[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a progressive, systemic, life-threatening disease, characterized by chronic uncontrolled complement activation. A retrospective analysis of 301 Korean PNH patients who had not received eculizumab was performed to systematically identify the clinical symptoms and signs predictive of mortality. PNH patients with hemolysis (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] ≥ 1.5 × the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have a 4.8-fold higher mortality rate compared with the age- and sex-matched general population (P < 0.001). In contrast, patients with LDH < 1.5 × ULN have a similar mortality rate as the general population (P = 0.824). Thromboembolism (TE) (odds ratio [OR] 7.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] (3.052-16.562), renal impairment (OR, 2.953; 95% CI, 1.116-7.818) and PNH-cytopenia (OR, 2.547; 95% CI, 1.159-5.597) are independent risk factors for mortality, with mortality rates 14-fold (P < 0.001), 8-fold (P < 0.001), and 6.2-fold (P < 0.001) greater than that of the age- and sex-matched general population, respectively. The combination of hemolysis and 1 or more of the clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain, chest pain, or dyspnea, resulted in a much greater increased mortality rate when compared with patients with just the individual symptom alone or just hemolysis. Early identification of risk factors related to mortality is crucial for the management of PNH. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01224483.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively assessed the clinical characteristics of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) according to severity of cytopenia. A total of 282 patients with hematological parameters assessed at the time of diagnosis of PNH were included. There were 24 patients with PNH/severe aplastic anemia (SAA) (at least two of the three criteria; hemoglobin ≤8 g/dL; absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <0.5 × 10(9)/L; platelet count <20 × 10(9)/L), 96 patients with PNH/aplastic anemia (AA) (at least two of the three criteria; hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL; ANC 0.5-1.5 × 10(9)/L; platelet count 20-100 × 10(9)/L), and 162 classic PNH patients. Compared with the classic PNH subgroup, the PNH/SAA subgroup had a significantly lower median granulocyte PNH clone size (26.7 vs. 51.0 %, P = 0.021) and lower incidence of lactate dehydrogenase ≥1.5 times the upper limit of normal (52.9 vs. 80.0 %, P = 0.049). The incidence of thromboembolism was similar in both subgroups. Overall survival was significantly lower in the PNH/SAA subgroup than in the classic PNH subgroup (P = 0.033). Our findings suggest that identification of patients with PNH/SAA at the time of diagnosis is important because of different clinical manifestations and poorer outcome compared with patients with classic PNH (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: #NCT01224483).
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: hBMSCs are multipotent cells that are useful for tissue regeneration to treat degenerative diseases and others for their differentiation ability into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, hepatocytes and neuronal cells. In this study, biodegradable elastic hydrogels consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were evaluated for tissue engineering because of its biocompatibility and the ability to control the release of bioactive peptides. The primary cultured cells from human bone marrow are confirmed as hBMSC by immunohistochemical analysis. Mesenchymal stem cell markers (collagen type I, fibronectin, CD54, integrin1b, and Hu protein) were shown to be positive, while hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD14 and CD45) were shown to be negative. Three different hydrogel scaffolds with different block compositions (PEG:PCL=6:14 and 14:6 by weight) were fabricated using the salt leaching method. The hBMSCs were expanded, seeded on the scaffolds, and cultured up to 8 days under static conditions in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM). The growth of MSCs cultured on the hydrogel with PEG/PCL= 6/14 was faster than that of the others. In addition, the morphology of MSCs seemed to be normal and no cytotoxicity was found. The coating of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) containing scaffold with Matrigel slowed down the release of VEGF in vitro and promoted the angiogenesis when transplanted into BALB/c nude mice. These re- sults suggest that hBMSCs can be supported by a biode gradable hydrogel scaffold for effective cell growth, and enhance the angiogenesis by Matrigel coating.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bortezomib is widely used for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) endow myeloma cells with survival and growth advantages. However, the influence of bortezomib on BMSCs is not well elucidated. We examined the effects of bortezomib on the survival and growth of BMSCs in vitro.
The effects of bortezomib on the survival and proliferation of the BMSC MS-5 cell line and on BMSCs obtained from healthy individuals (N=4) and newly diagnosed myeloma patients (N=5) were investigated in vitro. Transmembrane cell migration was evaluated using the Transwell system. A short interfering RNA strategy was used to knock down the expression of chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) mRNA. To examine the effects of bortezomib-exposed BMSCs on the migration and localization of myeloma cells, MS-5 monolayers were treated with bortezomib for 24 hr, washed, and then overlaid with human RPMI8226 myeloma cells.
Bortezomib inhibited BMSC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, and induced cellular apoptosis. Bortezomib decreased CXCL12 production by BMSCs. Knockdown of CXCL12 mRNA in BMSCs revealed that CXCL12 served as an autocrine growth factor. Short-term bortezomib treatment of BMSC monolayers reduced the tendency of myeloma cells to locate to positions under the monolayers.
Bortezomib inhibits the survival and growth of BMSCs via downregulation of CXCL12, which may contribute to the clinical effects of this agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no regimen that is strongly recommended for more than second-line treatment. We investigated the efficacy and safety of platinum/vinorelbine as more than second-line treatment.
We selected patients with advanced NSCLC who received treatment with platinum/vinorelbine at Chungnam National University Hospital from August 2001 to December 2013. The primary end point was the response rate, and secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity.
Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Response rate was 22.9% (complete response 0 patients (0.0%); partial response eight patients (22.9%); stable disease 10 patients (28.6%); progressive disease 14 patients (40.0%)). A significantly higher response rate was observed for patients who had responded to previous chemotherapy than for those who did not (34.8% [8/23] vs. 0% [0/12], p=0.020). The median progression-free survival was 4 (range 1-21) months. Patients with adenocarcinoma and non-smokers had a significantly longer PFS than patients with non-adenocarcinoma and smokers (5 vs. 2 months, p=0.007; 4.5 vs. 2 months, p=0.046, respectively). The median overall survival was 10 (range 1-41) months. Patients with good performance status and non-smokers had a significantly longer OS than patients with poor performance status and smokers (14 vs. 4 months, p=0.02; 18.5 vs. 6 months, p=0.049, respectively). The main serious adverse event (grade 3 or 4) was neutropenia (15 events, 13.3%) in a total of 113 cycles.
Platinum/vinorelbine was effective as more than second-line chemotherapy, and the toxicity was tolerable, in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The C-X-C chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) has been shown to be a decoy receptor for CXCR4 in certain cell types. We investigated the expression status and functional roles of CXCR7 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in vitro.
CXCR7 mRNA was knocked down in AML cells by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology, and subsequent biological alterations in the cells were evaluated in vitro.
All AML cell lines examined in this study (U937, K562, KG1a, HL-60, and MO7e) and primary CD34(+) cells obtained from patients with AML expressed CXCR7 mRNA at various levels. Western blotting showed that all AML cells produced CXCR7. Furthermore, all AML cells expressed CXCR7 in both the cytoplasm and on the cell surface at various levels. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12)) induced internalization of cell surface CXCR7. However, neither hypoxia nor the examined hematopoietic growth factors (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-3, IL-6, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte, macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and stem cell factor) and proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were found to alter cell surface CXCR7 expression. The transfection of AML cells with CXCR4 siRNA, but not CXCR7 siRNA, significantly impaired the CXCL12-induced transmigration of the cells. The transfection of AML cells with CXCR7 siRNA did not affect the survival or proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of CXCR7, but not CXCR4, induced the upregulation of CXCL12 mRNA expression and CXCL12 production in AML cells.
CXCR7 is involved in the regulation of autocrine CXCL12 in AML cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoma in patients with multiple myeloma usually develops in the advanced stage of the disease. We report herein an atypical case of extramedullary relapse of multiple myeloma that presented as mechanical obstruction of the small bowel in a patient who had achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with multiple myeloma 25 months previously and treated with a bortezomib-containing chemotherapy regimen. He presented for evaluation of abdominal pain. A circumferential mass resulting in mechanical ileus was observed by abdominal computed tomography. Biopsy after surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. The patient was subsequently treated with thalidomide-containing chemotherapy, but he died of disease progression after 6 months. We suggest careful observation of unusual relapses of multiple myeloma in patients who have achieved complete remission after antimyeloma therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first edition of the Korean treatment guidelines for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was published in 2006. We intend to update those guidelines to include the use of next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic and prognostic role of baseline spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple myeloma.
We enrolled patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma from 2004-2011 at a single center. Abnormal MRI findings that were not detected in radiographs have been analyzed and categorized as malignant compression fractures or extramedullary plasmacytoma. The bone marrow (BM) infiltration patterns on MRI have been classified into five categories.
A total of 113 patients with a median age of 65 years (range, 40 to 89 years) were enrolled in the study. Malignant compression fractures not detected in the bone survey were found in 26 patients (23.0%), including three patients (2.6%) with no related symptoms or signs. Extramedullary plasmacytoma was detected in 22 patients (19.5%), including 15 (13.3%) with epidural extension of the tumor. Of these 22 patients, 11 (50.0%) had no relevant symptoms or signs. The presence of malignant compression fractures did not influence overall survival; whereas non-epidural extramedullary plasmacytoma was associated with poor overall survival in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.205; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.430 to 9.845; p=0.042). During the follow-up for a median of 21 months (range, 1 to 91 months), overall survival with the mixed BM infiltrative pattern (median, 24.0 months; 95% CI, 22.9 to 25.1 months) was shorter than those with other patterns (median 56 months; 95% CI, 48.9 to 63.1 months; p=0.030).
These results indicate that spine MRI at the time of diagnosis is useful for detecting skeletal lesions and predicting the prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study sought to elucidate the role of induction and consolidation therapy in elderly patients. We retrospectively collected data of 477 patients who were aged over 60 years at the time of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnosis. The median overall survival (OS) was 339 days in the induction group (n = 266) and 86 days in the best supportive care group (n = 211) (P < 0.001). In the induction group, the complete remission (CR) rate was 58.3 %, and treatment-related death was 15.4 %. Successful induction was related to good performance [Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG <2)] [hazard ratio (HR) 3.215; P = 0.002]. Mortality correlated with failure to achieve CR (HR 4.059; P < 0.001) and poor performance status (ECOG >2) (HR 2.731; P = 0.035). In CR patients, poor karyotype and absence of consolidation (HR 2.313; P = 0.003) correlated with mortality. More than one cycle of consolidation was associated with better OS (P < 0.001). Lack of salvage therapy was associated with mortality in patients who did not achieve CR (HR 3.223; P = 0.005). Intensive induction in patients with good performance and >1 cycle of consolidation after CR may be the best strategy for improving OS in elderly AML patients.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and to identify the specific abnormalities associated with poor prognosis. A total of 2,474 patients whose conventional cytogenetics were available at the time of diagnosis were evaluated via a nationwide registry. Normal metaphase cytogenetics was observed in 2,012 patients (81.3%). Among the 462 patients with chromosomal abnormalities, there were 161 (34.8%) patients with hyperdiploidy, 197 (42.6%) with pseudodiploidy, 79 (17.1%) with hypodiploidy, and 25 (5.5%) with near-tetraploidy. Deletion 13 (Δ13) in metaphase was observed in 167 patients (6.8%). Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out in 967 patients (39.1%), and 66 (13.7%) out of 482 and 63 (10.3%) out of 611 patients were positive for t(4;14) and del(17p), respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 25.1 months, the median overall survival (OS) was 51.2 months (95% confidence interval, 46.5-55.9 months). In univariate analysis, the following four chromosomal abnormalities were significantly associated with a poor survival outcome: Δ13, hypodiploidy, del(13q) in FISH, and del(17p) in FISH. In the subsequent multivariate analysis, in which del(13q) and del(17p) in FISH were excluded due to a relatively low number of patients, Δ13 and hypodiploid status were independently associated with a poor survival outcome after adjusting for important clinical factors, including age, sex, performance, beta2-microglobulin, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Using conventional metaphase cytogenetics, we confirmed that both Δ13 and hypodiploid status were robust poor prognostic factors. The metaphase karyotyping should remain the primary cytogenetic tool and an essential investigation for risk stratification in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer, and the second-highest cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite extensive research to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic agents, patients with advanced gastric cancer suffer from a poor quality of life and poor prognosis, and treatment is dependent mainly on conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. To improve the quality of life and survival of gastric cancer patients, a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathologies, and their application towards the development of novel targeted therapies, is urgently needed. Chemokines are a group of small proteins associated with cytoskeletal rearrangements, the directional migration of several cell types during development and physiology, and the host immune response via interactions with G-protein coupled receptors. There is also growing evidence to suggest that chemokines not only play a role in the immune system, but are also involved in the development and progression of tumors. In gastric cancer, CXC chemokines and chemokine receptors regulate the trafficking of cells in and out of the tumor microenvironment. CXC chemokines and their receptors can also directly influence tumorigenesis by modulating tumor transformation, survival, growth, invasion and metastasis, as well as indirectly by regulating angiogenesis, and tumor-leukocyte interactions. In this review, we will focus on the roles of CXC chemokines and their receptors in the development, progression, and metastasis of gastric tumors, and discuss their therapeutic potential for gastric cancer.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by subacute-onset proximal symmetric muscle weakness, skin abnormalities, and muscle inflammation. Descriptions of DM as a complication of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) are very rare. We report a 50-year-old woman who developed DM associated with cGVHD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transfusional iron overload and its consequences are challenges in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) or aplastic anemia (AA).
This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label study to investigate the efficacy of deferasirox (DFX) by serial measurement of serum ferritin (S-ferritin) level, liver iron concentration (LIC) level using relaxation rates magnetic resonance imaging, and other laboratory variables in patients with MDS or AA.
A total of 96 patients showing S-ferritin level of at least 1000 ng/mL received daily DFX for up to 1 year. At the end of the study, S-ferritin level was significantly decreased in MDS (p = 0.02366) and AA (p = 0.0009). LIC level was also significantly reduced by more than 6.7 mg Fe/g dry weight from baseline. Hemoglobin level and platelet counts were significantly increased from baseline (p = 0.002 and p = 0.025, respectively) for patients showing significant anemia or thrombocytopenia. Elevated alanine aminotransferase was also significantly decreased from baseline.
This study shows that DFX is effective in reducing S-ferritin and LIC level in transfusional iron overload patients with MDS or AA and is well tolerated. In addition, positive effects in hematologic and hepatic function can be expected with DFX. Iron chelation treatment should be considered in transfused patients with MDS and AA when transfusion-related iron overload is documented.