Robb E. Moses

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (94)442.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: GSK3β regulates brain some functions, but the mechanisms involved in maintenance of GSK3β protein stability remain ambiguous. REGγ, an important proteasome activator for ubiquitin-independent protein degradation, has been shown to degrade certain intact proteins and is involved in the regulation of important biological processes. Here we demonstrate that REGγ promotes the degradation of GSK3β protein in vitro and in vivo. With increased GSK3β activity, REGγ knockout (REGγ -/-) mice exhibit late-onset sensorimotor gating and cognitive deficiencies including decreased working memory, hyper locomotion, increased stereotype, defective prepulse inhibition (PPI) and disability in nest building, at the age of 8 months or older. Inhibition of GSK3β rescued the compromised PPI phenotypes and working memory deficiency in the knockout mice. Also, we found an age-dependent decrease in the trypsin-like proteasomal activity in REGγ -/- mice brains, which may be reflective of a lack of degradation of GSK3β. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel regulatory pathway in which the REGγ-proteasome controls the steady state level of GSK3β protein. Dysfunction in this non-canonical proteasome degradation pathway may contribute to the sensorimotor gating deficiency and cognitive disorders in aging mice.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 15 September 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.285.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report that mice deficient for the proteasome activator, REGγ, exhibit a marked resistance to TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-induced keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal hyperplasia and onset of papillomas compared with wild-type counterparts. Interestingly, a massive increase of REGγ in skin tissues or cells resulting from TPA induces activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/p38). Blocking p38 MAPK activation prevents REGγ elevation in HaCaT cells with TPA treatment. AP-1, the downstream effector of MAPK/p38, directly binds to the REGγ promoter and activates its transcription in response to TPA stimulation. Furthermore, we find that REGγ activates Wnt/β-catenin signalling by degrading GSK-3β in vitro and in cells, increasing levels of CyclinD1 and c-Myc, the downstream targets of β-catenin. Conversely, MAPK/p38 inactivation or REGγ deletion prevents the increase of cyclinD1 and c-Myc by TPA. This study demonstrates that REGγ acts in skin tumorigenesis mediating MAPK/p38 activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Nature Communications
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    A Ali · P Zhang · Y Liangfang · S Wenshe · H Wang · X Lin · Y Dai · X-H Feng · R Moses · D Wang · X Li · J Xiao
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of tumor suppressive signaling is linked to cancer progression, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important role in tumor suppression. Kruppel-like-factor 17 (KLF17) is a negative regulator of metastasis and EMT. However, underlying mechanisms leading to tumor suppressive and anti-metastatic function of KLF17 still remains unknown. Here, we show that KLF17 plays an integral role in potentiating TGF-β/Smad signaling via Smad3-dependent pathway to suppress tumor progression. Intriguingly, TGF-β/Smad3 signaling induces KLF17 expression, generating a positive feedback loop. TGF-β/Smad3-KLF17 loop is critical for anti-metastasis and tumor inhibition in cancer cells. Mechanistically, silencing KLF17 reduced Smad3-DNA complex formation on Smad binding element (SBE) and affects the expression of TGF-β/Smad target genes. Moreover, KLF17 alters Smad3 binding pattern on chromatin. KLF17 regulates TGF-β target genes that are Smad3-dependent. Smad3 and KLF17 physically interact with each other via KLF17 responsive elements/SBE region. Intriguingly, TGF-β stimulates the recruitment of KLF17 on chromatin to subsets of metastasis-associated genes. Functionally, depletion of KLF17 enhanced tumorigenic features in cancer cells. KLF17 is critical for full cytostatic function of TGF-β/Smad signaling. Clinically, KLF17 expression significantly decreases during advance HCC. KLF17 shows positive correlation with Smad3 levels in cancer samples. Our data shows that enhance KLF17 activity has important therapeutic implications for targeted-therapies aimed at TGF-β/Smad3 pathway. These findings define novel mechanism by which TGF-β/Smad-KLF17 pathway mutually affect each other during cancer metastasis, provide a new model of regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling by KLF17 and defines new insights into anti-metastatic function of KLF17.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Cell Death & Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Biallelic mutations in BLM cause Bloom syndrome (BS), a genome instability disorder characterized by growth retardation, sun sensitivity and a predisposition to cancer. As evidence of decreased genome stability, BS cells demonstrate not only elevated levels of spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), but also exhibit chromosomal radial formation. The molecular nature and mechanism of radial formation is not known, but radials have been thought to be DNA recombination intermediates between homologs that failed to resolve. However, we find that radials in BS cells occur over 95% between non-homologous chromosomes, and occur non-randomly throughout the genome. BLM must be phosphorylated at T99 and T122 for certain cell cycle checkpoints, but it is not known whether these modifications are necessary to suppress radial formation. We find that exogenous BLM constructs preventing phosphorylation at T99 and T122 are not able to suppress radial formation in BS cells, but are able to inhibit SCE formation. These findings indicate that BLM functions in 2 distinct pathways requiring different modifications. In one pathway, for which the phosphorylation marks appear dispensable, BLM functions to suppress SCE formation. In a second pathway, T99 and T122 phosphorylations are essential for suppression of chromosomal radial formation, both those formed spontaneously and those formed following interstrand crosslink damage. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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    Xiaotao Li · Robb E Moses · Jianping Jin · Weiguo Cao · Carlos Caulin

    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) drives diverse gene expression programs necessary for the dynamic regulation of cancer metastasis, inflammation and gluconeogenesis, pointing to its overlapping roles as an oncoprotein and integrator of cell metabolic programs. Nutrient utilization has been intensely studied with regards to cellular adaptation in both cancer and non-cancerous cells. Non-proliferating cells consume glucose through the citric acid cycle to generate NADH to fuel ATP generation via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support rapid proliferation. To generate lipids, nucleotides, and proteins necessary for cell division, most tumors switch from oxidative phsphorylation to glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Warburg Effect. Since SRC-1 is a key coactivator responsible for driving a hepatic gluconeogenic program under fasting conditions, we asked whether SRC-1 responds to alterations in nutrient availability to allow for adaptive metabolism. Here we show SRC-1 is stabilized by the 26S proteasome in the absence of glucose. RNA profiling was used to examine the effects of SRC-1 perturbation on gene expression in the absence or presence of glucose, revealing that SRC-1 affects the expression of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, a set of enzymes responsible for the conversion of NADH to NAD(+). NAD(+) and NADH were subsequently identified as metabolites that underlie SRC-1's response to glucose deprivation. Knockdown of SRC-1 in glycolytic cancer cells abrogated their ability to grow in the absence of glucose consistent with SRC1's role in promoting cellular adaptation to reduced glucose availability.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Molecular Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Our recent studies suggest a role for the proteasome activator REG (11S regulatory particles, 28-kDa proteasome activator)γ in the regulation of tumor protein 53 (p53). However, the molecular details and in vivo biological significance of REGγ-p53 interplay remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that REGγ-deficient mice develop premature aging phenotypes that are associated with abnormal accumulation of casein kinase (CK) 1δ and p53. Antibody array analysis led us to identify CK1δ as a direct target of REGγ. Silencing CK1δ or inhibition of CK1δ activity prevented decay of murine double minute (Mdm)2. Interestingly, a massive increase of p53 in REGγ(-/-) tissues is associated with reduced Mdm2 protein levels despite that Mdm2 transcription is enhanced. Allelic p53 haplodeficiency in REGγ-deficient mice attenuated premature aging features. Furthermore, introducing exogenous Mdm2 to REGγ(-/-) MEFs significantly rescues the phenotype of cellular senescence, thereby establishing a REGγ-CK1-Mdm2-p53 regulatory pathway. Given the conflicting evidence regarding the "antiaging" and "proaging" effects of p53, our results indicate a key role for CK1δ-Mdm2-p53 regulation in the cellular aging process. These findings reveal a unique model that mimics acquired aging in mammals and indicates that modulating the activity of the REGγ-proteasome may be an approach for intervention in aging-associated disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Robb E Moses · Bert W O'Malley
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    ABSTRACT: DNA repair and transcription process complex nucleic acid structures. The mammalian cell can cross-utilize select components of either pathway to respond to general or special situations arising in either path. These functions comprise activity networks capable of addressing unique requirements for each process. Here, we discuss examples of such networks that are tailored to respond to the demands of both DNA repair and transcription. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • James Hejna · Donald Bruun · Daniel Pauw · Robb E Moses
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    ABSTRACT: The FA (Fanconi anaemia) FANCD2 protein is pivotal in the cellular response to DNA interstrand cross-links. Establishing cells expressing exogenous FANCD2 has proven to be difficult compared with other DNA repair genes. We find that in transformed normal human fibroblasts, exogenous nuclear expression of FANCD2 induces apoptosis, dependent specifically on exons 10-13. This is the same region required for interaction with the histone acetyltransferase, Tip60. Deletion of exons 10-13 from FANCD2 N-terminal constructs (nucleotides 1-1100) eliminates the binary interaction with Tip60 and the cellular apoptotic response; moreover, cells can stably express FANCD2 at high levels if Tip60 is depleted. The results indicate that FANCD2-sponsored apoptosis requires an interaction with Tip60 and depends on Tip60.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Cell Biology International
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    Kevin M McCabe · Susan B Olson · Robb E Moses
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    ABSTRACT: DNA damage by agents crosslinking the strands presents a formidable challenge to the cell to repair for survival and to repair accurately for maintenance of genetic information. It appears that repair of DNA crosslinks occurs in a path involving double strand breaks (DSBs) in the DNA. Mammalian cells have multiple systems involved in the repair response to such damage, including the Fanconi anemia pathway that appears to be directly involved, although the mechanisms and site of action remain elusive. A particular finding relating to deficiency of the Fanconi anemia pathway is the observation of chromosomal radial formations after ICL damage. The basis of formation of such chromosomal aberrations is unknown although they appear secondarily to DSBs. Here we review the processes involved in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks which might lead to radial formation and the role of the nucleotide excision repair gene, ERCC1, which is required for a normal response, not just to DNA crosslinks, but also for DSBs at collapsed replication forks caused by substrate depletion.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: The Bloom protein (BLM) and Topoisomerase IIIalpha are found in association with proteins of the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, a disorder manifesting increased cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. In order to determine if the association reflects a functional interaction for the maintenance of genome stability, we have analyzed the effects of siRNA-mediated depletion of the proteins in human cells. Depletion of Topoisomerase IIIalpha or BLM leads to increased radial formation, as is seen in FA. BLM and Topoisomerase IIIalpha are epistatic to the FA pathway for suppression of radial formation in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks since depletion of either of them in FA cells does not increase radial formation. Depletion of Topoisomerase IIIalpha or BLM also causes an increase in sister chromatid exchanges, as is seen in Bloom syndrome cells. Human Fanconi anemia cells, however, do not demonstrate increased sister chromatid exchanges, separating this response from radial formation. Primary cell lines from mice defective in both Blm and Fancd2 have the same interstrand crosslink-induced genome instability as cells from mice deficient in the Fancd2 protein alone. These observations demonstrate that the association of BLM and Topoisomerase IIIalpha with Fanconi proteins is a functional one, delineating a BLM-Topoisomerase IIIalpha-Fanconi pathway that is critical for suppression of chromosome radial formation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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    ABSTRACT: The rare genetic disorder Fanconi anemia, caused by a deficiency in any of at least thirteen identified genes, is characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks and genome instability. The excision repair cross complementing protein, ERCC1, first identified as a participant in nucleotide excision repair, appears to also act in crosslink repair, possibly in incision and at a later stage. We have investigated the relationship of ERCC1 to the Fanconi anemia pathway, using depletion of ERCC1 by siRNA in transformed normal human fibroblasts and fibroblasts from Fanconi anemia patients. We find that depletion of ERCC1 does not hinder formation of double strand breaks in crosslink repair as indexed by gammaH2AX. However, the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 protein in response to MMC treatment is decreased and the localization of FANCD2 to nuclear foci is eliminated. Arrest of DNA replication by hydroxyurea, producing double strand breaks without crosslinks, also requires ERRC1 for FANCD2 localization to nuclear foci. Our results support a role for ERCC1 after creation of a double strand break for full activation of the Fanconi anemia pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Although there exists compelling genetic evidence for a homologous recombination-independent pathway for repair of interstrand cross-links (ICLs) involving translesion synthesis (TLS), biochemical support for this model is lacking. To identify DNA polymerases that may function in TLS past ICLs, oligodeoxynucleotides