[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The species-specific properties of LDH isozymes are essentially determined by M (muscle) and H (heart) subunit proteins encoded by the LDHA and LDHB genes, respectively. In the present study, we molecularly characterized the full-length equine lactate dehydrogenase A (eLDHA) and B (eLDHB) cDNAs. The eLDHA cDNA consisted of a 999-bp open reading frame (ORF), while the eLDHB and newly acquired bat LDHB consisted of a 1002-bp ORF, which is 3 bp shorter than the LDHB ORF of other registered mammals. The alignment of amino acid sequences showed that eLDHA acquired positively charged His 88 and 226, and eLDHB lost negatively charged Glu 14, as compared to the highly conserved residues at these positions in the corresponding amino acid sequences of other mammals. These alterations were identified in six equine species by genomic DNA analysis. A comparison of the equine and human 3D structures revealed that the substituted His 88 and 226 of the eLDHA monomer and the deleted Glu 14 of the eLDHB monomer altered the surface charge of equine LDH tetramers and that these three residues were located in important regions affecting the catalytic kinetics. Also, RT-PCR amplification of the three myosin heavy chain isoforms corroborated that the cervical muscle as postural muscle of the thoroughbred horse was composed of more oxidative myofibers than the dynamic muscle. Based on this property, the mRNA expression patterns of eLDHA, eLDHB, and eGAPDH in various tissues were analyzed by using real-time PCR. The expression levels of these three genes in the cervical muscle were not always relatively higher than in the brain or heart.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the molecular properties of the equine glycolytic enzymes equine M(1) (eM(1)) and M(2) (eM(2))-pyruvate kinase (PK), mRNAs were isolated from thoroughbred horse skeletal muscle and hair roots, respectively. The full-length eM(1) and eM(2)-PK cDNAs consist of 2,320 and 2,376 bp, respectively, containing a 1596 bp open reading frame. The cDNAs were mapped to equine chromosome 1, and the equine pyruvate kinase M (PKM) gene consists of twelve exons. Exon 9 of eM(1)-PK and exon 10 of eM(2)-PK were further investigated in five equine species. Out of 55 amino acids encoded by exon 9 in equines, Glu 418 and Lys 422, which are conserved in all PK isozymes among other vertebrates, were substituted by Gln 418 and His 422. Also, the transcriptional regulatory element(s), which have potential for involvement in alternative splicing between these exons, were completely conserved among the equines. In semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, strong expression of both eM(1) and eM(2)-PK mRNAs was found in skeletal muscle, heart, and brain of thoroughbred horses. In addition, the authors made the novel finding that eM(2)-PK derived from hair roots has a transcriptional start site different from that of other tissues and is more specific in its expression. These results suggest that eM(1) and eM(2)-PKs may have kinetic properties and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms different from those of other mammals.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the utilization of glucose in equine skeletal muscle, we determined the coding and proximal promoter sequences of the hexokinase type II (HKII) gene in thoroughbred horse, Grevy's zebra and Hartmann's mountain zebra. The deduced amino acid sequence of thoroughbred horse HKII showed 100, 100, 94.4, 92.7 and 92.6% identities with Grevy's zebra, Hartmann's mountain zebra, human, mouse and rat HKIIs, respectively. In equine HKIIs, specific amino acid substitutions, Ile 159 and Arg 610, were found in the potential binding site for glucose. In addition, the nucleotide sequence of the equine proximal promoter has a number of conserved putative binding sites for transcription factor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventy-seven rabies virus (RV) isolates originating from Brazilian cattle were genetically characterized. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences of these isolates were phylogenetically and geographically analyzed. Cattle isolates, which clustered with the vampire bat-related RV group, were further subdivided into nine genetic subgroups. These subgroups were distributed widely in lowland regions, with some subgroups separated from each other by mountain ranges. In addition, separation of the groups in mountainous regions was correlated with altitude. These results indicate that cattle rabies is derived from several regionally-defined variants, which suggests that its geographical distribution is related to that of the vampire bat population.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After RNA extraction from horsehair shafts and roots, the mRNAs of beta-actin, muscle-type phosphofructokinase, and transforming growth factor-beta1 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Low amounts of RNA were present in the horsehair. These specific mRNA transcripts were readily detected when more than three hair roots were used. However, detection of the mRNA transcripts was difficult in the hair shaft. These findings indicate that the small amounts of residual RNA in horsehair roots can be utilized as samples for molecular biological analysis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies is carried mainly by mammalian carnivores and vampire bats in Latin America. However, rabies virus (RV) has been isolated in recent years from not only vampire bats in rural areas but also from several non-vampire bat species in urban areas, respectively. Therefore, rapid molecular screening is necessary for efficient epidemiology of these RVs. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for determining the origins of 54 RV isolates from various host species in Brazil. And to evaluate the multiplex RT-PCR as a potential diagnostic tool, we investigated the sensitivity of this method. In addition, we compared the results with a phylogenetic tree developed from sequences of the RV glycoprotein (G protein) gene. Multiplex RT-PCR products showed five different sizes of products, whereas the phylogenic tree showed six groups. Of these six groups, four corresponded with the four sizes of the multiplex RT-PCR products. The other two groups showed correspondance with another one size of the multiplex RT-PCR products, indicating that multiplex RT-PCR results reflected the lineage of the 54 isolates. This study also showed that this method can detect trace amounts of RNA. In conclusion, this multiplex RT-PCR method allows the rapid, specific, and simultaneous detection of RVs isolated from various host species in Brazil.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of Clinical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A molecular epidemiological analysis was performed in 19 rabies viruses (RVs) isolated from haematophagous, frugivorous and insectivorous bats, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The authors carried out RT-PCR for amplification of the RV nucleoprotein (N) gene, and determined 1,335 nucleotide sequences of N gene by direct sequencing method. Phylogenetic analysis, which was based on the N gene of Brazilian RV isolates identified presently and previously, revealed that RVs isolated from bats were genetically divided into four lineages had a tendency to depend on the host bat species. The first lineage consisted mainly of haematophagous bat (Desmodus rotundus) isolates, including frugivorous bat (Artibeus spp.) isolates. Other three lineages consisted of insectivorous bat isolates; mainly Eptesicus spp., Molossus spp. and Nyctinomops spp. isolates, respectively. These results indicate a possibility of that there are bat species-specific RV variants in Brazil.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete coding region sequence of equine muscle-type phosphofructokinase (ePFKM) was obtained from skeletal muscle of a thoroughbred horse. The deduced amino acid sequence of ePFKM showed 97%, 96%, 96%, 96% and 95% identity to canine, human, mouse, rabbit and rat PFKM, respectively. The amino and carboxyl terminal halves of ePFKM presented a structure of tandem repeat, as other mammalian PFKMs. As the amino acid residues constituting various ligand-binding sites were also conserved, it is thought that ePFKM has enzymatic activity similar to PFKM in other mammals.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science