[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell cancer (RCC) is one of the most frequent primary sites for metastatic pancreatic tumors although metastatic tumors are rare among pancreatic malignant tumors. The purpose of this study is to disclose the characterization and treatment outcomes of pancreatic metastases from RCC.
Of 262 patients with metastatic RCC treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2013, the data of 20 (7.6%) who simultaneously developed or subsequently acquired pancreatic metastases were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed.
The median follow-up period from RCC diagnosis and pancreatic metastases was 13.4 years (inter-quartile range: IQR, 7.8-15.5 years) and 3.8 years (IQR, 2.1-5.5 years), respectively. Median duration from diagnosis of RCC to pancreatic metastasis was 7.8 years (IQR, 4.2-12.7 years). During this observation period, the estimated median overall survival (OS) time from the diagnosis of RCC to death or from pancreatic metastasis to death was not reached. The probability of patients surviving after pancreatic metastasis at 1, 3, and 5 years was 100, 87.7, and 78.9%, respectively. The estimated OS period from the diagnosis of metastases to death of the patients with pancreatic metastasis was significantly longer than that of the patients with non-pancreatic metastasis (median OS 2.7 years) (P < 0.0001). Surgical management for pancreatic metastasis was performed in 15 patients (75%). When the median follow-up period for these surgeries was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.9-5.2 years), the estimated median recurrence-free survival was 1.8 years. For the patients with multiple metastatic sites, molecularly targeted therapies were given to six (30%) patients. When the median follow-up period was 4.1 years (IQR, 3.0-4.4 years), no disease progression was observed.
The pancreas is frequently the only metastatic site and metastasis typically occurs a long time after nephrectomy. The OS period of these patients is long and both surgical and medical treatment resulted in good outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare type of liver tumor. Here, we report a variant case of HCA in a 56-year-old Japanese man which displayed unusual histological features. The patient had undergone surgery for esophageal and gastric cancer 2 years prior. A computed tomography scan performed in the follow-up period detected a single lesion (diameter 1.4 cm) in the right posterior lobe of the liver, leading to a partial hepatectomy. Histologically, the lesion was composed of two different types of cells. The larger cells, which accounted for most of the cells in the tumor, exhibited granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, large nuclei and apparent nucleoli. These cells, which were designated the common cells, were typical of the HCA. The other cells, which were designated the pyknotic cells, were smaller, possessed an eosinophilic, homogeneous cytoplasm and pyknotic small nuclei, but did not contain nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the common cells reacted strongly positive for C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A, which is compatible with a diagnosis of inflammatory HCA; in contrast, the pyknotic cells tested negative for these molecules. Since the pyknotic cells tested positive for several markers of apoptosis, they were considered to be apoptotic. In addition, as the common cells demonstrated a higher ki-67 labeling index, the lesion was considered to display upregulated cell kinetics, i.e. increases in both cell growth and death. Although HCA is a rare type of tumor, there have been several reports on HCA variants. The case reported here is that of a new type of HCA variant that demonstrated an unusual histological pattern and upregulated cell kinetics.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The clinical course of hepatectomy in patients with preexisting bilioenteric anastomosis (BEA) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential influence of preexisting BEA on organ/space surgical site infection (SSI) after hepatectomy.
We analyzed consecutive hepatectomies performed between March 2005 and January 2015. Patients' background, operative results, and complications were compared between hepatectomies with and without preexisting BEA.
Twenty-two hepatectomies with preexisting BEA were identified among 1745 hepatectomies. The rate of organ/space SSI was much higher in hepatectomies with preexisting BEA than in those without preexisting BEA (40.9 vs. 6.4 %, P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses identified four variables as independent factors associated with organ/space SSI: liver-directed chemotherapy [odds ratio 5.06 (95 % confidence interval 2.29-10.54), P < 0.001], operative time ≥ 300 min [2.40 (1.30-4.54), P = 0.006], estimated blood loss ≥ 500 ml [2.34 (1.26-4.31), P < 0.001], and preexisting BEA [12.08 (4.54-31.32), P < 0.001]. A higher rate of organisms from intestinal flora was detected in organ/space SSI after hepatectomies with preexisting BEA (77.8 vs. 21.3 % without BEA, P = 0.002). Analysis of hepatectomies with preexisting BEA identified selection of antibiotics for prophylaxis as the sole risk factor for organ/space SSI (P = 0.049 for cefazolin versus other antibiotics targeting intestinal flora).
