[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody molecules are able to recognize any antigen with high affinity and specificity. To get insight into the molecular diversity at the source of this functional diversity, we compiled and analyzed a non-redundant aligned collection of 227 structures of antibody antigen complexes. Free energy of binding of all the residue side chains was quantified by computational alanine scanning, allowing the first large-scale quantitative description of antibody paratopes. This demonstrated that as few as 8 residues among 30 key positions are sufficient to explain 80% of the binding free energy in most complexes. At these positions, the residue distribution is not only different from that of other surface residues but also dependent on the role played by the side chain in the interaction, residues participating in the binding energy being mainly aromatic residues, and Gly or Ser otherwise. To question the generality of these binding characteristics, we isolated an antibody fragment by phage display using a biased synthetic repertoire with only two diversified complementarity-determining regions and solved its structure in complex with its antigen. Despite this restricted diversity, the structure demonstrated that all complementarity-determining regions were involved in the interaction with the antigen and that the rules derived from the natural antibody repertoire apply to this synthetic binder, thus demonstrating the robustness and universality of our results. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actual use of the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) to treat hyperproliferative disorders is hampered by calcemic effects, hence the continuous development of chemically modified analogues with dissociated profiles. Structurally distinct nonsecosteroidal analogues have been developed to mimic calcitriol activity profiles with low calcium serum levels. Here, we report the crystallographic study of vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) ligand binding domain in complexes with six nonsecosteroidal analogues harboring two or three phenyl rings. These compounds induce a stimulated transcription in the nanomolar range, similar to calcitriol. Examination of the protein-ligand interactions reveals the mode of binding of these nonsecosteroidal compounds and highlights the role of the various chemical modifications of the ligands to VDR binding and activity, notably (de)solvation effects. The structures with the tris-aromatic ligands exhibit a rearrangement of a novel region of the VDR ligand binding pocket, helix H6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) commonly binds to the 3′-UTR poly(A) tail of every mRNA, but it also binds to the 5′-UTR of PABP mRNA for autoregulation of its expression. In the sequence of the latter binding site, the contiguous A residues are segmented discretely by the insertion of short pyrimidine oligonucleotides as linkers, so that (A)
segments are repeated six times. This differs from the poly(A)-tail sequence, which has a higher binding affinity for PABP. In order to examine whether the A-rich repeats have a functional structure, several RNA/DNA analogues were subjected to crystallization. It was found that some of them could be crystallized. Single crystals thus obtained diffracted to 4.1 Å resolution. The fact that the repeated sequences can be crystallized suggests the possibility that the autoregulatory sequence in PABP mRNA has a specific structure which impedes the binding of PABP. When PABP is excessively produced, it could bind to this sequence by releasing the structure in order to interfere with initiation-complex formation for suppression of PABP translation. Otherwise, PABP at low concentration preferentially binds to the poly(A) tail of PABP mRNA.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii α-type carbonic anhydrase (Cr-αCA1) is a dimeric enzyme that catalyses the interconversion of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid. The precursor form of Cr-αCA1 undergoes post-translational cleavage and N-glycosylation. Comparison of the genomic sequences of precursor Cr-αCA1 and other αCAs shows that Cr-αCA1 contains a different N-terminal sequence and two insertion sequences. A 35-residue peptide in one of the insertion sequences is deleted from the precursor during maturation. The crystal structure of the mature form of Cr-αCA1 has been determined at 1.88 Å resolution. Each subunit is cleaved into the long and short peptides, but they are linked together by a disulfide bond. The two subunits are linked by a disulfide bond. N-Glycosylations occur at three asparagine residues and the attached N-glycans protrude into solvent regions. The subunits consist of a core β-sheet structure composed of nine β-strands. At the centre of the β-sheet is the catalytic site, which contains a Zn atom bound to three histidine residues. The amino-acid residues around the Zn atom are highly conserved in other monomeric and dimeric αCAs. The short peptide runs near the active site and forms a hydrogen bond to the zinc-coordinated residue in the long chain, suggesting an important role for the short peptide in Cr-αCA1 activity.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An improved synthetic route to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) des-side chain analogues 2 a and 2 b with substituents at C18 is reported, along with their biological activity. These analogues display significant antiproliferative effects toward MCF-7 breast cancer cells and prodifferentiation activity toward SW480-ADH colon cancer cells; they are also characterized by a greatly decreased calcemic profile. The crystal structure of the human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) complexed to one of these analogues, 20(17→18)-abeo-1α,25-dihydroxy-22-homo-21-norvitamin D(3) (2 a) reveals that the side chain introduced at position C18 adopts the same orientation in the ligand binding pocket as the side chain of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dominant production of the 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 in keratinocytes after 5 h. HPLC profile of the CHCl3-extract from keratinocytes after 5 h incubation is shown. The amount of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 (blue star) is the highest from all the metabolites detected with HPLC. The peak of 1α,25(OH)2D3 is highlighted with green star.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1α,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin-D3 (1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3), a natural metabolite of the seco-steroid vitamin D3, exerts its biological activity through binding to its cognate vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR), a ligand dependent transcription regulator. In vivo action of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 is tissue-specific and exhibits lowest calcemic effect compared to that induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. To further unveil the structural mechanism and structure-activity relationships of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 and its receptor complex, we characterized some of its in vitro biological properties and solved its crystal structure complexed with human VDR ligand-binding domain (LBD).
In the present study, we report the more effective synthesis with fewer steps that provides higher yield of the 3-epimer of the 1α,25(OH)2D3. We solved the crystal structure of its complex with the human VDR-LBD and found that this natural metabolite displays specific adaptation of the ligand-binding pocket, as the 3-epimer maintains the number of hydrogen bonds by an alternative water-mediated interaction to compensate the abolished interaction with Ser278. In addition, the biological activity of the 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 in primary human keratinocytes and biochemical properties are comparable to 1α,25(OH)2D3.
The physiological role of this pathway as the specific biological action of the 3-epimer remains unclear. However, its high metabolic stability together with its significant biologic activity makes this natural metabolite an interesting ligand for clinical applications. Our new findings contribute to a better understanding at molecular level how natural metabolites of 1α,25(OH)2D3 lead to significant activity in biological systems and we conclude that the C3-epimerization pathway produces an active metabolite with similar biochemical and biological properties to those of the 1α,25(OH)2D3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological properties of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 in HL60 cellular model. (A) 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3-mediated HL60 cell growth. 1α,25(OH)2D3 or 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3-treated HL60 at 1 nM and 100 nM concentrations are counted. Data are presented as mean±S.D. of the mean (*, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001). (B) 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3-mediated HL60 cell differentiation into monocyte-like cells. HL60 cells were treated with either ethanol or 1 nM and 100"nM concentration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 or 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3. Cells were labeled with PElabeled anti-human CD11c and FITC-labeled anti-human CD14, and HL60 cell differentiation was estimated by the double-positive CD11c/CD14 population. Data are representative of three distinct experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and Retinoid X nuclear receptors (RXRs) are ligand-dependent transcriptional modulators that execute their biological action through the generation of functional heterodimers. RXR acts as an obligate dimer partner in many signalling pathways, gene regulation by rexinoids depending on the liganded state of the specific heterodimeric partner. To address the question of the effect of rexinoid antagonists on RAR/RXR function, we solved the crystal structure of the heterodimer formed by the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the RARα bound to its natural agonist ligand (all-trans retinoic acid, atRA) and RXRα bound to a rexinoid antagonist (LG100754). We observed that RARα exhibits the canonical agonist conformation and RXRα an antagonist one with the C-terminal H12 flipping out to the solvent. Examination of the protein-LG100754 interactions reveals that its propoxy group sterically prevents the H12 associating with the LBD, without affecting the dimerization or the active conformation of RAR. Although LG100754 has been reported to act as a 'phantom ligand' activating RAR in a cellular context, our structural data and biochemical assays demonstrate that LG100754 mediates its effect as a full RXR antagonist. Finally we show that the 'phantom ligand effect' of the LG100754 is due to a direct binding of the ligand to RAR that stabilizes coactivator interactions thus accounting for the observed transcriptional activation of RAR/RXR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RARα-atRA/RXRα-LG100754 LBDs is dimeric in solution. (A) Comparison of the experimental SAXS curve of atRA-RAR/LG100754-RXR (blue cross) with the corresponding fits for the crystallographic model of the dimer (pink line), the tetramer (yellow line) and of the full-agonists dimer (cyan line). (B) Electron pair distribution [P(r)] function computed from the experimental SAXS data.