that this method can reliably estimate residual leukemia over a range of five orders of magnitude. Although the PCR reaction appears to be one of the most sensitive methods for detecting residual leukemia, all techniques based on this procedure, including our own, must exhibit limitations inherent to the amplification process. Our estimates or relative error suggest that a realistic limit for the PCR estimation of residual leukemia lies in the range of one leukemia cell per 10(5) normal cells. The suggested method is rapid, technically simple and relatively inexpensive. Furthermore, the principles that it is based upon can be applied to any PCR-based strategy.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Leukemia
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage inflammatory protein-alpha (MIP-1 alpha), an 8-kDa peptide produced by stimulated macrophages, has been recently sequenced and cloned. In addition to its inflammatory effects, MIP-1 alpha inhibits proliferation of immature hematopoietic progenitors both in vitro and in vivo. Because the gene coding for MIP-1 alpha is expressed in peripheral blood cells obtained from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), we sought to evaluate the effect of MIP-1 alpha on AML precursors. We studied bone marrow samples from 21 AML patients using both the AML blast colony assay and the delta suspension culture assay. We found that recombinant human (rh) MIP-1 alpha significantly inhibits early and mature AML progenitors with sample-to-sample variability, by up to 79% at concentrations ranging from 40 to 1600 ng/ml. These results were obtained in the presence of fetal calf serum either alone or with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, or interleukin-3. In contrast, rhMIP-1 alpha (400 ng/ml) did not significantly affect normal colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), or burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) proliferation. These data prompted us to delineate the inhibitory mechanism of MIP-1 alpha. Consequently, we used the thymidine suicide technique to measure DNA synthesis in AML progenitors and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify intracellular levels of interleukin-1 beta in AML blasts following incubation with MIP-1 alpha. We found that whereas MIP-1 alpha prevented AML progenitors from entering the proliferative phase of the cell cycle, it had no effect on interleukin-1 beta levels. Taken together, our data suggest that MIP-1 alpha may have clinical benefits in therapy for AML and should be considered for evaluation in a clinical setting.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1994 · Leukemia

  • No preview · Article · May 1994 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: This phase I/II study was designed to explore the feasibility, toxicity, and potential efficacy of administering high-dose continuous intravenous mercaptopurine (6MP) followed by intermediate-dose continuous intravenous cytarabine (Ara-C) to children with relapsed or unresponsive acute leukemia. Twenty-three children with relapsed or unresponsive acute leukemia (13 myeloid, 10 lymphoid) were entered onto the study. After initial hydration and alkalinization, 1,000 or 1,250 mg/m2 of 6MP was administered by continuous intravenous infusion over 24 hours. Following another period of hydration, 500 mg/m2 of Ara-C was administered by continuous intravenous infusion daily for 4 days. In 17 children, plasma concentrations of 6MP were measured at hours 4, 24, and 27 of the 6MP infusions. Plasma concentrations of Ara-C were measured at hours 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 of the Ara-C infusions. Intracellular Ara-C triphosphate (Ara-CTP) concentrations were measured in peripheral-blood leukemia cells of the five patients with sufficient cells for measurement. Children who developed remission received repeated courses of this regimen every 3 to 4 weeks until relapse or completion of 12 courses. Of 13 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), six developed complete remissions (CRs) lasting 7 months to nearly 4 years. Two children remain in CR with normal growth, development, and health 3 years after cessation of treatment. Of 10 children with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), one had a CR of 2 months' duration. Dose-limiting toxicity consisted of severe hematosuppression with fever, neutropenia, and serious infection. There were two toxic deaths. The mean steady-state plasma concentrations of 6MP were approximately 4 mumol/L and of Ara-C approximately 3 mumol/L. The median Ara-CTP concentration in peripheral-blood leukemia cells was 308 mumol/L at hour 8 of the Ara-C infusion. High-dose continuous intravenous 6MP followed by intermediate-dose intravenous Ara-C produced CRs of longer than 6 months in approximately half of children with relapsed or unresponsive AML. Further study of this drug regimen is justified.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: No effective therapy is available for the majority of the 30-40% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who relapse. Since the morphologically undetectable, or occult, leukemia cells that persist during remission originate from the clone present at diagnosis, may also have both the capability to sustain the disease and to give rise to relapse, we are evaluating a method of identifying them. We have combined, for the first time, an ALL blast colony assay (BCA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to isolate residual leukemia cells in remission bone marrow aspirate specimens from eight patients with B-precursor ALL during early continuation therapy. We found colony-forming leukemia cells with in vitro self-renewal capability that survived chemotherapy for 15 months after diagnosis in all sequential specimens from these patients. To verify the leukemic nature of these cells their DNA was amplified by PCR and the product directly sequenced. In every case, the VHDJH sequence observed at diagnosis was found. None of the patients relapsed during this early phase of their treatment, consistent with the observation that patients with B-precursor ALL experience recurrence late in their course. Since it is possible that some of these persistent leukemia cells belong to the leukemia progenitor cell population that sustains the disease, the study of them could provide the means to determine the mechanisms of relapse.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Leukemia

Publication Stats

1k Citations
393.84 Total Impact Points


  • 2003
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1991-2003
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1993
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Division of Oral Pathology
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Alberta
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1988
    • Tom Baker Cancer Centre
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1985-1988
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Department of Hematology
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1984
    • The University of Calgary
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada