Carmen Pingree

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (29)194.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to re-examine diagnostic data from a state-wide autism prevalence study (n = 489) conducted in the 1980s to investigate the impact of broader diagnostic criteria on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case status. Sixty-four (59 %) of the 108 originally "Diagnosed Not Autistic" met the current ASD case definition. The average IQ estimate in the newly identified group (IQ = 35.58; SD = 23.01) was significantly lower than in the original group (IQ = 56.19 SD = 21.21; t = 5.75; p < .0001). Today's diagnostic criteria applied to participants ascertained in the 1980s identified more cases of autism with intellectual disability. The current analysis puts this historic work into context and highlights differences in ascertainment between epidemiological studies performed decades ago and those of today.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic studies of autism over the past decade suggest a complex landscape of multiple genes. In the face of this heterogeneity, studies that include large extended pedigrees may offer valuable insights, as the relatively few susceptibility genes within single large families may be more easily discerned. This genome-wide screen of 70 families includes 20 large extended pedigrees of 6-9 generations, 6 moderate-sized families of 4-5 generations and 44 smaller families of 2-3 generations. The Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR) provided genotyping using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12, a 6K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform. Results from 192 subjects with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 461 of their relatives revealed genome-wide significance on chromosome 15q, with three possibly distinct peaks: 15q13.1-q14 (heterogeneity LOD (HLOD)=4.09 at 29 459 872 bp); 15q14-q21.1 (HLOD=3.59 at 36 837 208 bp); and 15q21.1-q22.2 (HLOD=5.31 at 55 629 733 bp). Two of these peaks replicate earlier findings. There were additional suggestive results on chromosomes 2p25.3-p24.1 (HLOD=1.87), 7q31.31-q32.3 (HLOD=1.97) and 13q12.11-q12.3 (HLOD=1.93). Affected subjects in families supporting the linkage peaks found in this study did not reveal strong evidence for distinct phenotypic subgroups.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies found substantial variability in adult outcome for people with autism whose cognitive functioning was within the near-average and average ranges. This study examined adult outcome for 41 such individuals (38 men and 3 women) originally identified through an epidemiological survey of autism in Utah. Mean age at the time of their previous cognitive assessment was 7.2 years (SD=4.1, range=3.1-25.9 years) and at follow-up was 32.5 years (SD=5.7 years, range=22.3-46.4 years). Outcome measures included standardized assessments of diagnostic status, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior. Additional information collected concerned demographic variables, indicators of independence, social relationships, medical and psychiatric conditions, and social service use. Outcomes for this sample were better than outcomes described in previous work on individuals with similar cognitive functioning. For example, half of the participants were rated as "Very Good" or "Good" on a global outcome measure. As in previous studies, there was considerable variability in measured cognitive ability over time. Over half of the sample had large gains or losses of cognitive ability of greater than 1 standard deviation. Cognitive gain was associated with better outcome, as was better adaptive functioning. While all participants had baseline IQs in the nonimpaired range, there was limited evidence to support the use of other early childhood variables to predict adult outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Autism Research
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genome-wide scan on a six-generation pedigree from Utah with seven affected males, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Using a two-stage linkage design, we first performed a nonparametric analysis on the entire genome using a 10K SNP chip to identify potential regions of interest. To confirm potentially interesting regions, we eliminated SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) using a principal components analysis (PCA) method and repeated the linkage results. Three regions met genome-wide significance criteria after controlling for LD: 3q13.2-q13.31 (nonparametric linkage (NPL), 5.58), 3q26.31-q27.3 (NPL, 4.85) and 20q11.21-q13.12 (NPL, 5.56). Two regions met suggestive criteria for significance 7p14.1-p11.22 (NPL, 3.18) and 9p24.3 (NPL, 3.44). All five chromosomal regions are consistent with other published findings. Haplotype sharing results showed that five of the affected subjects shared more than a single chromosomal region of interest with other affected subjects. Although no common autism susceptibility genes were found for all seven autism cases, these results suggest that multiple genetic loci within these regions may contribute to the autism phenotype in this family, and further follow-up of these chromosomal regions is warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Though autism shows strong evidence for genetic etiology, specific genes have not yet been found. We tested for linkage in a candidate region on chromosome 3q25-27 first identified in Finnish autism families [1]. The peak in this previous study was at D3S3037 (183.9 cM). We tested this region in seven affected family members and 24 of their relatives from a single large extended Utah pedigree of Northern European ancestry. A total of 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed from 165 to 204 cM. The maximum NPL-all nonparametric score using SimWalk2snp was 3.53 (empirical p val ue = 0.0003) at 185.2 cM (SNP rs1402229), close to the Finnish peak. A secondary analysis using MCLINK supported this result, with a maximum of 3.92 at 184.6 cM (SNP rs1362645). We tested for alterations in a candidate gene in this region, the fragile X autosomal homolog, FXR1. No variants likely to contribute to autism were found in the coding sequence, exon-intron boundaries, or the promoter region of this gene.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Human Heredity
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal region 15q11-q13 has been implicated to harbor a susceptibility gene or genes underlying autism. Evidence has been derived from the existence of cytogenetic anomalies in this region associated with autism, and the report of linkage in a modest collection of multiplex families. Most recently, linkage disequilibrium with the marker GABRB3-155CA2 in the candidate locus GABRB3, located in this region, has been reported. We searched for linkage using eight microsatellite markers located in this region of chromosome 15 in 147 affected sib-pairs from 139 multiplex autism families. We also tested for linkage disequilibrium in the same set of families with the same markers. We found no evidence for excess allele sharing (linkage) for the markers in this region. Also, we found no evidence of linkage disequilibrium, including for the locus GABRB3-155CA2. Thus, it appears that the role of this region of chromosome 15 is minor, at best, in the majority of individuals with autism.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal region 15q11-q13 has been implicated to harbor a susceptibility gene or genes underlying autism. Evidence has been derived from the existence of cytogenetic anomalies in this region associated with autism, and the report of linkage in a modest collection of multiplex families. Most recently, linkage disequilibrium with the marker GABRB3-155CA2 in the candidate locus GABRB3, located in this region, has been reported. We searched for linkage using eight microsatellite markers located in this region of chromosome 15 in 147 affected sib-pairs from 139 multiplex autism families. We also tested for linkage disequilibrium in the same set of families with the same markers. We found no evidence for excess allele sharing (linkage) for the markers in this region. Also, we found no evidence of linkage disequilibrium, including for the locus GABRB3-155CA2. Thus, it appears that the role of this region of chromosome 15 is minor, at best, in the majority of individuals with autism. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 88:551–556, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a genome screen of autism, by linkage analysis in an initial set of 90 multiplex sibships, with parents, containing 97 independent affected sib pairs (ASPs), with follow-up in 49 additional multiplex sibships, containing 50 ASPs. In total, 519 markers were genotyped, including 362 for the initial screen, and an additional 157 were genotyped in the follow-up. As a control, we also included in the analysis unaffected sibs, which provided 51 discordant sib pairs (DSPs) for the initial screen and 29 for the follow-up. In the initial phase of the work, we observed increased identity by descent (IBD) in the ASPs (sharing of 51.6%) compared with the DSPs (sharing of 50.8%). The excess sharing in the ASPs could not be attributed to the effect of a small number of loci but, rather, was due to the modest increase in the entire distribution of IBD. These results are most compatible with a model specifying a large number of loci (perhaps >/=15) and are less compatible with models specifying </=10 loci. The largest LOD score obtained in the initial scan was for a marker on chromosome 1p; this region also showed positive sharing in the replication family set, giving a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.15 for both sets combined. Thus, there may exist a gene of moderate effect in this region. We had only modestly positive or negative linkage evidence in candidate regions identified in other studies. Our results suggest that positional cloning of susceptibility loci by linkage analysis may be a formidable task and that other approaches may be necessary.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1999 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested a role for the histocompatibility complex of loci (HLA) in the genetic susceptibility to autism. We have tested this hypothesis by linkage analysis using genetic marker loci in the HLA region on chromosome 6p in multiplex families with autism. We have examined sharing of alleles identical by descent in 97 affected sib pairs from 90 families. Results demonstrate no deviation from the null expectation of 50% sharing of alleles in this region; in fact, for most marker loci, the observed sharing was less than 50%. Thus, it is unlikely that loci in this region contribute to the genetic etiology of autism to any significant extent in our families.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic factors undoubtedly play a major etiologic role in autism, but how it is inherited remains unanswered. The increased incidence in males suggests possible involvement of the X chromosome. Using data from 38 multiplex families with autism (2 or more autistic siblings), we performed a multipoint sib-pair linkage analysis between autism and 35 microsatellite markers located on the X chromosome. The model included a single parameter, the risk ratio lambda xs (i.e., ratio of risk to siblings compared with the population prevalence), owing to an X-linked gene. Different lambda xs values were assumed and regions of exclusion were established. The entire X chromosome could be excluded for a lambda xs value of 4. The ability to exclude an X-linked gene decreased with smaller lambda xs values, and some positive evidence was obtained with smaller values. A maximum lod score of 1.24 was obtained at locus DXS424 with a lambda xs value of 1.5. We were able to exclude any moderate to strong gene effect causing autism on the X chromosome. Smaller gene effects (lambda xs < 4) could not be excluded, in particular, a gene of small effect located between DXS453 and DXS1001.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · Archives of General Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Despite strong genetic influences in autism, the true mode of inheritance remains unknown. Sex differences in autism have been described in both singleton and multiplex families [Lord et al., 1982; Volkmar et al., 1993; McLennan et al., 1993; Lord, 1992]: Boys outnumber girls by 3 or 4 to 1, and so a sex-linked mode of transmission must also be considered. The key characteristic of X-linkage is that all sons of affected men are unaffected (no male-to-male transmission). In the present study, which is part of an ongoing linkage project in autism, we describe 77 multiplex autism families, 11 of who are affected cousin or half-sibling families. By using these families, it is possible to trace the path of genetic transmission and observe whether the hypothesis of X-linkage is tenable. Of 11 extended pedigrees from 77 multiplex families, six show male-to-male transmission; in these families, X-linkage can be excluded as the genetic basis for their autism. The data from the other five families are compatible with either an autosomal or an X-linked mode of transmission. The key point to emerge, then, is that autism cannot be exclusively an X-linked disorder; there must be an autosomal mode of transmission at least in some families. Thus we must consider the alternative hypotheses that autism is either entirely autosomal, or it is genetically heterogeneous, involving at least one autosomal locus with genderspecific expression, as well as a possible locus on the X-chromosome.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 2%-5% of autistic children show cytogenetic evidence of the fragile X syndrome. This report tests whether infantile autism in multiplex autism families arises from an unusual manifestion of the fragile X syndrome. This could arise either by expansion of the (CGG)n trinucleotide repeat in FMR-1 or from a mutation elsewhere in the gene. We studied 35 families that met stringent criteria for multiplex autism. Amplification of the trinucleotide repeat and analysis of methylation status were performed in 79 autistic children and in 31 of their unaffected siblings, by Southern blot analysis. No examples of amplified repeats were seen in the autistic or control children or in their parents or grandparents. We next examined the hypothesis that there was a mutation elsewhere in the FMR-1 gene, by linkage analysis in 32 of these families. We tested four different dominant models and a recessive model. Linkage to FMR-1 could be excluded (lod score between -24 and -62) in all models by using probes DXS548, FRAXAC1, and FRAXAC2 and the CGG repeat itself. Tests for heterogeneity in this sample were negative, and the occurrence of positive lod scores in this data set could be attributed to chance. Analysis of the data by the affected-sib method also did not show evidence for linkage of any marker to autism. These results enable us to reject the hypothesis that multiplex autism arises from expansion of the (CGG)n trinucleotide repeat in FMR-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1994 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from twin and family studies strongly suggests that genetic factors play a prominent role in the etiology of some cases of infantile autism. Genetic factors would be expected to be especially strong in families with multiple autistic members (multiplex families). This report describes the identification and evaluation of 44 families with two or more autistic children collected as part of a genetic linkage study in autism. Families were referred with a presumptive classification of multiplex autism. Children referred as autistic, as well as their presumptively normal siblings, were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (ADOS). Thirty-seven of the 44 families (87%) had at least two children who met diagnostic criteria for autism on the ADI. Of the total group of 117 children evaluated in those families, 83 (71%) met all ADI criteria and could be unambiguously classified as autistic (affected), 26 (22%) met none of the ADI criteria and were classified as not autistic (unaffected), and 8 (7%) were classified as uncertain because they met one or more but not all of the ADI cutpoints. Autistic siblings were not significantly concordant for most autism characteristics, for IQ, or for verbal ability. Significant concordances were found, however, for behaviors related to rituals and repetitive play, and for social impairments in the expression and understanding of facial expressions of emotion. The results of this study suggests two major points: first, there does not appear to be a highly variable autistic phenotype expressed in multiplex families; in the vast majority of cases, children are either clearly affected or clearly unaffected, so that linkage analysis should not be complicated by a large number of ambiguous or uncertain cases. Second, multiplex families do not appear to associate into subgroups defined by clustering of specific autism behaviors. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1994 · American Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the complement C4B null allele appears to be associated with infantile autism. Since the C4B null allele is known to be part of the extended or ancestral haplotype [B44-SC30-DR4], we investigated the incidence of [B44-SC30-DR4] in 21 autistic children and their parents. This extended haplotype was increased by almost six-fold in the autistic subjects as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the total number of extended haplotypes expressed on chromosomes of autistic subjects was significantly increased as compared with those expressed on chromosomes of healthy subjects. We conclude that a gene related to, or included in, the extended major histocompatibility complex may be associated with autism.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1992 · Immunogenetics
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    ABSTRACT: A complex segregation analysis of autism in 185 Utah families was carried out using the mixed model. The 209 affected individuals in these families represent nearly complete ascertainment of the autistic cases born in Utah between 1965 and 1984. The sibling recurrence risk for autism was 4.5% (95% confidence limits 2.8%-6.2%). Likelihoods were maximized for major-gene models, a polygenic model, a sibling-effect model, and a mixed model consisting of major-gene and shared-sibling effects. The analysis provided no evidence for major-locus inheritance of autism. Subdivision of the sample according to the probands' IQ levels showed that sibling recurrence risk did not vary consistently with IQ level. A segregation analysis of families in which the proband had an IQ less than 50 also failed to provide evidence for a major locus. However, because of the etiologic heterogeneity of this disorder, genetic analysis of other meaningful subsets of families could prove informative.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1991 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    R P Warren · V K Singh · P Cole · J D Odell · C B Pingree · W L Warren · E White
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    ABSTRACT: Associations between C4 deficiency and autoimmune disorders have been found over the past several years. Since autism has several autoimmune features, the frequencies of null (no protein produced) alleles at the C4A and C4B loci were studied in 19 subjects with autism and their family members. The autistic subjects and their mothers had significantly increased phenotypic frequencies of the C4B null allele (58% in both the autistic subjects and mothers, compared with 27% in control subjects). The siblings of the autistic subjects also had an increased frequency of the C4B null allele, but this increase was not significant. The fathers had normal frequencies of this null allele. All family members had normal frequencies of the C4A null allele, all normal C4A and C4B alleles and all BF and C2 alleles.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1991 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Twelve rare diseases known to cause CNS pathology were found in 26 (11%) of 233 autistic probands identified during a recent epidemiologic survey of Utah. These 26 probands had significantly lower mean IQs than the remaining patients (43 versus 60) but similar sex distribution and prevalence of abnormal EEGs and seizures. The rarity and diversity of these 12 diseases make it highly unlikely that they randomly occurred with autism. Their presence in this epidemiologic survey is the most compelling evidence to date to support the hypothesis that different diseases producing different types of CNS pathology can play an etiologic role in autism.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1991 · American Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal antibodies reactive with antigenic proteins expressed on the cell surface of paternal lymphocytes can be detected in couples with histories of more than one miscarriage or stillbirth. It is possible, but not proven, that these antibodies also react with tissues of the fetus and result in fetal death. Since many mothers of autistic children have a history of pregnancy disorder, antibodies were studied in 11 mothers of autistic children who were 6 years of age or younger. Six of the mothers had antibodies that reacted with lymphocytes of the autistic child. Five of these six mothers had a history of pregnancy disorder. Since antigens expressed on lymphocytes are found on cells of the central nervous system and, perhaps, other tissues of the developing embryo, it is suggested that aberrant maternal immunity may be associated with the development of some cases of infantile autism.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1990 · Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent epidemiologic survey conducted in Utah, 241 autistic patients (DSM-III criteria) were found. Medical records of 233 autistics were surveyed for the presence of 36 potentially pathologic prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors. These results were compared with those of an identical survey of 62 of their nonautistic siblings, with the results of four previously published surveys, and with normative data. No potentially pathologic factor or group of factors occurred significantly more frequently among the autistic patients. Also, previous observations of significant differences in the occurrence of certain factors in the histories single vs multiple siblings with autism were not confirmed, with the exception of increased viral-type illness during gestation in single-incidence cases. Thus, the etiology of the brain pathology that characteristically disrupts normal development and produces the syndrome of autism remains obscure. Other data from the epidemiologic survey, however, suggest that the role of genetic factors needs to be explored further.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1990 · Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: To assess familial aggregation of autism, 86 autistic subjects were linked to the Utah Genealogical Database. Kinship coefficients were estimated for all possible pairs of autistic subjects and then averaged. Fifty replicate sets of matched control subjects (86 members in each set) were drawn randomly from the database, and the average kinship coefficient was computed for all possible pairs of individuals in each set. The average kinship coefficient for the autistic subjects was approximately 1/1,000, while the average kinship coefficients for the 50 control groups ranged from 4/100,000 to 1.6./10,000. These results indicate a strong tendency for autism to cluster in families. When kinship was analyzed by specific degrees of relationship, it was shown that the familial aggregation of autism is confined exclusively to sib pairs and does not extend to more remote degrees of relationship. This finding indicates that a single-gene model is unlikely to account for most cases of autism.
    Preview · Article · May 1990 · American Journal of Medical Genetics

Publication Stats

2k Citations
194.70 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-2009
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 1999
    • Edith Cowan University
      Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1991-1992
    • Utah State University
      • Department of Biology
      Logan, Ohio, United States
  • 1990-1991
    • Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1989
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1988-1989
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Adult Psychiatry
      Los Ángeles, California, United States