were synthesized containing site-specific ICLs in which the linkage was between N(2)-guanines, similar to cross-links formed by mitomycin C and enals. Here, data are presented that mammalian cell replication of DNAs containing these lesions was approximately 97% accurate. Using a series of oligodeoxynucleotides that mimic potential intermediates in ICL repair, we demonstrate that human polymerase (pol) kappa not only catalyzed accurate incorporation opposite the cross-linked guanine but also replicated beyond the lesion, thus providing the first biochemical evidence for TLS past an ICL. The efficiency of TLS was greatly enhanced by truncation of both the 5 ' and 3 ' ends of the nontemplating strand. Further analyses showed that although yeast Rev1 could incorporate a dCTP opposite the cross-linked guanine, no evidence was found for TLS by pol zeta or a pol zeta/Rev1 combination. Because pol kappa was able to bypass these ICLs, biological evidence for a role for pol kappa in tolerating the N(2)-N(2)-guanine ICLs was sought; both cell survival and chromosomal stability were adversely affected in pol kappa-depleted cells following mitomycin C exposure. Thus, biochemical data and cellular studies both suggest a role for pol kappa in the processing of N(2)-N(2)-guanine ICLs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The protein encoded by SNM1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to act specifically in DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL) repair. There are five mammalian homologs of SNM1, including Artemis, which is involved in V(D)J recombination. Cells from mice constructed with a disruption in the Snm1 gene are sensitive to the DNA interstrand crosslinker, mitomycin (MMC), as indicated by increased radial formation following exposure. The mice reproduce normally and have normal life spans. However, a partial perinatal lethality, not seen in either homozygous mutant alone, can be noted when the Snm1 disruption is combined with a Fancd2 disruption. To explore the role of hSNM1 and its homologs in ICL repair in human cells, we used siRNA depletion in human fibroblasts, with cell survival and chromosome radials as the end points for sensitivity following treatment with MMC. Depletion of hSNM1 increases sensitivity to ICLs as detected by both end points, while depletion of Artemis does not. Thus hSNM1 is active in maintenance of genome stability following ICL formation. To evaluate the epistatic relationship between hSNM1 and other ICL repair pathways, we depleted hSNM1 in Fanconi anemia (FA) cells, which are inherently sensitive to ICLs. Depletion of hSNM1 in an FA cell line produces additive sensitivity for MMC. Further, mono-ubiquitination of FANCD2, an endpoint of the FA pathway, is not disturbed by depletion of hSNM1 in normal cells. Thus, hSNM1 appears to represent a second pathway for genome stability, distinct from the FA pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: The disease Fanconi anemia is a genome instability syndrome characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents, manifest by decreased cellular survival and chromosomal aberrations after such treatment. There are at least 13 proteins acting in the pathway, with the FANCD2 protein apparently functioning as a late term effecter in the maintenance of genome stability. We find that the chromatin remodeling protein, Tip60, interacts directly with the FANCD2 protein in a yeast two-hybrid system. This interaction has been confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization using both endogenous and epitope-tagged FANCD2 and Tip60 from human cells. The observation of decreased cellular survival after exposure to mitomycin C in normal fibroblasts depleted for Tip60 indicates a direct function in interstrand cross-link repair. The coincident function of Tip60 and FANCD2 in one pathway is supported by the finding that depletion of Tip60 in Fanconi anemia cells does not increase sensitivity to DNA cross-links. However, depletion of Tip60 did not reduce monoubiquitination of FANCD2 or its localization to nuclear foci following DNA damage. The observations indicate that Fanconi anemia proteins act in concert with chromatin remodeling functions to maintain genome stability after DNA cross-link damage.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: High levels of interstrand cross-link damage in mammalian cells cause chromatid breaks and radial formations recognizable by cytogenetic examination. The mechanism of radial formation observed following DNA damage has yet to be determined. Due to recent findings linking homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining to the action of the Fanconi anemia pathway, we speculated that radials might be the result of defects in either of the pathways of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the role of homologous recombination proteins RAD51 and RAD52, non-homologous end-joining proteins Ku70 and LIG4, and protein MRE11 in radial formation and cell survival following interstrand crosslink damage with mitomycin C. For the studies we used small inhibitory RNA to deplete the proteins from cells, allowing for evaluation of radial formation and cell survival. In transformed normal human fibroblasts, depletion of these proteins increased interstrand crosslink sensitivity as manifested by decreased cell survival and increased radial formation. These results demonstrate that inactivation of proteins from either of the two separate DNA repair pathways increases cellular sensitivity to interstrand crosslinks, indicating each pathway plays a role in the normal response to interstrand crosslink damage. We can also conclude that homologous recombination or non-homologous end-joining are not required for radial formation, since radials occur with depletion of these pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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    ABSTRACT: The human SNM1 protein is a member of a highly conserved group of proteins catalyzing the hydrolysis of nucleic acid substrates. Although overproduction is unstable in mammalian cells, we have overproduced a recombinant hSNM1 protein in an insect cell system. The protein is a single-strand 5′-exonuclease, like its yeast homolog. The enzyme utilizes either DNA or RNA substrates, requires a 5′-phosphate moiety, shows very little activity on double-strand substrates, and functions at a size consistent with a monomer. The exonuclease activity requires the conserved β-lactamase domain; site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved aspartate inactivates the exonuclease.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Nucleic Acids Research
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    ABSTRACT: The human SNM1 protein is a member of a highly conserved group of proteins catalyzing the hydro- lysis of nucleic acid substrates. Although over- production is unstable in mammalian cells, we have overproduced a recombinant hSNM1 protein in an insect cell system. The protein is a single- strand 50-exonuclease, like its yeast homolog. The enzyme utilizes either DNA or RNA substrates, requires a 50-phosphate moiety, shows very little activity on double-strand substrates, and functions at a size consistent with a monomer. The exonu- clease activity requires the conserved b-lactamase domain; site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved aspartate inactivates the exonuclease.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
  • Xiaoroang Li · James Hejna · Robb E Moses
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    ABSTRACT: Interstrand cross-links (ICL) in DNA arise from bifunctional alkylating agents, including nitrogen mustards, mitomycin C and psoralens. Such adducts prevent normal transcription or replication and are mutagenic. Therefore, cellular mechanisms for removing ICL damage are needed to maintain genome stability. Normal ICL repair requires the action of a number of genes, some specific for such damage. The yeast Snm1 protein is one such protein, but its function has been unknown. Incision for ICL repair is normal in mutants lacking Snm1, so it appears to act after the earliest steps. We have used recombinant SNM1 constructs in an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system to demonstrate that the yeast gene encodes a 5'-exonuclease. The exonuclease activity is required for Snm1 to be functional in ICL repair.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · DNA Repair
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    ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents and a high risk of cancer. Six of the eight proteins encoded by the known FA genes form a nuclear complex which is required for the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2 protein. FANCD2 complexes and colocalizes with BRCA1, but its presumptive role in DNA repair has not yet been clearly defined. We used yeast two-hybrid analysis to test for interaction between FANCD2 and 10 proteins involved in homologous recombination repair. FANCD2 did not interact with RAD51, the five RAD51 paralogs, RAD52, RAD54 or DMC1. However, it bound to a highly conserved C-terminal site in BRCA2 that also binds FANCG/XRCC9. FANCD2 and BRCA2 can be coimmunoprecipitated from cell extracts of both human and Chinese hamster wild-type cells, thus confirming that the interaction occurs in vivo. Formation of nuclear foci of FANCD2 was normal in the BRCA2 mutant CAPAN-1 cells, which indicates that the recruitment of FANCD2 to sites of DNA-repair is independent of wild-type BRCA2 function. FANCD2 colocalized with RAD51 in foci following treatment with mitomycin C or hydroxyurea, and colocalized very tightly with PCNA after treatment with hydroxyurea. These findings suggest that FANCD2 may have a role in the cellular response to stalled replication forks or in the repair of replication-associated double-strand breaks, irrespective of the type of primary DNA lesion.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2004 · Human Molecular Genetics

Publication Stats

3k Citations
442.29 Total Impact Points


  • 1978-2015
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Baylor University
      Waco, Texas, United States
  • 2013-2014
    • East China Normal University
      • • School of Life Sciences
      • • Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 1992-2010
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Molecular & Medical Genetics
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2002
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States