Nicole Kennerknecht

Forschungszentrum Jülich, Düren, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (5)12.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses export systems for various amino acids including BrnFE, a two-component export system for L-methionine and the branched-chain amino acids L-valine, L-isoleucine and L-leucine. A gene for a putative transcriptional regulator of the Lrp family is transcribed divergently to the brnFE operon and is required for L-isoleucine export. By comparing global gene expression changes due to L-isoleucine addition we revealed increased brnFE expression in response to L-isoleucine in C. glutamicum wild type but not in an lrp deletion mutant. ChIP-to-chip analysis, band shift experiments and DNAse footprint analysis demonstrated that Lrp binds to the intergenic region between lrp and brnF. Expression analysis of transcriptional fusions with the lrp and brnFE promoters indicated that branched-chain amino acids and L-methionine when added to the growth medium stimulated brnFE expression in the order L-leucine > L-methionine > L-isoleucine > L-valine and that Lrp was required for activation of brnFE expression. Thus, regulation of brnFE by Lrp ensures that BrnFE is synthesized only if its substrate amino acids accumulate in cells which is commensurate with its role to counteract such situations of metabolic imbalance.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Although l-serine proceeds in just three steps from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate, and as much as 8% of the carbon assimilated from glucose is directed via l-serine formation, previous attempts to obtain a strain producing l-serine from glucose have not been successful. We functionally identified the genes serC and serB from Corynebacterium glutamicum, coding for phosphoserine aminotransferase and phosphoserine phosphatase, respectively. The overexpression of these genes, together with the third biosynthetic serA gene, serAΔ197, encoding an l-serine-insensitive 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, yielded only traces of l-serine, as did the overexpression of these genes in a strain with the l-serine dehydratase gene sdaA deleted. However, reduced expression of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase gene glyA, in combination with the overexpression of serAΔ197, serC, and serB, resulted in a transient accumulation of up to 16 mM l-serine in the culture medium. When sdaA was also deleted, the resulting strain, C. glutamicum ΔsdaA::pK18mobglyA′(pEC-T18mob2serAΔ197CB), accumulated up to 86 mM l-serine with a maximal specific productivity of 1.2 mmol h−1 g (dry weight)−1. This illustrates a high rate of l-serine formation and also utilization in the C. glutamicum wild type. Therefore, metabolic engineering of l-serine production from glucose can be achieved only by addressing the apparent key position of this amino acid in the central metabolism.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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    Jan Marienhagen · Nicole Kennerknecht · Hermann Sahm · Lothar Eggeling
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty putative aminotransferase (AT) proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum, or rather pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, were isolated and assayed among others with l-glutamate, l-aspartate, and l-alanine as amino donors and a number of 2-oxo-acids as amino acceptors. One outstanding AT identified is AlaT, which has a broad amino donor specificity utilizing (in the order of preference) l-glutamate > 2-aminobutyrate > l-aspartate with pyruvate as acceptor. Another AT is AvtA, which utilizes l-alanine to aminate 2-oxo-isovalerate, the l-valine precursor, and 2-oxo-butyrate. A second AT active with the l-valine precursor and that of the other two branched-chain amino acids, too, is IlvE, and both enzyme activities overlap partially in vivo, as demonstrated by the analysis of deletion mutants. Also identified was AroT, the aromatic AT, and this and IlvE were shown to have comparable activities with phenylpyruvate, thus demonstrating the relevance of both ATs for l-phenylalanine synthesis. We also assessed the activity of two PLP-containing cysteine desulfurases, supplying a persulfide intermediate. One of them is SufS, which assists in the sulfur transfer pathway for the Fe-S cluster assembly. Together with the identification of further ATs and the additional analysis of deletion mutants, this results in an overview of the ATs within an organism that may not have been achieved thus far.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Bacteriology
  • Nicole Kennerknecht

    No preview · Article · Jan 2003
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria possess amino acid export systems, and Corynebacterium glutamicum excretes l-isoleucine in a process dependent on the proton motive force. In order to identify the system responsible for l-isoleucine export, we have used transposon mutagenesis to isolate mutants of C. glutamicum sensitive to the peptide isoleucyl-isoleucine. In one such mutant, strong peptide sensitivity resulted from insertion into a gene designated brnF encoding a hydrophobic protein predicted to possess seven transmembrane spanning helices. brnE is located downstream of brnF and encodes a second hydrophobic protein with four putative membrane-spanning helices. A mutant deleted of both genes no longer exports l-isoleucine, whereas an overexpressing strain exports this amino acid at an increased rate. BrnF and BrnE together are also required for the export of l-leucine and l-valine. BrnFE is thus a two-component export permease specific for aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids. Upstream of brnFE and transcribed divergently is an Lrp-like regulatory gene required for active export. Searches for homologues of BrnFE show that this type of exporter is widespread in prokaryotes but lacking in eukaryotes and that both gene products which together comprise the members of a novel family, the LIV-E family, generally map together within a single operon. Comparisons of the BrnF and BrnE phylogenetic trees show that gene duplication events in the early bacterial lineage gave rise to multiple paralogues that have been retained in α-proteobacteria but not in other prokaryotes analyzed.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Journal of Bacteriology