Mathias Viard

National Cancer Institute (USA), 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (52)259.06 Total impact

  • Mathias Viard · Anu Puri
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    ABSTRACT: Lipids are integral part of cell membranes and play a vital role in biological processes such as membrane fusion, exocytosis, cell signaling, and disease progression. Uniquely defined chemical structures of lipids as well as their assembly in the aqueous environment are often known to dictate their biological activity. Some of these features of lipids have been exploited to develop carriers for drugs, bioactive molecules, and nucleic acids. Lipid-based nanocarriers (specifically liposomes) have claimed their status in the field of cancer nanomedicine. Liposomes, the longest studied nanocarriers (at least since four decades), are currently used in the clinics for delivery of drugs to treat certain types of cancers though not at their full potential. Further development in this field by utilizing site-specific targeting molecules and/or efforts to generate tunable liposomes can be predicted to enhance their suitability in the clinical settings. In general, the chemical and biophysical properties of lipid molecules primarily dictate the development of tunable (stimuli-sensitive) liposomes. Research activities toward stimuli-responsive liposomes can be broadly classified into internal (pH, redox, and enzyme) or external (heat, light and/or magnetic field, and ultrasound) stimulus. In this review, we will discuss the current status and latest developments in the field of stimuli-sensitive liposomes. The topics covered in this review will include (i) a brief summary of liposomes used in the clinics, stimuli-sensitive liposomes; (ii) triggering events by inclusion of coagents in the liposomes; (iii) triggering based on properties of lipids to yield heat, light, pH, redox, and enzyme-activatable liposomes; and (iv) limitations and future directions for the development of clinically viable stimuli-responsive liposomes.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we have investigated a new class of cationic lipids - "bolaamphiphiles" or "bolas" for their ability to efficiently deliver small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to cancer cells. The bolas of this study consist of a hydrophobic chain with one or more positively charged head groups at each end. Recently, we reported that micelles of the bolas GLH-19 and GLH-20 (derived from vernonia oil) efficiently deliver siRNAs, while having relatively low toxicities in vitro and in vivo. Our previous studies validated that; bolaamphiphiles can be designed to vary the magnitude of siRNA shielding, its delivery, and its subsequent release. To further understand the structural features of bolas critical for siRNAs delivery, new structurally related bolas (GLH-58 and GLH-60) were designed and synthesized from jojoba oil. Both bolas have similar hydrophobic domains and contain either one, in GLH-58, or two, in GLH-60 positively charged head groups at each end of the hydrophobic core. We have computationally predicted and experimentally validated that GLH-58 formed more stable nano sized micelles than GLH-60 and performed significantly better in comparison to GLH-60 for siRNA delivery. GLH-58/siRNA complexes demonstrated better efficiency in silencing the expression of the GFP gene in human breast cancer cells at concentrations of 5μg/mL, well below the toxic dose. Moreover, delivery of multiple different siRNAs targeting the HIV genome and further inhibition of virus production was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Controlled Release
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the structure-activity relationship of oxime ether lipids (OELs) containing modifications in the hydrophobic domains (chain length, degree of unsaturation) and hydrophilic head groups (polar domain hydroxyl groups) toward complex formation with siRNA molecules and siRNA delivery efficiency of resulting complexes to a human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Ability of lipoplex formation between oxime ether lipids with nucleic acids were examined using biophysical techniques. The potential of OELs to deliver nucleic acids and silence green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was analyzed using MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231/GFP cells, respectively. Introduction of hydroxyl groups to the polar domain of the OELs and unsaturation into the hydrophobic domain favor higher transfection and gene silencing in a cell culture system.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Nanomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: Proteins are considered to be the key players in structure, function, and metabolic regulation of our bodies. The mechanisms used in conventional therapies often rely on inhibition of proteins with small molecules, but another promising method to treat disease is by targeting the corresponding mRNAs. In 1998, Craig Mellow and Andrew Fire discovered dsRNA-mediated gene silencing via RNA interference or RNAi. This discovery introduced almost unlimited possibilities for new gene silencing methods, thus opening new doors to clinical medicine. RNAi is a biological process that inhibits gene expression by targeting the mRNA. RNAi-based therapeutics have several potential advantages (i) a priori ability to target any gene, (ii) relatively simple design process, (iii) sitespecificity, (iv) potency, and (v) a potentially safe and selective knockdown of the targeted cells. However, the problem lies within the formulation and delivery of RNAi therapeutics including rapid excretion, instability in the bloodstream, poor cellular uptake, and inefficient intracellular release. In an attempt to solve these issues, different types of RNAi therapeutic delivery strategies including multifunctional RNA nanoparticles are being developed. In this mini-review, we will briefly describe some of the current approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Control over cellular delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized activation is a challenging task. We report several RNA and RNA/DNA-based nanoparticles designed to conditionally activate the RNA interference in various human cells. These nanoparticles allow precise control over their formulation, stability in blood serum, and activation of multiple functionalities. Importantly, interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation assays indicate the significantly lower responses for DNA nanoparticles compared to the RNA counterparts, suggesting greater potential of these molecules for therapeutic use.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · ACS Nano
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    ABSTRACT: Our recent advancements in RNA nanotechnology introduced novel nanoscaffolds (nanorings); however, the potential of their use for biomedical applications was never fully revealed. As presented here, besides functionalization with multiple different short interfering RNAs for combinatorial RNA interference (e.g., against multiple HIV-1 genes), nanorings also allow simultaneous embedment of assorted RNA aptamers, fluorescent dyes, proteins, as well as recently developed RNA–DNA hybrids aimed to conditionally activate multiple split functionalities inside cells.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nano Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid conjugated peptides have advanced the understanding of membrane protein functions and the roles of lipids in the membrane milieu. These lipo-peptides modulate various biological systems such as viral fusion. A single function has been suggested for the lipid, which is binding to the membrane, thus elevating the peptide's local concentration at the target site. Here, we challenged this argument by exploring in-depth the antiviral mechanism of lipo-peptides, which are comprised of sphinganine, the lipid backbone of dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM), and an HIV-1 envelope derived peptide. Surprisingly, we discovered a partnership between the lipid and the peptide that impaired early membrane fusion events by reducing CD4 receptor lateral diffusion and HIV-1 fusion peptide mediated lipid mixing. Moreover, only the joint function of sphinganine and its conjugate peptide disrupted HIV-1 fusion protein assembly and folding at the later fusion steps. Via imaging techniques we revealed for the first time the direct localization of these lipo-peptides to the virus-cell and cell-cell contact sites. Overall, the findings may be implicative to lipid-protein interactions in various biological systems and may help uncover DHSM's role that is elevated in HIV-1 and its target cell membranes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The use of RNAs as scaffolds for biomedical applications has several advantages compared with other existing nanomaterials. These include (i) programmability, (ii) precise control over folding and self-assembly, (iii) natural functionalities as exemplified by ribozymes, riboswitches, RNAi, editing, splicing, and inherent translation and transcription control mechanisms, (iv) biocompatibility, (v) relatively low immune response, and (vi) relatively low cost and ease of production. We have tapped into several of these properties and functionalities to construct RNA-based functional nanoparticles (RNA NPs). In several cases, the structural core and the functional components of the NPs are inherent in the same construct. This permits control over the spatial disposition of the components, intracellular availability, and precise stoichiometry.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Accounts of Chemical Research
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Control over the simultaneous delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized intracellular activation can greatly benefit the fields of RNA and DNA biomedical nanotechnologies and allow for the production of nanoparticles and various switching devices with controllable functions. We present a system of multiple split functionalities embedded in the cognate pairs of RNA-DNA hybrids which are programmed to recognize each other, re-associate and form a DNA duplex while also releasing the split RNA fragments which upon association regain their original functions. Simultaneous activation of three different functionalities (RNAi, Förster resonance energy transfer and RNA aptamer) confirmed by multiple in vitro and cell culture experiments prove the concept. To automate the design process, a novel computational tool that differentiates between the thermodynamic stabilities of RNA-RNA, RNA-DNA and DNA-DNA duplexes was developed. Moreover, here we demonstrate that besides being easily produced by annealing synthetic RNAs and DNAs, the individual hybrids carrying longer RNAs can be produced by RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of single-stranded DNA templates.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Nucleic Acids Research
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported on the physical characteristics of photo-triggerable liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and 1,2-bis (tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC) carrying a photo agent as their payload. When exposed to a low-intensity 514 nm wavelength (continuous-wave) laser light, these liposomes were observed to release entrapped calcein green (Cal-G; Ex/Em 490/517 nm) but not calcein blue (Cal-B; Ex/Em 360/460 nm). In this study, we have investigated the mechanism for the 514 nm laser-triggered release of the Cal-G payload using several scavengers that are known specifically to inhibit either type I or type II photoreaction pathways. Liposomes containing DPPC:DC8,9PC: distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-2000 (86:10:04 mole ratio) were loaded either with fluorescent (calcein) or nonfluorescent ((3)H-inulin) aqueous markers. In addition, a non-photo-triggerable formulation (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine [POPC]:DC8,9PC:DSPE-PEG2000) was also studied with the same payloads. The 514 nm wavelength laser exposure on photo-triggerable liposomes resulted in the release of Cal-G but not that of Cal-B or (3)H-inulin, suggesting an involvement of a photoactivated state of Cal-G due to the 514 nm laser exposure. Upon 514 nm laser exposures, substantial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ≈100 μM) levels were detected from only the Cal-G loaded photo-triggerable liposomes but not from Cal-B-loaded liposomes (≤10 μM H2O2). The Cal-G release from photo-triggerable liposomes was found to be significantly inhibited by ascorbic acid (AA), resulting in a 70%-80% reduction in Cal-G release. The extent of AA-mediated inhibition of Cal-G release from the liposomes also correlated with the consumption of AA. No AA consumption was detected in the 514 nm laserexposed Cal B-loaded liposomes, thus confirming a role of photoactivation of Cal-G in liposome destabilization. Inclusion of 100 mM K3Fe(CN)6 (a blocker of electron transfer) in the liposomes substantially inhibited Cal-G release, whereas inclusion of 10 mM sodium azide (a blocker of singlet oxygen of type II photoreaction) in the liposomes failed to block 514 nm laser-triggered Cal-G release. Taken together, we conclude that low-intensity 514 nm laser-triggered release of Cal-G from photo-triggerable liposomes involves the type I photoreaction pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · International Journal of Nanomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: Split-protein systems, an approach that relies on fragmentation of proteins with their further conditional re-association to form functional complexes, are increasingly used for various biomedical applications. This approach offers tight control of protein functions and improved detection sensitivity. Here we report a similar technique based on a pair of RNA–DNA hybrids that can be used generally for triggering different split functionalities. Individually, each hybrid is inactive but when two cognate hybrids re-associate, different functionalities are triggered inside mammalian cells. As a proof of concept, this work mainly focuses on the activation of RNA interference. However, the release of other functionalities (such as resonance energy transfer and RNA aptamer) is also shown. Furthermore, in vivo studies demonstrate a significant uptake of the hybrids by tumours together with specific gene silencing. This split-functionality approach presents a new route in the development of ‘smart’ nucleic acid-based nanoparticles and switches for various biomedical applications.