[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune responses are initiated and primed by dendritic cells (DCs) that cross-present exogenous antigen. The chaperone CD74 (invariant chain) is thought to promote DC priming exclusively in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. However, we demonstrate here a CD74-dependent MHC class I cross-presentation pathway in DCs that had a major role in the generation of MHC class I-restricted, cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to viral protein- and cell-associated antigens. CD74 associated with MHC class I in the endoplasmic reticulum of DCs and mediated the trafficking of MHC class I to endolysosomal compartments for loading with exogenous peptides. We conclude that CD74 has a previously undiscovered physiological function in endolysosomal DC cross-presentation for priming MHC class I-mediated CTL responses.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Nature Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transport of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) to the cytosol is essential for immunoreceptor signaling, regulating lymphocyte differentiation, activation, and effector function. Increases in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations are thought to be mediated through two interconnected and complementary mechanisms: the release of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) "stores" and "store-operated" Ca(2+) entry via plasma membrane channels. However, the identity of molecular components conducting Ca(2+) currents within developing and mature T cells is unclear. Here, we have demonstrated that the L-type "voltage-dependent" Ca(2+) channel Ca(V)1.4 plays a cell-intrinsic role in the function, development, and survival of naive T cells. Plasma membrane Ca(V)1.4 was found to be essential for modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) stores and T cell receptor (TCR)-induced rises in cytosolic-free Ca(2+), impacting activation of Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathways. Collectively, these studies revealed that Ca(V)1.4 functions in controlling naive T cell homeostasis and antigen-driven T cell immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been hailed as a powerful new class of anticancer drugs. The HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), is thought to interfere with epigenetic control of cell cycle progression in G1 and G2-M phase, resulting in growth arrest, differentiation, or apoptosis. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of action of HDACis in promoting immune responses against tumors. We report that treatment of carcinoma cells with TSA increases the expression of many components of the antigen processing machinery, including TAP-1, TAP-2, LMP-2, and Tapasin. Consistent with this result, we found that treatment of metastatic carcinoma cells with TSA also results in an increase in MHC class I expression on the cell surface that functionally translates into an enhanced susceptibility to killing by antigen-specific CTLs. Finally, we observed that TSA treatment suppresses tumor growth and increases tap-1 promoter activity in TAP-deficient tumor cells in vivo. Intriguingly, this in vivo anti-tumoral effect of TSA is entirely mediated by an increase in immunogenicity of the tumor cells, as it does not occur in immunodeficient mice. These novel insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling tumor immune escape may help revise immunotherapeutic modalities for eradicating cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite continued progress in understanding the pathophysiology of tumours, curative therapeutic options are still lacking for the metastatic form of the disease. One approach that has gathered considerable interest is the creation of therapeutic vaccines using genetically engineered non-replicating viruses as vehicles to revive immunosurveillance mechanisms that may eradicate residual tumour cells. A perceived problem with this approach is that the number of non-replicating viruses used as a vaccine inoculum does not remotely approximate the total number of cells in the body, nor even the number of tumour cells in the case of large tumour burden or metastasis. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that a limited amount of inoculum (1x10(8) PFU) of recombinant non-replicating adenovirus encoding human TAP1 (AdhTAP1) can induce protective immunity against 1.5x10(5) TAP-deficient, metastatic melanoma cells transplanted into a normal mouse (total of approximately 1x10(11) body cells). We show that efficacious anti-tumour cytolytic T cell responses are indeed induced by injecting melanoma-bearing animals with small numbers of recombinant viruses, resulting in increases in tumour-infiltrating dendritic cells, enhanced memory T cell subpopulations and, most importantly, in increased animal survival. This novel approach uses a limited input inoculum relative to the tumour cell mass, and thus achieves an efficacious outcome that has so far eluded other vaccine, immunotherapeutic or gene therapeutic strategies where there is a requisite for the majority of tumour cells to be transduced for beneficial outcome to be achieved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that over-expression of transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen-processing pathway, enhances antigen-specific cytotoxic activity in response to viral infection. An expression system using recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) was used to over-express human TAP1 and TAP2 (VV-hTAP1,2) in normal mice. Mice coinfected with either vesicular stomatitis virus plus VV-hTAP1,2 or Sendai virus plus VV-hTAP1,2 increased cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) activity by at least 4-fold when compared to coinfections with a control vector, VV encoding the plasmid PJS-5. Coinfections with VV-hTAP1,2 increased virus-specific CTL precursors compared to control infections without VV-hTAP1,2. In an animal model of lethal viral challenge after vaccination, VV-hTAP1,2 provided protection against a lethal challenge of VV at doses 100-fold lower than control vector alone. Mechanistically, the total MHC class I antigen surface expression and the cross-presentation mechanism in spleen-derived dendritic cells was augmented by over-expression of TAP. Furthermore, VV-hTAP1,2 increases splenic TAP transport activity and endogenous antigen processing, thus rendering infected targets more susceptible to CTL recognition and subsequent killing. This is the first demonstration that over-expression of a component of the antigen-processing machinery increases endogenous antigen presentation and dendritic cell cross-presentation of exogenous antigens and may provide a novel and general approach for increasing immune responses against pathogens at low doses of vaccine inocula.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide variety of human carcinomas have low expression of tumor-associated antigen presentation in the context of MHC class I antigens due to defects in the antigen presentation pathway. This immune evasion mechanism renders many tumors unrecognizable by host immune surveillance mechanisms. The present study examines the expression of HLA, tapasin, transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1), and beta2 microglobulin in human small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed severe impairment of the antigen presentation pathway in all patients. In order to recover tumor immunogenicity, a nonreplicating adenovirus expressing human TAP1 (AdhTAP1) was used to restore the expression of TAP1 in the antigen presentation pathway-deficient mouse lung carcinoma cell line, CMT.64. Infection of CMT.64 cells with AdhTAP1 increased MHC class I antigen surface expression, antigen presentation, and susceptibility to antigen-specific CTLs. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and ELISPOT analysis showed that AdhTAP1 treatment significantly increased dendritic cell cross-presentation and cross-priming of tumor antigens. Furthermore, ex vivo and in vivo AdhTAP1 treatment significantly retarded tumor growth and increased survival of mice bearing CMT.64 tumors. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells infiltrating the tumors. The results show that TAP should be considered as a part of the immunotherapies for various cancers because it is likely to provide a general method for increasing immune responses against tumors regardless of the antigenic composition of the tumor or the MHC haplotypes of the host.