Lynette J Tippett

Auckland City Hospital, Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand

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Publications (66)

  • Nasim F Mehrabi · Henry J Waldvogel · Lynette J Tippett · [...] · Richard L M Faull
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterised by variable symptoms and neuropathology of the basal ganglia and cortex. Previously, we have shown that the pattern of pyramidal cell loss in 8 different cortical regions correlates with the phenotypic variability in HD. In the primary motor and anterior cingulate cortices, the pattern of interneuron degeneration correlates with pyramidal cell death and variable HD symptom profiles. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the pattern of interneuron degeneration in 3 further regions of the HD cortex (primary sensory, superior frontal, superior parietal cortices) to determine whether HD neuropathogenesis was characterised by a general fundamental pattern of cortical interneuron loss, and explore the relationship between cortical interneuron loss with previously determined pyramidal cell loss and clinical heterogeneity. Methods: Stereological counting was used to quantify 3 sub-populations of calcium-binding protein containing interneurons in 3 cortical human brain regions of 14 HD and 13 control cases as used in our previous studies (Nana et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2014). The HD cases were grouped according to their predominant symptom profile ("motor", "mood", "mixed"). Results: The present results demonstrated a heterogeneous loss of interneurons across the 3 cortical regions which, when compared with our previous studies, mirrored the pattern of pyramidal cell loss in the same cortical areas. Most interestingly, the pattern of neuronal loss in these regions correlated with the variable HD symptom profiles. Conclusion: The overall findings in our present and previous cortical studies establish a clear correlative pattern of variable cortical neuronal degeneration in HD pathogenesis, which mirrors the heterogeneity of HD symptom phenotypes.
    Article · Aug 2016 · Neurobiology of Disease
  • Malvindar K Singh-Bains · Lynette J Tippett · Virginia M Hogg · [...] · Richard L M Faull
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Numerous studies have focused on striatal neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). In comparison, the globus pallidus (GP), a main striatal output nucleus, has received less focus in HD research. This study characterizes the pattern of neurodegeneration in three subdivisions of the human globus pallidus, and its relation to clinical symptomatology. Methods: Stereology was used to measure regional atrophy, neuronal loss, and soma neuronal atrophy in three components of the GP - the external segment (GPe), internal segment (GPi) and ventral pallidum (VP) - in eight HD cases compared with seven matched control cases. The findings in the HD patients were compared with HD striatal neuropathological grade, and symptom scores of motor impairment, chorea, cognition and mood. Results: Relative to controls, in the HD patients the GPe showed a 54% overall volume decline, 60% neuron loss and 34% reduced soma volume. Similarly, the VP was reduced in volume by 31%, with 48% neuron loss and 64% reduced soma volume. In contrast, the GPi was less affected, with a 38% reduction in overall volume only. The extent of GP neurodegeneration correlated with increasing striatal neuropathological grade. Decreasing GPe and VP volumes were associated with poorer cognition, increasing motor impairments, but not chorea. In contrast, decreasing GPi volumes were associated with decreasing levels of irritability. Interpretation: The HD gene mutation produces variable degrees of GP segment degeneration, highlighting the differential vulnerability of striatal-GP target projections. The relationship established between clinical symptom scores and pallidal degeneration provides a novel contribution to understanding the clinical-pathological associations in HD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jun 2016 · Annals of Neurology
  • Donna Rose Addis · Eleanor E.J. Moloney · Lynette J. Tippett · [...] · Sylvia Hach
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous neuroimaging research has shown that the cerebellum is often activated during autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval. However, the reliability of that activation, its localization within the cerebellum, and its relationship to other areas of the AM network remains unknown. The current study used Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis (ALE) as well as resting-state and task-related functional connectivity analyses to better characterize cerebellar activation in relation to AM. The ALE meta-analysis was run on 32 neuroimaging studies of AM retrieval. The results revealed a cluster of reliable AM-related activity within the Crus I lobule of the right posterior cerebellum. Using the peak ALE coordinate within Crus I as a seed region, both task-related and resting state functional connectivity analyses were run on fMRI data from 38 healthy participants. To determine the specificity of connectivity patterns to Crus I, we also included a cerebellar seed region in right Lobule VI previously identified in an ALE meta-analysis as associated with working memory. Resting-state functional connectivity analyses indicated that Crus I was intrinsically connected with other areas of the AM network as well as surrounding and contralateral cerebellar regions. In contrast, the Lobule VI seed was functionally connected with cerebral and cerebellar regions typically associated with working memory. The task-related connectivity analyses revealed a similar pattern, where the Crus I seed exhibited significant connectivity with key nodes of the AM network while the Lobule IV seed did not. During the semantic control task, both Crus I and Lobule VI showed significant correlations with a network of regions that was largely distinct from the AM network. Together these results indicate that right Crus I lobule is reliably engaged during AM retrieval and is functionally connected to the AM network both during rest, and more importantly, during AM retrieval.
