[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After receiving a TCR-mediated differentiation signal, CD4 and CD8 double-positive thymocytes diverge into CD4 or CD8 single-positive T cells, for which Th-POK and Runx3 have been identified as pivotal transcription factors, respectively. The cross-antagonistic regulation of Th-POK and Runx3 seems to be essential for CD4/8 thymocyte lineage commitment. However, the process for determining which pivotal factor acts dominantly has not been established. To explore the determining process, we used an in vitro culture system in which CD4 or CD8 single-positive cells are selectively induced from CD4/8 double-positive cells. Surprisingly, we found that control of G(1) cell cycle phase progression is critical for the determination. In the CD4 pathway, sustained TCR signal, as well as Th-POK, induces G(1)-phase extension and represses CD8 expression in a G(1) extension-dependent manner. In the CD8 pathway, after receiving a transient TCR signal, the IL-7R signal, as well as Runx3, antagonizes TCR signal-mediated G(1) extension and CD8 repression. Importantly, forced G(1) extension cancels the functions of Runx3 to repress Th-POK and CD4 and to reactivate CD8. In contrast, it is suggested that forced G(1) progression inhibits Th-POK function to repress CD8. Collectively, Th-POK and Runx3 are reciprocally involved in the control of G(1)-phase progression, on which they exert their functions dependently. These findings may provide novel insight into how CD4/CD8 cell lineages are determined by Th-POK and Runx3.
Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a novel approach to distinguish skeletal myogenic cell populations, basal lamina (BL) formation of myogenic cells was examined in the mouse compensatory enlarged plantaris muscles in vivo and in fiber-bundle cultures in vitro. MyoD(+) myogenic cells located inside the regenerative muscle fiber BL were laminin(-) but interstitial MyoD(+) cells were laminin(+). This was also confirmed by electron microscopy as structural BL formation. Similar trends were observed in the fiber-bundle cultures including satellite cells and interstitial myogenic cells and laminin(+) myogenic cells predominantly showed non-adhesive (non-Ad) behavior with Pax7(-), whereas laminin(-) cells were adhesive (Ad) with Pax7(+). Moreover, non-Ad/laminin(+) and Ad/laminin(-) myotubes were also observed and the former type showed spontaneous contractions, while the latter type did not. The origin and hierarchy of Ad/Pax7(+)/laminin(-) and non-Ad/Pax7(-)/laminin(+) myogenic cells were also examined using skeletal muscle interstitium-derived CD34(+)/45(-) (Sk-34) and CD34(-)/45(-) (Sk-DN) multipotent stem cells, which were composed of non-committed myogenic cells with a few (<1%) Pax7(+) cells in the Sk-DN cells at fresh isolation. Both cell types were separated by Ad/non-Ad capacity in repetitive culture. As expected, both Ad/Pax7(+)/laminin(-) and non-Ad/Pax7(-)/laminin(+) myogenic cells consistently appeared in the Ad and non-Ad cell culture. However, Ad/Pax7(+)/laminin(-) cells were repeatedly detected in the non-Ad cell culture, while the opposite phenomenon did not occur. This indicates that the source of non-Ad/ Pax7(-)/laminin(+) myogenic cells was present in the Sk-34 and Sk-DN stem cells and they were able to produce Ad/ Pax7(+)/ laminin(-) myogenic cells during myogenesis as primary myoblasts and situated hierarchically upstream of the latter cells.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Cell and Tissue Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to hold non-adhesive type cells while maintaining cellular interactions and various autocrine/paracrine factors, a micro 3D culture system using Hyaluronan (HA)-type I collagen capsules was investigated as a possible scaffold for cell transplantation. Skeletal muscle-derived enzymatically extracted cells, which include numerous non-adhesive type stem cells were cultured in conventional liquid DMEM with and without encapsulation in HA-collagen capsules, and cellular proliferation/differentiation were compared. Results indicate that encapsulation does not disturb any cellular proliferation/differentiation after 7 days of culture. Gradual increases in vascular endothelial growth factor are also confirmed in HA-collagen culture, which may be induced by slower diffusion of autocrine/paracrine factors in the capsule and may benefit cellular proliferation/differentiation. Cell-holding capacity of encapsulation was also tested by in vivo transplantation into wide-open muscle scars without fascia. Encapsulation significantly contributes to higher donor cell implantation ratio and damaged muscle mass recovery than that of non-capsulation.