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Nature Nanotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Human apolipoprotein-B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts retroviruses, endogenous retro-elements and DNA viruses. A3G plays a key role in the anti-HIV-1 innate cellular immunity. The HIV-1 Vif protein counteracts A3G mainly by leading A3G towards the proteosomal machinery and by direct inhibition of its enzymatic activity. Both activities involve direct interaction between Vif and A3G. Disrupting the interaction between A3G and Vif may rescue A3G antiviral activity and inhibit HIV-1 propagation. Here, mapping the interaction sites between A3G and Vif by peptide array screening revealed distinct regions in Vif important for A3G binding, including the N-terminal domain (NTD), C-terminal domain (CTD) and residues 83-99. The Vif-binding sites in A3G included 12 different peptides that showed strong binding to either full-length Vif, Vif CTD or both. Sequence similarity was found between Vif-binding peptides from the A3G CTD and NTD. A3G peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to counteract Vif action. A3G 211-225 inhibited HIV-1 replication in cell culture and impaired Vif dependent A3G degradation. In vivo co-localization of full-length Vif with A3G 211-225 was demonstrated by use of FRET. This peptide has the potential to serve as an anti-HIV-1 lead compound. Our results suggest a complex interaction between Vif and A3G that is mediated by discontinuous binding regions with different affinities.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) designed to silence different oncogenic pathways can be used for cancer therapy. However, non-modified naked siRNAs have short half-lives in blood serum and encounter difficulties in crossing biological membranes due to their negative charge. These obstacles can be overcome by using siRNAs complexed with bolaamphiphiles, consisting of two positively charged head groups that flank an internal hydrophobic chain. Bolaamphiphiles have relatively low toxicities, long persistence in the blood stream, and most importantly, in aqueous conditions can form poly-cationic micelles thus, becoming amenable to association with siRNAs. Herein, two different bolaamphiphiles with acetylcholine head groups attached to an alkyl chain in two distinct configurations are compared for their abilities to complex with siRNAs and deliver them into cells inducing gene silencing. Our explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that bolaamphiphiles associate with siRNAs due to electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. These in silico studies are supported by various in vitro and in cell culture experimental techniques as well as by some in vivo studies. Results demonstrate that depending on the application, the extent of siRNA chemical protection, delivery efficiency, and further intracellular release can be varied by simply changing the type of bolaamphiphile used.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e80; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.5; published online 19 March 2013.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Biophysical Journal
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    Robert Blumenthal · Stewart Durell · Mathias Viard
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    ABSTRACT: HIV entry involves binding of the trimeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120/gp41 to cell surface receptors, which triggers conformational changes in Env that drive the membrane fusion reaction. The conformational landscape that the lipids and Env navigate en route to fusion has been examined by biophysical measurements on the microscale, whereas electron tomography, x-rays, and NMR have provided insights into the process on the nanoscale and atomic scale. However, the coupling between the lipid and protein pathways that give rise to fusion has not been resolved. Here, we discuss the known and unknown about the overall HIV Env-mediated fusion process.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the structural organization of lipids in the cell and viral membranes is essential for elucidating mechanisms of viral fusion that lead to entry of enveloped viruses into their host cells. The HIV lipidome shows a remarkable enrichment in dihydrosphingomyelin, an unusual sphingolipid formed by a dihydrosphingosine backbone. Here we investigated the ability of dihydrosphingosine to incorporate into the site of membrane fusion mediated by the HIV envelope (Env) protein. Dihydrosphingosine as well as cholesterol, fatty acid, and tocopherol was conjugated to highly conserved, short HIV-1 Env-derived peptides with no antiviral activity otherwise. We showed that dihydrosphingosine exclusively endowed nanomolar antiviral activity to the peptides (IC(50) as low as 120 nM) in HIV-1 infection on TZM-bl cells and on Jurkat T cells, as well as in the cell-cell fusion assay. These sphingopeptides were active against enfuvirtide-resistant and wild-type CXCR4 and CCR5 tropic HIV strains. The anti-HIV activity was determined by both the peptides and their dihydrosphingosine conjugate. Moreover, their mode of action involved accumulation in the cells and viruses and binding to membranes enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The data suggest that sphingopeptides are recruited to the HIV membrane fusion site and provide a general concept in developing inhibitors of sphingolipid-mediated biological systems.-Ashkenazi, A., Viard, M., Unger, L., Blumenthal, R., Shai, Y. Sphingopeptides: dihydrosphingosine-based fusion inhibitors against wild-type and enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · The FASEB Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) act as vehicles that transfer HIV to their target CD4(+) cells through an intercellular junction, termed the virologic synapse. The molecules that are involved in this process remain largely unidentified. In this study, we used photoaffinity labeling and a proteomic approach to identify new proteins that facilitate HIV-1 transfer. We identified ectopic mitochondrial ATP synthase as a factor that mediates HIV-1 transfer between APCs and CD4(+) target cells. Monoclonal antibodies against the β-subunit of ATP synthase inhibited APC-mediated transfer of multiple strains HIV-1 to CD4(+) target cells. Likewise, the specific inhibitors of ATPase, citreoviridin and IF1, completely blocked APC-mediated transfer of HIV-1 at the APC-target cell interaction step. Confocal fluorescent microscopy showed localization of extracellular ATP synthase at junctions between APC and CD4(+) target cells. We conclude that ectopic ATP synthase could be an accessible molecular target for inhibiting HIV-1 proliferation in vivo.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: It has been previously shown that enveloped viruses can be inactivated using aryl azides, such as 1-iodo-5-azidonaphthalene (INA), plus UVA irradiation with preservation of surface epitopes in the inactivated virus preparations. Prolonged UVA irradiation in the presence of INA results in ROS-species formation, which in turn results in detergent resistant viral protein fractions. Herein, we characterize the applicability of this technique to inactivate influenza. It is shown that influenza virus + INA (100 micromolar) + UVA irradiation for 30 minutes results in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in pelletablehemagglutinin after Triton X-100 treatment followed by ultracentrifugation. Additionally, characterization of the virus suspension by immunogold labeling in cryo-EM, and viral pellet characterization via immunoprecipitation with a neutralizing antibody, shows preservation of neutralization epitopes after this treatment. These orthogonally inactivated viral preparations with detergent resistant fractions are being explored as a novel route for safe, effective inactivated vaccines generated from a variety of enveloped viruses.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Virology Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with target cells is mediated by the gp41 subunit of the envelope protein. Mutation and deletion studies within the transmembrane domain (TMD) of intact gp41 influenced its fusion activity. In addition, current models suggest that the TMD is in proximity with the fusion peptide (FP) at the late fusion stages, but there are no direct experimental data to support this hypothesis. Here, we investigated the TMD focusing on two regions: the N-terminal containing the GxxxG motif and the C-terminal containing the GLRI motif, which is conserved among the TMDs of HIV and the T-cell receptor. Studies utilizing the ToxR expression system combined with synthetic peptides and their fluorescent analogues derived from TMD revealed that the GxxxG motif is important for TMD self-association, whereas the C-terminal region is for its heteroassociation with FP. Functionally, all three TMD peptides induced lipid mixing that was enhanced significantly upon mixing with FP. Furthermore, the TMD peptides inhibited virus-cell fusion apparently through their interaction with their endogenous counterparts. Notably, the R2E mutant (in the GLRI) was significantly less potent than the two others. Overall, our findings provide experimental evidence that HIV-1 TMD contributes to membrane assembly and function of the HIV-1 envelope. Owing to similarities between functional domains within viruses, these findings suggest that the TMDs and FPs may contribute similarly in other viruses as well.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Biochemistry

Publication Stats

1k Citations
259.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2015
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Basic Research Laboratory
      • • CCR Nanobiology Program
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • SAIC
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004-2014
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Basic Research Laboratory
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2003-2013
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 2002-2013
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Oklahoma State University - Stillwater
      SWO, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2007-2008
    • Cancer Research Institute
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003-2008
    • National Eye Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1997-2001
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France