[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although on-animal topical treatment with compounds such as imidacloprid has revolutionized the control of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), the development of insecticide resistance is a continuing threat. As part of a highly co-ordinated and unprecedented resistance monitoring programme for C. felis, 1437 flea isolates were collected by veterinary clinics in Australia, Germany, France, the U.K. and 29 states in the U.S.A. from 2002 to 2009. About 65% of the collections were made from June to October each year and 71% of the collections were from cats. Collections of flea eggs were sent to one of five different laboratories, where they were tested with a diagnostic dose of imidacloprid (3 p.p.m.) applied to larval flea-rearing medium. Of the 1437 collections received, 1064 contained adequate numbers of eggs for testing. Of these isolates, untreated eggs failed to hatch in 22.7% and were not considered valid bioassays. Survival rates >5% and development of adult fleas (a threshold for further testing) occurred in only 22 isolates. They were re-tested with the same diagnostic dose and none produced >5% adult emergence. Complete dose-response bioassays were performed on three of the isolates that had triggered a second test and produced slopes, intercepts and LC(50) values similar to those for existing susceptible laboratory strains. Results confirmed sustained susceptibility of C. felis to imidacloprid, despite its widespread use for over a decade.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Medical and Veterinary Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACTA controlled study was carried out in two replicated trials, each using three groups of domestic cats artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis. In each trial three cats were treated with fenthion, three were treated with a dichlorvos/fenitrothion formulation, both at the recommended dose rate and the remainder acted as untreated controls. Good knockdown efficacy was evident 24 hours after both treatments. Efficacy values of 85 per cent or more were maintained for at least 15 days with fenthion and for less than eight days with dichlorvos/fenitrothion.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Small Animal Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trials were conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic effect of a combination of epsiprantel at a dose rate of 5-5 mg/kg bodyweight and pyrantel pamoate at 5 mg pyrantel base/kg against Toxocara canis in prenatally infected unweaned greyhound pups, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis and Dipylidium caninum in naturally infected adolescent greyhounds and Ancylostoma caninum, U stenocephala. Taenia hydatigena and Taenia pisiformis in artificially infected laboratory beagles. The product was well accepted and produced no obvious side effects. Percentage efficacy values based on post mortem worm counts were: T hydatigena 100; T pisiformis 100; D caninum 100; adult T canis 84-0; adult T leonina 96-5; immature T leonina 99-8; U stenocephala 99-0 and 87-7; A caninum 92-7; and T vulpis 43-3.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Small Animal Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a series of three replicated and controlled trials, nine dogs artificially infected with Ctenocephalides felis were treated with a systemically active ‘spot-on’ formulation of fenthion, six with a topical spray containing dichlorvos and fenitrothion and six with a surface active ‘spot-on’ preparation containing permethrin, all at recommended dose rates. Good knockdown efficacy was apparent at eight hours with the dichlorvos/fenitrothion combination and at 24 hours with the other formulations. Efficacy values in excess of 95 per cent persisted for at least 22 days in the case of the systemic fenthion preparation and the permethrin product and eight days for the dichlorvos and fenitrothion combination. Twenty-nine days after treatment there was still substantial protection in the fenthion- and permethrin-treated animals, indicated by an 88 and a 77 per cent reduction in flea counts in the two groups, respectively.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Small Animal Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of oxfendazole given at a dose-rate of 10 mg kg-1 for 3 consecutive days against adult and larval Toxocara canis was determined in four litters of naturally infected unweaned greyhound pups. Comparison of the worm-burdens of four pups treated on days 30–32 post partum with four matched litter-mate untreated controls gave an apparent efficacy value of 98-5 per cent, the numbers of adult T. canis at post mortem examination being 3 and 202, respectively. A similar comparison involving 10 pups treated on the 5th to 7th days of life, when the T. canis would have been in various stages of larval development, gave an overall efficacy value of 75.8 per cent, with worm-counts of 1,325 and 321 for control and treatment groups. However, a greater reduction (84.1–91.7 per cent) was observed in worms achieving a length of 40 mm by the time of post mortem examination (Day 21 post partum) than in shorter worms. In the latter case, no demonstrable anthelmintic activity was detected.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Small Animal Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: These guidelines are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities accruing from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist registration authorities involved in the approval and registration of new parasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Veterinary Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-isotopic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequence analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were utilized to genetically characterise ascaridoids from dogs and cats from China by comparison with those from other countries. The study showed that Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Toxascaris leonina from China were genetically the same as those from other geographical origins. Specimens from cats from Guangzhou, China, which were morphologically consistent with Toxocara malaysiensis, were the same genetically as those from Malaysia, with the exception of a polymorphism in the ITS-2 but no unequivocal sequence difference. This is the first report of T. malaysiensis in cats outside of Malaysia (from where it was originally described), supporting the proposal that this species has a broader geographical distribution. The molecular approach employed provides a powerful tool for elucidating the biology, epidemiology, and zoonotic significance of T. malaysiensis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A flea larval bioassay was developed by an international team of scientists to monitor the susceptibility of fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) to imidacloprid (Advantage, Bayer HealthCare). The assay was validated using laboratory and field isolates of C. felis. Flea eggs representing different field isolates of C. felis were collected by veterinarians in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany. Of the 972 flea isolates obtained during the 5-year study, 768 contained sufficient numbers of eggs to conduct the larval bioassay. Greater than 5% survival occurred for only six of the field isolates evaluated. Further evaluation and analysis of these isolates demonstrated that they did not differ significantly in their susceptibility to imidacloprid from the reference strains used to develop the assay. Collections of field flea isolates will continue in an attempt to detect and document any change in the susceptibility of field flea populations to imidacloprid.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Veterinary therapeutics: research in applied veterinary medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The susceptibility of four laboratory strains of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche), to imidacloprid was determined by three different laboratories, by using a standardized bioassay protocol. The probit lines generated by the different laboratories were very similar, with LC50 values ranging from 0.32 to 0.81 ppm. Based on these data, a diagnostic dose (DD) of 3 ppm imidacloprid in larval rearing media was provisionally identified for detecting shifts in tolerance, possibly as a consequence of incipient imidacloprid resistance. None of the larvae from the susceptible laboratory strains survived the DD. Eighteen field-collected isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to imidacloprid and to validate a DD of 3 ppm. Probit lines from 18 field-collected isolates were very similar, with LC50 values ranging from 0.14 to 1.52 ppm. When exposed to the DD, between 3 and 10% of the exposed larvae emerged as adults from only three of the 18 isolates. All other field isolates gave 100% mortality at the DD. Under the criteria established (>5% survivorship at 3 ppm), two isolates would be established on mammalian hosts and more extensive tests conducted to exclude or confirm the presence of resistance. The DD of 3 ppm is robust enough to eliminate most of the susceptible isolates collected until today, yet low enough to identify possible isolates for further testing.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal of Medical Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The "Imidacloprid Flea Susceptibility Monitoring Team" has aim to develop and validate a bioassay to effectively monitor and document susceptibility of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) isolates to imidacloprid. A larval bioassay was developed, standardized and validated and agreed upon by the team as the reference diagnostic test kit as research has shown that the proposed WHO adult test was not reliable. The selected 3 ppm discriminating dose, determined from evaluating year 2000 field isolates, was approximately 2 times the highest LC95 of the control laboratory flea strains. In 2001 and 2002, this standardized bioassay was used to test more than 190 separate egg collections from individual flea isolates from USA, UK and Germany. If survivorship in the 3 ppm assay is confirmed, the LD50 values of this isolate and the laboratory strains will be determined by a dose-response study in the range of 0.005 to 3 ppm imidacloprid. By comparison of these LD50 values it can be estimated whether a shift in susceptibility to imidacloprid has occurred. In either case the flea isolate will be researched extensively. Currently an in-vivo test which will evaluate the on-host efficacy of Advantage is being established. None of the to date tested isolates revealed reduced susceptibility to imidacloprid.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2003 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strategies for controlling cat fleas, Ctenocephalidesfelisfelis (Bouché), have undergone dramatic changes in the past 5 yr. With the advent of on-animal treatments with residual activity the potential for the development of insecticide resistance increases. A larval bioassay was developed to determine the baseline susceptibility of field-collected strains of cat fleas to imidacloprid. All four laboratory strains tested showed a similar level of susceptibility to imidacloprid. Advantages of this bioassay are that smaller numbers of fleas are required because flea eggs are collected for the test. Insect growth regulators and other novel insecticides can also be evaluated. Using a discriminating dose, the detection of reduced susceptibility in field strains can be determined with as few as 40 eggs.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2002 · Journal of Medical Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews contemporary concepts underlying the design of control strategies for the management of flea allergy dermatitis in dogs and cats. The limitations of palliative symptomatic approaches are noted, as is the fundamental requirement to differentiate simple pulicosis from true hypersensitivity. In the latter case, eradication of fleas from the affected animal and its surroundings has to be an essential aim. The different biological properties offered by modern chemotherapy are defined and the range of techniques for applying active compounds to the animal and its environment described. Factors for consideration when formulating control strategies and selecting chemotherapeutic agents are discussed in the context of the complexities of the flea life-cycle, the host-parasite relationship and client concerns.
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Veterinary Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the persistence of flea larvicidal activity in the immediate environment of cats treated with imidacloprid, eggs of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), from untreated donor cats, were incubated on samples of fleece blanket taken from the floor of cages used by treated or untreated cats for a total of 10 or 20 6-h periods over 2-4 weeks, respectively. Sufficient imidacloprid accumulated during these periods to reduce the emergence of adult fleas by 94.7-97.6% when the blankets were tested after 18 weeks' storage at room temperature. A typical laundry procedure (washing with detergent at 50 degrees C and low temperature tumble drying) removed this biological activity. Unwashed control blankets did not support the flea life-cycle as effectively as washed blankets or a sand substrate.
No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Medical and Veterinary Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species-specific identification of ascaridoid nematodes at any developmental stage is a prerequisite for detailed investigation of the life cycles, systematics and epidemiology of this important group, and is also crucial for the diagnosis of associated infections. The morphological identification of some species and/or their larval stages can, however, present considerable difficulty. Recently, PCR-based methods, using genetic markers in the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of ribosomal DNA, have been shown to provide reliable alternatives to more traditional methods for the specific identification of nematodes. This article provides an account of recent research on the development of PCR-based methods (utilizing ITS sequences) for the specific identification of ascaridoid nematodes of zoonotic potential, for the diagnosis of infections, and for the analysis of genetic variation within and among individual nematodes and their populations. Prospects for using these diagnostic and analytical tools to investigate epidemiological and population genetic questions relating to ascaridoid parasites are also discussed.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Journal of Helminthology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxocara malaysiensis n. sp. from the small intestine of the domestic cat (Felis catus L.) in Malaysia is described and illustrated. This ascaridoid nematode was previously assumed to be Toxocara canis, which it superficially resembles, or designated Toxocara sp. cf. canis. The new species differs from T. canis in the shape of the cervical alae in cross section, spicule length, and the lip structure. It is also distinct from other species assigned to Toxocara.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the ferret, Mustela putorius furo L. (Carnivora: Mustelidae), is becoming increasingly popular as a pet animal and as it is susceptible to the cat-flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), an experimental model was established for evaluating insecticidal treatments on this host. A high establishment rate (76.7-91.8%) was recorded when 60 unfed adult C. felis were placed on ferrets. This provided an adequate infestation for chemotherapeutic evaluation without causing undue discomfort to the host. Twelve ferrets were allocated to two groups matched for sex and individual ability to sustain a flea population. One group was treated topically with an imidacloprid spot-on formulation at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body-weight on Day 0. All ferrets were infested with C. felis on Days -1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and flea counts were performed 8 and 24 h post-treatment and one day after each subsequent infestation. Fleas were removed at all but the 8 h count (when they were returned to their host). Flea burdens were reduced by 95.3% (P < 0.001) within 8 h of treatment and 100% efficacy was recorded at 24 h. At 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-treatment, protection against re-infestation was 92.9% (P < 0.001), 55.7% (P < 0.02), 18.3% (NS) and 7.4% (NS), respectively. Thus, at this dose rate, imidacloprid gave excellent efficacy against a resident C. felis population and provided a high level of residual activity for at least one week after treatment.
No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Medical and Veterinary Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Control strategies were evaluated over a 6-month period in a home simulation model comprising a series of similar carpeted pens, housing matched groups of six cats, in which the life-cycle of the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouche (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) had been established. Additional adult fleas were placed on the cats at intervals to mimic acquisition of extraneous fleas from outside the home. Treatment strategies included a single subcutaneous deposition of injectable lufenuron supported by initial treatments with a short-acting insecticidal spray, or monthly topical applications of imidacloprid or fipronil. An untreated control group indicated that conditions were suitable for flea replication and development. Controls had to be combed on 18 occasions to remove excessive flea burdens and two developed allergic reactions. Lufenuron cats were combed once and required two insecticidal treatments in the first month to achieve control. Even so, small flea burdens were constantly present thereafter. Imidacloprid and fipronil treatments appeared to give virtually complete control throughout. Single fleas were found on imidacloprid cats on two occasions, whereas none were recovered from fipronil cats at any time after the first treatment. Tracer cats were used to monitor re-infestation rates at the end of the trial period. Small numbers of host-seeking fleas were demonstrated in all treatment pens, indicating that total eradication had not been accomplished. It is concluded that the home environment simulation model incorporating tracer animals could provide a powerful tool for studying flea population dynamics under controlled conditions but improved techniques are needed for quantifying other off-host life-cycle stages.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2001 · Medical and Veterinary Entomology