    Article · May 2016 · Neuropsychologia
  • Reece P Roberts · Sylvia Hach · Lynette J Tippett · Donna Rose Addis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Task-related functional connectivity (fc-MRI) indexes the interaction of brain regions during cognitive tasks. Two general classes of methods exist to investigate fc-MRI: the most widely-used method calculates temporal correlations between voxels/regions within subjects, and then determines if within-subject correlations are reliable across subjects (ws-fcMRI); the other calculates the average (BOLD) signal within voxels/regions and then performs correlations across subjects (as-fcMRI). That is, while both methods rely on correlational techniques, the level at which correlations are calculated is fundamentally different. While conceptually distinct, it is not known how well these two methods of fc-MRI analyses converge on the same findings. The current study addresses this question across a number of analyses. First, using default-mode network regions as seeds, we show that as-fcMRI does not strongly predict ws-fcMRI during episodic simulation tasks. Next, we show that the relationship between as-fcMRI and ws-fcMRI is contingent on whether correlations are calculated between regions from the same functional network (default mode or dorsal attention networks) or between regions from different functional networks. Lastly, we compare seed partial least squares (PLS) - a well-established as-fcMRI method - with a novel version of seed PLS that combines the multivariate approach of PLS analyses and within-subject correlations. The results showed that while many regions exhibited congruent as-fcMRI and ws-fcMRI effects, in some regions the two analyses produced effects in opposite directions. Results are discussed in relation to the Simpson's Paradox, a phenomenon in which across-subject correlations are reversed within individuals present in a sample. Overall, our results suggest that the findings of as-fcMRI do not always map onto those from ws-fcMRI. We end by discussing the advantages associated with using ws-fcMRI to assess the task-related interactions between brain regions.
    Article · Apr 2016 · NeuroImage
  • Donna Rose Addis · Sylvia Hach · Lynette J Tippett
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The tendency to generate overgeneral past or future events is characteristic of individuals with a history of depression. Although much research has investigated the contribution of rumination and avoidance to the reduced specificity of past events, comparatively little research has examined (1) whether the specificity of future events is differentially reduced in depression and (2) the role of executive functions in this phenomenon. Our study aimed to redress this imbalance. Methods: Participants with either current or past experience of depressive symptoms ('depressive group'; N = 24) and matched controls ('control group'; N = 24) completed tests of avoidance, rumination, and executive functions. A modified Autobiographical Memory Test was administered to assess the specificity of past and future events. Results: The depressive group were more ruminative and avoidant than controls, but did not exhibit deficits in executive function. Although overall the depressive group generated significantly fewer specific events than controls, this reduction was driven by a significant group difference in future event specificity. Strategic retrieval processes were correlated with both past and future specificity, and predictive of the future specificity, whereas avoidance and rumination were not. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that future simulation appears to be particularly vulnerable to disruption in individuals with current or past experience of depressive symptoms, consistent with the notion that future simulation is more cognitively demanding than autobiographical memory retrieval. Moreover, our findings suggest that even subtle changes in executive functions such as strategic processes may impact the ability to imagine specific future events.
    Article · Jan 2016 · British Journal of Clinical Psychology
  • Lynette J. Tippett · Virginia M. Hogg
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a single autosomal dominant gene. Despite this, there is surprising variability in the triad of clinical symptoms (movement disorder, impaired cognition and mood/psychiatric disturbance) and functional problems that develop. Not only does age of symptom onset vary, but symptoms present at onset and across the span of clinical disease may vary from person-to-person. This variability in HD brings challenges to neuropsychological assessment and formulation. Effective HD formulations require a skilled and targeted clinical interview, use of neuropsychological measures sensitive to early HD-related cognitive changes and not unduly affected by motor impairments, and the ability to gain optimal performance from clients potentially with significant mood issues. Understanding the modulating effects of situational and social factors in the expression of the clinical symptoms of HD is also essential. To illustrate these points, we present the cases of two brothers carrying almost identical HD genes, with neuropsychological data collected at two time points, with follow-up for 10 years. Onset of earliest HD symptoms of these brothers differed by 15 years. Their symptom profiles also differed, particularly their cognitive performances and mood disturbance. The value of a sound neuropsychological formulation for HD is that it involves not only interpreting data from neuropsychological assessment, but integrating functional information across multiple domains (e.g. familial, work and social contexts). Thus, it can capture the clinical complexity of HD. Many of the HD lessons—clinical variability, complexity and deterioration over time—can be applied to other neurodegenerative conditions.
    Chapter · Jan 2016
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    Peter N Bull · Lynette J Tippett · Donna Rose Addis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has contributed greatly to the study of affective decision making. However, researchers have observed high inter-study and inter-individual variability in IGT performance in healthy participants, and many are classified as impaired using standard criteria. Additionally, while decision-making deficits are often attributed to atypical sensitivity to reward and/or punishment, the IGT lacks an integrated sensitivity measure. Adopting an operant perspective, two experiments were conducted to explore these issues. In Experiment 1, 50 healthy participants completed a 200-trial version of the IGT which otherwise closely emulated Bechara et al.'s (1999) original computer task. Group data for Trials 1-100 closely replicated Bechara et al.'s original findings of high net scores and preferences for advantageous decks, suggesting that implementations that depart significantly from Bechara's standard IGT contribute to inter-study variability. During Trials 101-200, mean net scores improved significantly and the percentage of participants meeting the "impaired" criterion was halved. An operant-style stability criterion applied to individual data revealed this was likely related to individual differences in learning rate. Experiment 2 used a novel operant card task-the Auckland Card Task (ACT)-to derive quantitative estimates of sensitivity using the generalized matching law. Relative to individuals who mastered the IGT, persistent poor performers on the IGT exhibited significantly lower sensitivity to magnitudes (but not frequencies) of rewards and punishers on the ACT. Overall, our findings demonstrate the utility of operant-style analysis of IGT data and the potential of applying operant concurrent-schedule procedures to the study of human decision making.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
  • Sylvia Hach · Lynette J. Tippett · Donna Rose Addis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that individuals affected by depression experience difficulty in remembering the past and imagining the future. This impairment is evident in increased rumination on non-specific, generic events and in the generation of fewer specific events during tasks tapping past and future thinking. The present fMRI study investigated whether neural changes during the construction of autobiographical events was evident in depression, even when key aspects of performance (event specificity, vividness) were matched. We employed a multivariate technique (Spatiotemporal Partial Least Squares) to examine whether task-related whole brain patterns of activation and functional connectivity of the hippocampus differed between depressed participants and non-depressed controls. Results indicate that although the depression group retained the ability to recruit the default network during the autobiographical tasks, there was reduced activity in regions associated with episodic richness and imagery (e.g., hippocampus, precuneus, cuneus). Moreover, patterns of hippocampal connectivity in the depression group were comparable to those of the control group, but the strength of this connectivity was reduced in depression. These depression-related reductions were accompanied by increased recruitment of lateral and medial frontal regions in the depression group, as well as distinct patterns of right hippocampal connectivity with regions in the default and dorsal attention networks. The recruitment of these additional neural resources may reflect compensatory increases in post-retrieval processing, greater effort and/or greater self-related referential processing in depression that support the generation of specific autobiographical events.
    Article · Dec 2014 · Neuropsychologia
  • Andrew J Latham · Lucy L M Patston · Lynette J Tippett
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-two experienced action video-game players (AVGPs) and 18 non-VGPs were tested on a pen-and-paper line bisection task that was untimed. Typically, right-handers bisect lines 2 % to the left of true centre, a bias thought to reflect the dominance of the right-hemisphere for visuospatial attention. Expertise may affect this bias, with expert musicians showing no bias in line bisection performance. Our results show that experienced-AVGPs also bisect lines with no bias with their right hand and a significantly reduced bias with their left hand compared to non-AVGPs. Bisections by experienced-AVGPs were also more precise than those of non-AVGPs. These findings show the cognitive proficiencies of experienced-AVGPs can generalize beyond computer based tasks, which resemble their training environment.
    Article · Oct 2014 · Attention Perception & Psychophysics
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    Henry J Waldvogel · Eric H Kim · Lynette J Tippett · [...] · Richard Lm Faull
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The basal ganglia are a highly interconnected set of subcortical nuclei and major atrophy in one or more regions may have major effects on other regions of the brain. Therefore, the striatum which is preferentially degenerated and receives projections from the entire cortex also affects the regions to which it targets, especially the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. Additionally, the cerebral cortex is itself severely affected as are many other regions of the brain, especially in more advanced cases. The cell loss in the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex is extensive. The most important new findings in Huntington's disease pathology is the highly variable nature of the degeneration in the brain. Most interestingly, this variable pattern of pathology appears to reflect the highly variable symptomatology of cases with Huntington's disease even among cases possessing the same number of CAG repeats.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2014 · Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by neuronal degeneration in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex, and a variable symptom profile. Although progressive striatal degeneration is known to occur and is related to symptom profile, little is known about the cellular basis of symptom heterogeneity across the entire cerebral cortex. To investigate this, we have undertaken a double blind study using unbiased stereological cell counting techniques to determine the pattern of cell loss in six representative cortical regions from the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes in the brains of 14 Huntington's disease cases and 15 controls. The results clearly demonstrate a widespread loss of total neurons and pyramidal cells across all cortical regions studied, except for the primary visual cortex. Importantly, the results show that cell loss is remarkably variable both within and between Huntington's disease cases. The results also show that neuronal loss in the primary sensory and secondary visual cortices relate to Huntington's disease motor symptom profiles, and neuronal loss across the associational cortices in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes is related to both Huntington's disease motor and to mood symptom profiles. This finding considerably extends a previous study (Thu et al., Brain, 2010; 133:1094-1110) which showed that neuronal loss in the primary motor cortex was related specifically to the motor symptom profiles while neuronal loss in the anterior cingulate cortex was related specifically to mood symptom profiles. The extent of cortical cell loss in the current study was generally related to the striatal neuropathological grade, but not to CAG repeat length on the HTT gene. Overall our findings show that Huntington's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous pattern of neuronal cell loss across the entire cerebrum which varies with symptom profile.
    Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Huntington's disease
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    Eric H. Kim · Doris C. V. Thu · Lynette J. Tippett · [...] · Richard L. M. Faull
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The cellular basis of variable symptoms in Huntington disease (HD) is unclear. One important possibility is that degeneration of the interneurons in the cerebral cortex, which play a critical role in modulating cortical output to the basal ganglia, might play a significant role in the development of variable symptomatology in HD. This study aimed to examine whether symptom variability in HD is specifically associated with variable degeneration of cortical interneurons. Methods: We undertook a double-blind study using stereological cell counting methods to quantify the 3 major types of γ-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons (calbindin-D28k, calretinin, parvalbumin) in 13 HD cases of variable motor/mood symptomatology and 15 matched control cases in the primary motor and anterior cingulate cortices. Results: In the primary motor cortex, there was a significant loss (57% reduction) of only calbindin interneurons (p=0.022) in HD cases dominated by motor symptoms, but no significant interneuron loss in cases with a dominant mood phenotype. In contrast, the anterior cingulate cortex showed a major significant loss in all 3 interneuron populations, with 71% loss of calbindin (p=0.001), 60% loss of calretinin (p=0.001), and 80% loss of parvalbumin interneurons (p=0.005) in HD cases with major mood disorder, and no interneuron loss was observed in cases with major motor dysfunction. Interpretation: These findings suggest that region-specific degeneration of cortical interneurons is a key component in understanding the neural basis of symptom heterogeneity in HD.
    Full-text Article · May 2014 · Annals of Neurology
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    Andrew James Latham · Lucy L M Patston · Lynette J Tippett
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Just how expert are "expert" video-game players? Assessing the experience and expertise of video-game players across "action" video-game genres Video-game play (particularly "action" video-games) holds exciting promise as an activity that may provide generalized enhancement to a wide range of percep-tual and cognitive abilities (for review see Latham et al., 2013a). However, in this article we make the case that to assess accurately the effects of video-game play researchers must better character-ize video-game experience and expertise. This requires a more precise and objective assessment of an individual's video-game history and skill level, and making finer distinctions between video-games that fall under the umbrella of "action" games. Failure to consider these factors may partly be responsible for mixed findings (see Boot et al., 2011).
    Full-text Article · Dec 2013 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although dystonia represents a major source of motor disability in Huntington's disease (HD), its pathophysiology remains unknown. Because recent animal studies indicate that loss of parvalbuminergic (PARV+) striatal interneurons can cause dystonia, we investigated if loss of PARV+ striatal interneurons occurs during human HD progression, and thus might contribute to dystonia in HD. We used immunolabeling to detect PARV+ interneurons in fixed sections, and corrected for disease-related striatal atrophy by expressing PARV+ interneuron counts in ratio to interneurons co-containing somatostatin and neuropeptide Y (whose numbers are unaffected in HD). At all symptomatic HD grades, PARV+ interneurons were reduced to less than 26% of normal abundance in rostral caudate. In putamen rostral to the level of globus pallidus, loss of PARV+ interneurons was more gradual, not dropping off to less than 20% of control until grade 2. Loss of PARV+ interneurons was even more gradual in motor putamen at globus pallidus levels, with no loss at grade 1, and steady grade-wise decline thereafter. A large decrease in striatal PARV+ interneurons, thus, occurs in HD with advancing disease grade, with regional variation in the loss per grade. Given the findings of animal studies and the grade-wise loss of PARV+ striatal interneurons in motor striatum in parallel with the grade-wise appearance and worsening of dystonia, our results raise the possibility that loss of PARV+ striatal interneurons is a contributor to dystonia in HD. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2013 · Movement Disorders
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    Andrew J Latham · Lucy L M Patston · Christine Westermann · [...] · Lynette J Tippett
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Andrew James Latham · Lucy L M Patston · Lynette J Tippett
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    Andrew J Latham · Lucy L M Patston · Lynette J Tippett
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. Video-game play has become the past-time of choice for current generations, with entertainment software allowing individuals to engage both socially and competitively with individuals across the globe. Players engage with seamless virtual environments with success contingent on the execution of precise bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual cues. Evidence suggests that extensive video-game play may lead to the enhancement of visual attention and executive control, generalizing beyond the context of the video game, although this is still debated. Video games became publically available for the first time in 1972 with the release of the first arcade machine, and house-hold gaming console, the Magnavox Odyssey. While this new technology was quickly seized upon by the public, it was not without objection. Many saw video-game play as a mindless exercise imparting no real benefit to the player. Ball (1978) defended video-game play and suggested it offered a potential mechanism to improve a variety of cognitive skills including eye-hand coordination, decision making, following directions, and number and word recognition. Many publications that address these claims have followed. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of studies over the last 30 years that contribute both to current views concerning the effects of video-game play on specific cognitive domains and to their neural underpinnings. This review is organized primarily by cognitive functions that are argued to be influenced by video-game play. It also exam-ines the small literature addressing the neural underpinnings of superior behavioral performance in video-game players, and considers the challenges to, and limitations of, the video-game literature. Results of all the studies reviewed are summarized in Supplementary Table 1.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    Full-text Dataset · Sep 2013
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    Andrew J Latham · Lucy L M Patston · Christine Westermann · [...] · Lynette J Tippett
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013
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    Sylvia Hach · Lynette J. Tippett · Joseph Smith · [...] · Donna Rose Addis
    Full-text Conference Paper · Apr 2013

Publication Stats

1k Citations

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Auckland City Hospital
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 2007
    • University of Auckland
      • Department of Psychology
      Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand