[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients diagnosed with melanoma are at risk for developing recurrent and second primary disease. Skin self-examination (SSE) and sun protection are standard clinical recommendations to minimize risk. In this study we examined performance of these behaviors in individuals with melanoma drawn from the general population.
Potential participants (N=148) with a first primary melanoma diagnosed in 2000 were identified through a population-based cancer registry in New Jersey, USA. One hundred and fifteen individuals participated in a 30 min telephone interview concerning behavioral adherence with SSE and sun protection, self-efficacy for performing these behaviors, and perceived risk of developing another skin cancer. We utilized logistic regression to estimate potential associations of demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors with SSE and sun protection, respectively.
Seventeen percent of subjects reported performing comprehensive SSE at least once every two months and 23% engaged in regular sun protection. Utilization of SSE was related to the presence of moles (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 1.1-15) and higher SSE self-efficacy (OR=14.4, 95% CI: 1.9-112). Regular sun protection was related to older age (>60 years; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.7), being female (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.3), and higher sun protection self-efficacy (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 1.4-18). These factors remained significant in multivariate models.
In this group of primary melanoma survivors, the rates of SSE and sun protection are comparable to, but do not exceed, general population estimates. This study provides justification for further research to address barriers to prevention and control behaviors in melanoma survivors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For major genes known to influence the risk of cancer, an important task is to determine the risks conferred by individual variants, so that one can appropriately counsel carriers of these mutations. This is a challenging task, since new mutations are continually being identified, and there is typically relatively little empirical evidence available about each individual mutation. Hierarchical modeling offers a natural strategy to leverage the collective evidence from these rare variants with sparse data. This can be accomplished when there are available higher-level covariates that characterize the variants in terms of attributes that could distinguish their association with disease. In this article, we explore the use of hierarchical modeling for this purpose using data from a large population-based study of the risks of melanoma conferred by variants in the CDKN2A gene. We employ both a pseudo-likelihood approach and a Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling. The results indicate that relative risk estimates tend to be primarily influenced by the individual case-control frequencies when several cases and/or controls are observed with the variant under study, but that relative risk estimates for variants with very sparse data are more influenced by the higher-level covariate values, as one would expect. The analysis offers encouragement that we can draw strength from the aggregating power of hierarchical models to provide guidance to medical geneticists when they offer counseling to patients with rare or even hitherto unobserved variants. However, further research is needed to validate the application of asymptotic methods to such sparse data.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Statistics in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy allows the routine performance of serial sections and/or immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to detect occult metastases missed by conventional techniques. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal method for pathologic examination of SLN, or the prognostic significance of SLN micrometastases.
In 368 patients with axillary node-negative invasive breast cancer, treated between 1976 and 1978 by mastectomy, axillary dissection, and no systemic therapy, we reexamined the axillary tissue blocks following our current pathologic protocol for SLN. Occult lymph node metastases were categorized by pattern of staining (immunohistochemically positive or negative [IHC+/-], hematoxylin-eosin staining positive or negative [H & E +/-]), number of positive nodes (0, 1, > 1), number of metastatic cells (0, 1 to 20, 21 to 100, > 100), and largest cluster size (<or= 0.2 mm [pN0(i+)], 0.3 to 2.0 mm [pN1(mi)], > 2.0 mm [pN1a]). We report 20-year results as overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific death (DSD).
A total of 23% of patients (83 of 368) were converted to node-positive. Of these, 73% were <or= 0.2 mm in size (pN0(i+)), 20% were 0.3 to 2.0 mm (pN1(mi)), and 6% were more than 2 mm (pN1a). On univariate and multivariate analysis, pattern of staining, number of positive nodes, number of metastatic cells, and cluster size were all significantly related to both DFS and DSD. On multivariate analysis, each of these measures had significance comparable to, or greater than, tumor size, grade or lymphovascular invasion.
In breast cancer patients staged node-negative by conventional single-section pathology, occult axillary node metastases detected by our current pathologic protocol for SLN are prognostically significant.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been shown to be important in the molecular pathogenesis of both sporadic and inherited endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid type. It is likely prognostically significant as well. The aim of this study was to determine whether MSI phenotype in endometrial carcinoma was associated with specific morphologic patterns and therefore predictable by tumor morphology. The study subjects consisted of 102 patients with nearly equal representation of MSI high (MSI-H; n = 52) and non-MSI-H (n = 50) endometrial tumors. Microsatellite instability was determined by the standard polymerase chain reaction method using the National Cancer Institute-recommended set of 5 markers. The MSI-H and non-MSI-H groups were matched for patient age, race, histologic type (all endometrioid), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade, and disease stage. Assessed morphological features included host inflammatory response (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes [TILs], peritumoral lymphocytes, peritumoral lymphoid follicles, and neutrophilic infiltration), tumor characteristics (cytologic grade, growth pattern, tumor heterogeneity, invasion pattern, metaplastic changes, necrosis, and lymphovascular invasion), and background endometrium (hyperplasia, atrophy, and polyp). Of all the features examined, TIL counts and peritumoral lymphocytes correlated significantly with MSI-H status. Their statistical relationship was strengthened in the presence of a nonpapillary growth pattern and endometrial hyperplasia. On multivariate analysis, TIL counts and peritumoral lymphocytes remained independent predictors for MSI-H status. At a cutoff point of 40 TILs/10 high power fields, TIL counts had a sensitivity of 85% in predicting MSI status in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, with a specificity of 46%. This specificity increased as higher cutoff points were selected, but sensitivity decreased. Given that analogous features have been encountered in MSI-H colorectal cancers, our findings suggest a similar relationship between tumor phenotype and DNA mismatch repair abnormalities in both endometrial and colorectal tumors. Therefore, morphological patterns encountered in endometrial carcinoma may prove useful in screening tumors under consideration for MSI testing and identifying appropriate patients for referral to a genetic counseling service.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been examined in many studies, but relatively little attention has been paid to the degree to which the risk may vary among carriers.
To determine the extent to which risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers vary with respect to observable and unobservable characteristics.
Probands were identified from a population-based, case-control study (Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology [WECARE]) of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer conducted during the period of January 2000 to July 2004. Participants previously diagnosed with contralateral breast cancer or unilateral breast cancer were genotyped for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. All participants had their initial breast cancer diagnosed during the period of January 1985 to December 2000, before the age of 55 years.
Incidence of breast cancer in first-degree female relatives of the probands was examined and compared on the basis of proband characteristics and on the basis of variation between families.
Among the 1394 participants with unilateral breast cancer, 73 (5.2%) were identified as carriers of deleterious mutations (42 with BRCA1 and 31 with BRCA2). Among the 704 participants with contralateral breast cancer, 108 (15.3%) were identified as carriers of deleterious mutations (67 with BRCA1 and 41 with BRCA2). Among relatives of carriers, risk was significantly associated with younger age at diagnosis in the proband (P = .04), and there was a trend toward higher risk for relatives of contralateral breast cancer vs unilateral breast cancer participants (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.4]; P = .28). In addition, there were significant differences in risk between carrier families after adjusting for these observed characteristics.
There exists broad variation in breast cancer risk among carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uterine carcinosarcomas (CSs) are aggressive neoplasms, with 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of less than 35%. They are customarily separated into types harboring either heterologous or homologous mesenchymal elements, but the prognostic significance of this finding is controversial. Our goal was to study clinicopathologic features of possible prognostic relevance in surgical stage I uterine CS. A retrospective clinical and histopathologic review was performed for all women diagnosed with surgical stage I uterine CS. These tumors were compared with stage I high-grade endometrial (HGEm) carcinomas for clinical outcomes. There were 42 cases of surgical stage I uterine CS identified between January 1990 and January 2004. The disease-free survival and OS rates for patients with stage I CS were significantly worse compared with stage I HGEm (P=0.001; P=0.01). The median disease-free survival for patients with heterologous CS was 15 months and had not been reached for women with homologous CS (P=0.001). The 3-year OS rates were 45% versus 93% in women with heterologous compared with homologous stage I CS (P<0.001). The 3-year OS rates for homologous CS and HGEm were both >90%. Homologous stage I CSs have survival outcomes that are similar to HGEm. This further supports the concept that homologous stage I CSs are carcinomas with sarcomatoid features, not sarcomas. More importantly, the presence of heterologous sarcomatous elements is a powerful negative prognostic factor in surgical stage I uterine CS.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · American Journal of Surgical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer investigators frequently conduct studies to examine tumor samples from pairs of apparently independent primary tumors with a view to determine whether they share a "clonal" origin. The genetic fingerprints of the tumors are compared using a panel of markers, often representing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at distinct genetic loci. In this article we evaluate candidate significance tests for this purpose. The relevant information is derived from the observed correlation of the tumors with respect to the occurrence of LOH at individual loci, a phenomenon that can be evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Information is also available from the extent to which losses at the same locus occur on the same parental allele. Data from these combined sources of information can be evaluated using a simple adaptation of Fisher's exact test. The test statistic is the total number of loci at which concordant mutations occur on the same parental allele, with higher values providing more evidence in favor of a clonal origin for the two tumors. The test is shown to have high power for detecting clonality for plausible models of the alternative (clonal) hypothesis, and for reasonable numbers of informative loci, preferably located on distinct chromosomal arms. The method is illustrated using studies to identify clonality in contralateral breast cancer. Interpretation of the results of these tests requires caution due to simplifying assumptions regarding the possible variability in mutation probabilities between loci, and possible imbalances in the mutation probabilities between parental alleles. Nonetheless, we conclude that the method represents a simple, powerful strategy for distinguishing independent tumors from those of clonal origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor type 2A (CDKN2A) has been identified as a major melanoma susceptibility gene based on the presence of germline mutations in high-risk melanoma families. In this study, we sought to identify and characterize the spectrum of CDKN2A mutations affecting p16 inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase type 4 (INK4a) in individuals with melanoma using a population-based study design. DNA samples from 1189 individuals with incident multiple primary melanoma (MPM) and 2424 with incident single primary melanoma unselected for family history of melanoma were available for screening of CDKN2A (p16INK4a) mutations. Variants were classified for functional impact based on intragenic position, existing functional data, sequence, and structural analysis. The impact of individual mutations and functional groupings was assessed by comparing frequencies in cases of MPM versus cases with a single first primary melanoma, and by comparing the reported incidence rates in first-degree relatives. Our results show that mutations occur infrequently in these high-risk groups, and that they occur mainly in exons 1alpha and 2. Rare coding variants with putative functional impact are observed to increase substantially the risk of melanoma. With the exception of the variant in position -34 of CDKN2A of known functional consequence, the remaining rare variants in the non-coding region have no apparent impact on risk.
Preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant melanomas often contain BRAF or NRAS mutations, but the relationship of these mutations to ambient UV exposure in combination with phenotypic characteristics is unknown. In a population-based case series from North Carolina, 214 first primary invasive melanoma patients in the year 2000 were interviewed regarding their risk factors. Ambient solar UV exposures were estimated using residential histories and a satellite-based model. Cases were grouped on the basis of BRAF and NRAS somatic mutations, determined using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and radiolabeled DNA sequencing, and the risk profiles of these groups were compared. Mutually exclusive BRAF-mutant and NRAS-mutant cases occurred at frequencies of 43.0% and 13.6% with mean ages at diagnosis of 47.3 and 62.1 years, respectively. Tumors from patients with >14 back nevi were more likely to harbor either a BRAF mutation [age-adjusted odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.4-7.0] or an NRAS mutation (age-adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.6-4.8) compared with patients with 0 to 4 back nevi. However, BRAF-mutant and NRAS-mutant tumors were distinctive in that BRAF-mutant tumors were characteristic of patients with high early-life ambient UV exposure (adjusted OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3). When ambient UV irradiance was analyzed by decadal age, high exposure at ages 0 to 20 years was associated with BRAF-mutant cases, whereas high exposure at ages 50 and 60 years was characteristic of NRAS-mutant cases. Our results suggest that although nevus propensity is important for the occurrence of both BRAF and NRAS-mutant melanomas, ambient UV irradiance influences risk differently based on the age of exposure. The association of BRAF mutations with early-life UV exposure provides evidence in support of childhood sun protection for melanoma prevention.
Preview · Article · May 2007 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past 12 years, the primary management of endometrial cancer at a comprehensive cancer center has undergone changes characterized by the increased use of laparoscopic surgery with comprehensive staging resulting in a decreased reliance on postoperative adjuvant whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of these changes.
Between 1/93 and 12/04, 1312 patients underwent surgery for endometrial cancer consisting of either abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO or LAVH/BSO). Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection was performed at the discretion of the attending physician. Postoperative adjuvant treatment employed in patients with high-risk features consisted mainly of WPRT+/-intravaginal radiation therapy (IVRT). Total direct medical charges incurred from 10 days prior to surgery through 75 days after surgery were determined with charges converted to direct medical costs, taking into account inflationary changes.
The median age at diagnosis for all patients was 62 years (range, 21-93 years), with a median follow-up of 31.6 months (range, 0-140 months). There was a significant increase in LAVH/BSO versus TAH/BSO (P<0.001) until 2001 when we began participating in a national randomized trial of laparoscopic versus abdominal surgery. In addition, there was a significant increase in the percentage of patients undergoing lymph node dissection as well as the median number of nodes removed (P<0.001). This was associated with a significant decrease in the use of WPRT during 1993-1998 versus 1999-2004 (P<0.001). The use of IVRT remained the same during these time periods. There was no significant difference in 1-, 2-, or 5-year survival for patients treated in either time period. Cost data were available from 1995 to 2004. There was a significant increase in the median total direct medical costs when comparing periods 1995-1998 with 1999-2004 (P<0.001), although the median cost of pelvic radiation therapy was lower in the later time period.
Over a 12-year period, the primary management of endometrial cancer changed to include an increased use of laparoscopy and comprehensive surgical staging and a decrease in the use of postoperative adjuvant WPRT, with no appreciable negative effect on overall survival.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sun exposure is the main cause of melanoma in populations of European origin. No previous study has examined the effect of sun exposure on risk of multiple primary melanomas compared with people who have one melanoma.
We identified and enrolled 2,023 people with a first primary melanoma (controls) and 1,125 with multiple primary melanomas (cases) in seven centers in four countries, recorded their residential history to assign ambient UV and interviewed them about their sun exposure.
Risk of multiple primary melanomas increased significantly (P<0.05) to OR=2.10 for the highest exposure quarter of ambient UV irradiance at birth and 10 years of age, to OR=1.38 for lifetime recreational sun exposure, to OR=1.85 for beach and waterside activities, to OR=1.57 for vacations in a sunnier climate, to OR=1.50 for sunburns. Occupational sun exposure did not increase risk (OR=1.03 for highest exposure). Recreational exposure at any age increased risk and appeared to add to risk from ambient UV in early life.
People who have had a melanoma can expect to reduce their risk of a further melanoma by reducing recreational sun exposure whatever their age. The same is probably true for a person who has never had a melanoma.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Cancer Causes and Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with constitutive pigmentation phenotypes and development of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We investigated the effect of MC1R variants on melanoma using a large, international population-based study design with complete determination of all MC1R coding region variants. Direct sequencing was completed for 2,202 subjects with a single primary melanoma (controls) and 1,099 subjects with second or higher-order primary melanomas (cases) from Australia, the United States, Canada, and Italy. We observed 85 different MC1R variants, 10 of which occurred at a frequency >1%. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to carry two previously identified red hair ("R") variants [D84E, R151C, R160W, and D294H; odds ratio (OR), 1.6; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-2.2]. This effect was similar among individuals carrying one R variant and one r variant (defined as any non-R MC1R variant; OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2) and among those carrying only one R variant (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). There was no statistically significant association among those carrying only one or two r variants. Effects were similar across geographic regions and categories of pigmentation characteristics or number of moles. Our results confirm that MC1R is a low-penetrance susceptibility locus for melanoma, show that pigmentation characteristics may not modify the relationship of MC1R variants and melanoma risk, and suggest that associations may be smaller than previously reported in part due to the study design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chances of survival after the diagnosis of recurrent endometrial cancer are poor. Although total pelvic exenteration has been described as a treatment for a select subset of patients with recurrent endometrial cancer, the use of other surgical procedures in this setting has not been well described. The objective of this study was to review our experience with non-exenterative surgery for recurrent endometrial cancer.
We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent non-exenterative surgery for recurrent endometrial cancer between 1/91 and 1/03. Survival was determined from the time of surgery for recurrence to last follow-up. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Differences in survival were analyzed using the log-rank test. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare optimal versus suboptimal cytoreduction against possible predictive factors.
Twenty-seven patients were identified. Fifteen patients (56%) had disease limited to the retroperitoneum, 10 patients (37%) had intraperitoneal disease, and 2 patients (7%) had both intra- and retroperitoneal disease. Cytoreduction to <or=2 cm of residual disease was achieved in 18 patients (67%), while 9 patients (33%) had cytoreduction to residual disease >2 cm. There were no major perioperative complications or mortalities. The median hospital stay was 7 days (range, 1-18 days). Additional therapies included intraoperative radiation therapy in 9 patients (33%), radiation therapy in 12 patients (44%), and chemotherapy in 10 patients (37%). The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 24 months (range, 5-84 months). The median progression-free survival was 14 months (95% CI, 6-23), and the median disease-specific survival was 35 months (95% CI, 24-not reached). Size of residual disease was the only significant predictor for both progression-free and disease-specific survival. Patients with residual disease <or=2 cm had a median disease-specific survival of 43 months (95% CI, 35-not reached) compared with 10 months (95% CI, 7-29) for those with >2 cm residual (P = 0.01).
Surgical resection for recurrent endometrial cancer may provide an opportunity for long-term survival in a select patient population. The only factor associated with improved long-term outcome was the size of residual disease remaining at the end of surgical resection.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germ-line mutations of CDKN2A have been identified as strong risk factors for melanoma in studies of multiple-case families. However, an assessment of their relative risk for melanoma in the general population has been difficult because they occur infrequently. We addressed this issue using a novel population-based case-control study design in which "cases" have incident second- or higher-order melanomas [multiple primary melanoma (MPM)] and "controls" have incident first primary melanoma [single primary melanoma (SPM)]. Participants were ascertained from nine geographic regions in Australia, Canada, Italy, and United States. In the 1,189 MPM cases and 2,424 SPM controls who were eligible and available for analysis, the relative risk of a subsequent melanoma among patients with functional mutations who have an existing diagnosis of melanoma, after adjustments for age, sex, center, and known phenotypic risk factors, is estimated to be 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-7.7). The odds ratio varied significantly depending on the type of mutation involved. The results suggest that the relative risk of mutation carriers in the population may be lower than currently believed and that different mutations on the CDKN2A gene may confer substantially different risks of melanoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many endometrial adenocarcinomas, particularly those of endometrioid type, express estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and vimentin. This typical immunophenotype is frequently considered a standard against which others are compared when immunohistochemistry is used for differential diagnosis. We tested large numbers of endometrial cancers, enriched for high-grade tumors, to determine whether this reported immunophenotype was valid and whether expression differences between types of endometrial carcinoma could be exploited for diagnostic purposes. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on the following types of endometrial cancers using established methodology: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grades 1 and 2 endometrioid-42; FIGO grade 3 endometrioid-40; serous-24; clear cell-11; carcinosarcoma-9. In total, 92% of serous carcinomas expressed p16 strongly compared to weak-to-moderate expression of p16 in 7-67% of other tumors (FIGO grades 1 and 2 carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, respectively). A total of 84% of FIGO grades 1 and 2 carcinomas expressed ER compared to 9-54% of other tumors (clear cell and serous carcinomas respectively); 83% of FIGO grades 1 and 2 expressed PR compared to 11-54% of other carcinomas (carcinosarcoma and serous carcinoma, respectively). Most carcinomas were negative for monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (mCEA), and those that were positive showed mostly only focal membrane expression. Vimentin was expressed in nearly every tumor. Most tumors were diffusely vimentin positive, but a large range of expression patterns, from focal to diffuse and from weak to strong, was noted. Only 70% of FIGO grades 1 and 2 endometrioid carcinomas and 26% of grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas possessed the reportedly characteristic endometrial cancer immunophenotype p16 (-), ER (+), PR (+), mCEA (-), and vimentin (+). Endometrial cancers demonstrate substantial immunophenotypic diversity that remained apparent even within groups of similar histologic subtype and grade. ER, PR, and p16 expression was more illustrative of tumor type and degree of differentiation than they were of endometrial origin. In contrast, the vimentin-positive/CEA-negative phenotype remained the most constant among all endometrial cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The population-based case-control study is not suited to the evaluation of rare genetic (or environmental) factors. The use of a novel case-control design in which cases have second primaries and controls are cancer survivors has been proposed for this purpose.
We report results from an international study of melanoma that involved population-based ascertainment of incident cases of second or subsequent primary melanoma as the 'case' group and incident cases of first primary melanoma as the 'control' group. We evaluate the validity of the study design by comparing the results obtained for phenotypic factors that have been shown consistently to be associated with melanoma in previous conventional studies with the results from a conventional case-control study conducted in Connecticut and from literature reviews.
All but one of the known risk factors for melanoma were shown to be significantly associated with melanoma in our study, though the individual odds ratios appear to be somewhat attenuated relative to the magnitudes typically observed in the literature.
Patients with a second or subsequent primary cancer of a single type represent a potentially valuable and under-utilized resource for the study of cancer aetiology.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · International Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) is an estrus-regulated tetraspan protein that is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation. EMP2 controls surface levels of several classes of integrin and other cell-interaction molecules, and their trafficking to glycolipid-enriched lipid raft domains is important in receptor signaling. These features suggest that EMP2 may contribute to neoplastic traits of endometrial cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of EMP2 expression in endometrial neoplasms and its clinical significance.
EMP2 immunophenotype, histologic diagnosis, grade, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, disease stage, and clinical follow-up were determined for 99 endometrial cancers.
Significant EMP2 expression (EMP2 positive) was observed in 12 of 99 cancers (9 endometrioid [6 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Grade 3], 1 serous, 1 mixed endometrioid and serous, and 1 mixed endometrioid and clear cell), and weak EMP2 expression was observed in 11 cancers. EMP2-positive tumors were more likely than others to be myometrium invasive, high stage, and recurrent, persistent, or fatal. The overall median survival for patients with EMP2-positive tumor was only 23 months, whereas the medial survival was not reached for patients with EMP2-weak and EMP2-negative tumors. The median disease-free interval was only 11 months for patients with EMP2-positive tumors and was not reached for patients with EMP2-weak and EMP2-negative tumors. A multivariate analysis of disease-free survival demonstrated independent, negative prognostic significance for EMP2 expression, high stage, and high-risk histologic subtypes.
EMP2 expression is a feature of some prognostically unfavorable endometrial cancers. Its utility for clinical decision making and its biologic role in endometrial cancer deserves further study in a larger series of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defective DNA mismatch repair is commonly present in sporadic manifestations of gastrointestinal, endometrial, and other cancers. The pathognomonic molecular manifestation of this repair defect is microsatellite instability (MSI). Here, we test the hypothesis that MSI predicts the clinicopathologic features of endometrial carcinoma.
A retrospective cohort of 473 patients treated for endometrial carcinoma at this institution was identified. All cases were reviewed by a gynecologic pathologist, and clinical information was abstracted from medical records. Using consensus criteria, DNA samples from nontumor and tumor tissue pairs were genotyped for MSI. Associations between MSI status and pathologic and clinical variables were assessed.
Ninety-three (20%) of 473 tumors were MSI+. In the MSI+ tumor group compared with the MSI- tumor group, the proportion of advanced compared with early-stage tumors was higher (92% v 81%; P = .01), as was the proportion of tumors of endometrioid compared with nonendometrioid histologic subtype (94% v 23%; P = .001), and the proportion of tumors with myometrial invasion compared with those with none (92% v 78%; P = .01). By multivariate analyses, disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.7) and disease-specific survival (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.8) were significantly improved in patients with MSI+ tumors.
In endometrial carcinoma, the presence of MSI was independently associated with a more favorable clinical outcome.
Preview · Article · May 2006 · Journal of Clinical Oncology