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · The Open Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ALS2/alsin is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rab5 and involved in macropinocytosis-associated endosome fusion and trafficking, and neurite outgrowth. ALS2 deficiency accounts for a number of juvenile recessive motor neuron diseases (MNDs). Recently, it has been shown that ALS2 plays a role in neuroprotection against MND-associated pathological insults, such as toxicity induced by mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between ALS2-associated cellular function and its neuroprotective role remain unclear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells other than satellite cells that can give rise to primary myoblasts, which are able to form additional new fibers postnatally, are present in the interstitial spaces of skeletal muscle. These cells are sorted into CD34(+)/45(-) (Sk-34) and CD34(-)/45(-) (Sk-DN) cell fractions, and they are wholly (>99%) negative for Pax7 at initial isolation. Colony-forming units of these cells typically include non-adherent type myogenic cells, while satellite cells are known to be adherent in cell culture. In addition, both Pax7(-) and Pax7(+) cells are produced, depending on asymmetric cell division. A large number of myotubes are also formed in each colony, thus suggesting that putative Pax7(+) satellite cells also present in each colony. Interestingly, interstitial myogenic cells show basal lamina formation at early stages of myogenesis in response to various types of stimulation in compensatory enlarged muscle, a property that satellite cells do not possess in the parent fiber basal lamina cylinder. Basal lamina formation and production of satellite cells are essential before muscle fiber establishment in vivo. It is therefore likely that myogenic cells in skeletal muscle can be divided into two populations: 1) basal lamina-producing myogenic cells; and 2) basal lamina-non-producing myogenic cells. The latter population may be Pax7(+) satellite cells showing adherent capacity in cell culture, while the lamina-producing myogenic population derived from interstitial multipotent stem cells, which is predominant among Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells, plays a role in primary myoblast generation and shows non-adherent behavior in culture. Therefore, the physiological role of interstitial myogenic cells is as a source for new postnatal muscle fiber formation, and multinucleated muscle fibers (cells) are potentially formed clonally.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Current pharmaceutical design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND.: Postoperative neurogenic bladder dysfunction is a major complication of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer and is mainly caused by unavoidable damage to the bladder branch of the pelvic plexus (BBPP) associated with colateral blood vessels. Thus, we attempted to reconstitute disrupted BBPP and blood vessels using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells that show synchronized reconstitution capacity of vascular, muscular, and peripheral nervous systems. METHODS.: Under pentobarbital anesthesia, intravesical pressure by electrical stimulation of BBPP was measured as bladder function. The distal portion of BBPP with blood vessels was then cut unilaterally (experimental neurogenic bladder model). Measurements were performed before, immediately after, and at 4 weeks after transplantation as functional recovery. Stem cells were obtained from the right soleus and gastrocnemius muscles after enzymatic digestion and cell sorting as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN). Suspended cells were autografted around the damaged region, whereas medium alone and CD45 cells were transplanted as control groups. To determine the morphological contribution of the transplanted cells, stem cells obtained from green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse muscles were transplanted into a nude rat model and were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS.: At 4 weeks after surgery, the transplantation group showed significantly higher functional recovery ( approximately 80%) than the two controls ( approximately 28% and 24%). The transplanted cells showed an incorporation into the damaged peripheral nerves and blood vessels after differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts around the bladder. CONCLUSION.: Transplantation of multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of damaged BBPP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differentiation and/or therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells for cardiac infarction have been studied extensively for use in cellular cardiomyoplasty, as injured cardiomyocytes exhibit limited regenerative capacity. We previously reported cardio-myogenic differentiation of skeletal muscle-derived CD34+/45(-) (Sk-34) stem cells after therapeutic transplantation. However, the clonal differentiation potential of these cells remains unknown. Here, we show that skeletal muscle-derived CD34(-)/45(-) (Sk-DN) stem cells, which are situated upstream of Sk-34 cells in the same lineage, exhibit clonal differentiation into cardiomyocytes after single cell-derived single-sphere implantation into myocardium. Sk-DN cells were enzymatically isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and purified by flow cytometry, and were then clonally cultured in collagen-based medium with bFGF and EGF after clonal cell sorting. Single cell-derived single-sphere colonies of Sk-DN cells were directly implanted into the wild-type mouse myocardium. At 4 weeks after implantation, donor cells exhibited typical cardiomyocyte structure with the formation of gap-junctions between donor and recipient cells. Expression of specific mRNAs for cardiomyocytes, such as cardiac actin and GATA-4, Nkx2-5, Isl-1, Mef2, and Hand2, were also seen in clonal cell cultures of Sk-DN cells. Cell fusion-independent differentiation was also confirmed by bulk cell transplantation using Cre- and loxP (enhanced GFP)-mice. We conclude that Sk-DN cells can give rise to cardiac muscle cells clonally, and that skeletal muscle includes a practical cell source for cellular cardiomyoplasty.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue inflammation and multiple cellular responses in the compensatory enlarged plantaris (OP Plt) muscle induced by surgical ablation of synergistic muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) were followed over 10 weeks after surgery. Contralateral surgery was performed in adult Wistar male rats. Cellular responses in muscle fibers, blood vessels and nerve fibers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Severe muscle fiber damage and disappearance of capillaries associated with apparent tissue edema were observed in the peripheral portion of OP Plt muscles during the first week, whereas central portions were relatively preserved. Marked cell activation/proliferation was also mainly observed in peripheral portions. Similarly, activated myogenic cells were seen not only inside but also outside of muscle fibers. The former were likely satellite cells and the latter may be interstitial myogenic cells. One week after surgery, small muscle fibers, small arteries and capillaries and several branched-muscle fibers were evident in the periphery, thus indicating new muscle fiber and blood vessel formation. Proliferating cells were also detected in the nerve bundles in the Schwann cell position. These results indicate that the compensatory stimulated/enlarged muscle is a suitable model for analyzing multiple physiological cellular responses in muscle-nerve-blood vessel units under continuous stretch stimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular responses in the compensatory hypertrophied (plantaris) muscle induced by surgical ablation of synergistic muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) were determined during 10-week anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment. Adult Wistar male rats were divided randomly into the Control and Steroid groups, and contralateral surgery was performed. Nandrolone decanoate was administered to the Steroid group. [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine labeling were used to determine the serial changes in cellular mitotic activity and amino acid uptake. Myogenic cells and cellular responses in blood vessels and nerve fibers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Significantly lower cellular mitotic activity associated with lower volume of muscle fiber necrosis was observed in the Steroid group during the first week. However, amino acid uptake and final muscle wet weight gain did not differ between the groups. Marked activation/proliferation of muscular, vascular, and peripheral nerve-related cells was seen with the inflammatory responses in both groups. However, this activation was dependent on the volume of muscle fiber damage and was not preferentially accelerated by AAS loading. These results indicated that AAS loading significantly diminished muscle fiber damages, but they did not accelerate final muscle wet weight gain and activation of myogenic, vascular, and peripheral nerve related cells in the compensatory enlarged muscles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hierarchical relationship of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells sorted as CD34(+)/CD45(-) (Sk-34) and CD34(-)/CD45(-) (Sk-DN) cells, which have synchronized reconstitution capacities for blood vessels, peripheral nerves, and muscle fibers, was examined. Expression of Sca-1 and CD34 (typical state of freshly isolated Sk-34 cells) in Sk-DN cells was examined using in vitro culture and in vivo cell implantation. Sk-DN cells sequentially expressed Sca-1 and CD34 during cell culture showing self-maintenance and/or self-renewal-like behavior, and are thus considered hierarchically upstream of Sk-34 cells in the same lineage. Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells were further divided into small and large cell fractions by cell sorting. Immunocytochemistry using anti-Pax7 was performed at the time of isolation (before culture) and revealed that only 1% of cells in the large Sk-DN cell fraction were positive for Pax7, while Sk-34 cells and 99% of Sk-DN cells were negative for Pax7. Therefore, putative satellite cells were possibly present in the large Sk-DN cell fraction. However, serial analysis of Pax7 expression by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry for single and 2 to >40 clonally proliferated Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells revealed that both cell types expressed Pax7 after several asymmetric cellular divisions during clonal-cell culture. In addition, production of satellite cells was seen after muscle fiber formation following Sk-34 or Sk-DN cell transplantation into damaged muscle, and even in the nonmuscle tissue environment (beneath the renal capsule). Thus, Sk-DN cells are situated upstream of Sk-34 cells and both cells can produce Pax7+ cells (putative satellite cells) after cellular division.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) and neurovascular bundle (NVB) is a major operative complication of radical prostatectomy. It is generally recognized to be caused by unavoidable surgical damage to the muscle-nerve-blood vessel units around the urethra. We attempted to treat this damage using skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, which are able to reconstitute muscle-nerve-blood vessel units.
Cells were enzymatically extracted and sorted by flow cytometry as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN) cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and rats. URS-NVB damage was induced by manually removing one-third of the total URS and unilateral invasion of NVB in wild-type Sprague-Dawley and node rats. Freshly isolated Sk-34, Sk-34+Sk-DN cells, and cultured Sk-DN cells were directly transplanted into the damaged portion.
At 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation, urethral pressure profile by electrical stimulation through the sacral surface (L6-S1) was evaluated as functional recovery. The recovery ratio in the control and transplanted groups was 37.6% and 72.9%, at 4 weeks, and 41.6% and 78.4% at 12 weeks, respectively (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that transplanted cells differentiated into numerous skeletal muscle fibers having neuromuscular junctions (innervation) and nerve bundle-related Schwann cells and perineurium, and blood vessel-related endothelial cells and pericyte around the urethra.
Thus, we conclude that transplantation of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of postoperative damage of URS and NVB after radical prostatectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular cardiomyoplasty for myocardial infarction has been developed using various cell types. However, complete differentiation and/or trans-differentiation into cardiomyocytes have never occurred in these transplant studies, whereas functional contributions were reported.
Skeletal muscle interstitium-derived CD34(+)/CD45(-) (Sk-34) cells were purified from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice by flowcytometory. Cardiac differentiation of Sk-34 cells was examined by in vitro clonal culture and co-culture with embryonic cardiomyocytes, and in vivo transplantation into a nude rat myocardial infarction (MI) model (left ventricle). Lower relative expression of cardiomyogenic transcription factors, such as GATA-4, Nkx2-5, Isl-1, Mef2 and Hand2, was seen in clonal cell culture. However, vigorous expression of these factors was seen on co-culture with embryonic cardiomyocytes, together with formation of gap-junctions and synchronous contraction following sphere-like colony formation. At 4 weeks after transplantation of freshly isolated Sk-34 cells, donor cells exhibited typical cardiomyocyte structure with formation of gap-junctions, as well as intercalated discs and desmosomes, between donor and recipient and/or donor and donor cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detecting the rat and mouse genomic DNA and immunoelectron microscopy using anti-GFP revealed donor-derived cells. Transplanted Sk-34 cells were incorporated into infarcted portions of recipient muscles and contributed to cardiac reconstitution. Significant improvement in left ventricular function, as evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography and micro-tip conductance catheter, was also observed.
Skeletal muscle-derived multipotent Sk-34 cells that can give rise to skeletal and smooth muscle cells as reported previously, also give rise to cardiac muscle cells as multi-myogenic stem cells, and thus are a potential source for practical cellular cardiomyoplasty.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to establish the practical isolation and usage of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs), we determined reconstitution capacity of CD34(-)/CD45(-) (Sk-DN) cells as a candidate somatic stem cell source for transplantation. Sk-DN cells were enzymatically isolated from GFP transgenic mice (C57/BL6N) skeletal muscle and sorted using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), and expanded by collagen gel-based cell culture with bFGF and EGF. The number of Sk-DN cells was small after sorting (2-8 x 10(4)); however, the number increased 10-20 fold (2-16 x 10(5)) after 6 days of expansion culture, and the cells maintained immature state and multipotency, expressing mRNAs for mesodermal and ectodermal cell lineages. Transplantation of expanded Sk-DN cells into the severe muscle damage model (C57/BL6N wild-type) resulted in the synchronized reconstitution of blood vessels, peripheral nerves and muscle fibers following significant recovery of total muscle mass (57%) and contractile function (55%), whereas the non-cell-transplanted control group showed around 20% recovery in both factors. These reconstitution capacities were supported by the intrinsic plasticity of Sk-DN cells that can differentiate into muscular (skeletal muscle), vascular (pericyte, endothelial cell and smooth muscle) and peripheral nerve (Schwann cells and perineurium) cell lineages that was revealed by transplantation to non-muscle tissue (beneath renal capsule) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differentiation potential of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) after in vitro culture and in vivo transplantation has been extensively studied. However, the clonal multipotency of MDSCs has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that single skeletal muscle-derived CD34-/CD45- (skeletal muscle-derived double negative [Sk-DN]) cells exhibit clonal multipotency that can give rise to myogenic, vasculogenic, and neural cell lineages after in vivo single cell-derived single sphere implantation and in vitro clonal single cell culture. Muscles from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were enzymatically dissociated and sorted based on CD34 and CD45. Sk-DN cells were clone-sorted into a 96-well plate and were cultured in collagen-based medium with basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor for 14 days. Individual colony-forming units (CFUs) were then transplanted directly into severely damaged muscle together with 1 x 10(5) competitive carrier Sk-DN cells obtained from wild-type mice muscle expanded for 5 days under the same culture conditions using 35-mm culture dishes. Four weeks after transplantation, implanted GFP+ cells demonstrated differentiation into endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and neural cell (Schwann cell) lineages. This multipotency was also confirmed by expression of mRNA markers for myogenic (MyoD, myf5), neural (Musashi-1, Nestin, neural cell adhesion molecule-1, peripheral myelin protein-22, Nucleostemin), and vascular (alpha-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, vascular endothelial-cadherin, tyrosine kinase-endothelial) stem cells by clonal (single-cell derived) single-sphere reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Approximately 70% of clonal CFUs exhibited expression of all three cell lineages. These findings support the notion that Sk-DN cells are a useful tool for damaged muscle-related tissue reconstitution by synchronized vasculogenesis, myogenesis, and neurogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of observations have been made to examine the role that mitochrondrial energetics and superoxide anion production play in the aging of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. Ultrastructural analyses reveal the presence of swollen mitochondria, presumably produced by fusion events. Two key mitochondrial functions - the activity of two electron transport chain complexes and oxygen consumption - decreased as animals aged. Carbonylated proteins, one byproduct of oxidative stress, accumulated in mitochondria much more than in the cytoplasm. This is consistent with the notion that mitochondria are the primary source of endogenous reactive oxygen species. However, the level of mitochondrially generated superoxide anion did not change significantly during aging, suggesting that the accumulation of oxidative damage is not due to excessive production of superoxide anion in geriatric animals. In concert, these data support the notion that the mitochondrial function is an important aging determinant in wild-type C. elegans.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometrium is a highly regenerative adult tissue that undergoes repeated degeneration and regeneration following menarche. Therefore, it is believed that endometrium contains stem and/or progenitor cells in order to compensate for the regeneration of tissue components. We report here that stem-like cells having vasculogenic potential are present in the uterus. Enzymatically extracted cells from murine uteri were characterized and fractionated into four subpopulations by flowcytometry; CD34(+)/45(-) (Ut-34), CD34(-)/45(-) (Ut-DN) and the remaining CD45(+) cell fractions (CD34(+)/45(+) and CD34(-)/45(+) cells). The Ut-34 and Ut-DN fractions were mostly negative for putative endothelial cell (EC) markers, such as CD31, Flk-1, c-kit and VE-cadherin, although the Ut-DN fraction contained 2.8% CD31(+) cells. Ut-DN cells were further divided into CD31(+) and CD31(-) fractions. Three cell populations were obtained from green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic mice and were transplanted into injured wild-type mouse skeletal muscle. At 4 weeks after cell transplantation, donor-derived vascular smooth muscle and ECs were observed in the injured recipient muscle. A similar trend was observed in the Ut-34 group, but differentiation into vascular smooth muscle was predominant. In contrast, the Ut-DN/31(+) cell-transplanted group showed preferential differentiation into vascular ECs, thus suggesting that they were relatively committed preexisting ECs. These characteristics were also seen in vitro, in clonal cell cultures. Interestingly, donor derived Ut-DN/31(+), Ut-DN/31(-) and Ut-34 cells could not be identified after bone marrow (BM) transplantation, thus confirming that they are not derived from BM. It therefore appeared that tissue-specific vasculogenic cells are present in the murine uterus and that they exhibit vascular formation, even in different tissue microenvironments.