Preexisting BEA is an independent risk factor for the development of organ/space SSI after hepatectomy. Antibiotics targeting intestinal flora are strongly recommended for prophylaxis of infectious complications.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Laparoscopic deroofing is widely used for the treatment of symptomatic polycystic liver disease (PCLD). However, bile leakage is a common complication of surgical management for PCLD. Until now, indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (IGFI) has played an active role in hepatobiliary surgery. Herein, we report the effective application of a laparoscopic fusion IGFI system, known as PINPOINT, for laparoscopic deroofing.
In this study, we performed laparoscopic deroofing for PCLD using the laparoscopic fusion IGFI system. We conducted the procedure mainly under the normal view mode, occasionally switching to the fusion IGFI mode. First, we confirmed that the liver cysts did not contain bile using the fusion IGFI mode and then used a percutaneous puncture needle to remove the fluid from some of the giant cysts. Second, using the fusion IGFI mode, we were able to detect thin biliary branches and to adjust the division line of the cyst wall accordingly or, occasionally, to ligate the branches. Finally, we searched for and identified unexpected small bile leakage and then closed it using sutures.
The laparoscopic fusion IGFI system can simultaneously show fluorescent images, such as cholangiography and the liver parenchyma, on the normal color view. In the fusion IGFI mode, the intrahepatic bile duct and liver parenchyma can be easily discriminated in real time throughout the procedure. Accordingly, the laparoscopic fusion IGFI system is useful for the surgical treatment of PCLD, in which the boundary between the liver cysts and the liver parenchyma can otherwise be difficult to identify. This technique also enables the branches of Glisson's capsule to be identified without any other intervention.
The novel application of the laparoscopic fusion IGFI system allows reliable navigation for PCLD surgery.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that administering oxaliplatin as first-line chemotherapy increased ERCC1 and DPD levels in liver colorectal cancers (CRCs) metastases. Second, whether the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab alters tumoral VEGFA levels is unknown. We conducted this multicenter observational study to validate our previous findings on ERCC1 and DPD, and clarify the response of VEGFA expression to bavacizumab administration. 346 CRC patients with liver metastases were enrolled at 22 Japanese institutes. Resected liver metastases were available for 175 patients previously treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (chemotherapy group) and 171 receiving no previous chemotherapy (non-chemotherapy group). ERCC1, DPYD, and VEGFA mRNA levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR. ERCC1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the chemotherapy group than in the non-chemotherapy group (P = 0.033), and were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.42; P < 0.0001). VEGFA expression level was higher in patients receiving bevacizumab (n = 51) than in those who did not (n = 251) (P = 0.007). This study confirmed that first-line oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy increases ERCC1 and DPYD expression levels, potentially enhancing chemosensitivity to subsequent therapy. We also found that bevacizumab induces VEGFA expression in tumor cells, suggesting a biologic rationale for extending bevacizumab treatment beyond first progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available.
In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies.
FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD–CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD–CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90 min; range, 15–165 min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 min; range, 21–205 min; P < 0.01). The signal contrast on the fluorescence images of the bile duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker.
FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the “critical view of safety” during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of laparoscope close and vertically to Calot's triangle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the benefit of energy devices such as ultrasonically activated device and bipolar vessel sealing device in liver surgeries.
Several studies have suggested the benefit of energy devices in liver transection, while a randomized trial has found no association between their use and surgical outcomes.
Patients scheduled to undergo open liver resection were eligible for this multicenter non-blinded randomized study. They were randomized to receive an energy device (experimental group) or not (control group) during liver transection. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with intraoperative blood loss >1,000 mL. The primary aim was to show non-inferiority of hepatectomy with energy device to that without energy device.
A total of 212 patients were randomized and 211 (105 and 106 in the respective groups) were analyzed. Intraoperative blood loss >1,000 mL occurred in 15.0 % patients with energy device and 20.2 % patients without energy device. The experimental minus control group difference was -5.2 % (95 % confidence interval -13.8 to 3.3 %; non-inferiority test, p = 0.0248). Hepatectomy with energy device resulted in a shorter median liver transection time (63 vs. 84 min; p < 0.001) and a lower rate of postoperative bile leakage (4 vs. 16 %; p = 0.002).
The hypothesis that hepatectomy with energy device is not inferior to that without energy device in terms of blood loss has been demonstrated. The use of energy devices during liver surgery is clinically meaningful as it shortens the liver transection time and reduces the incidence of postoperative bile leakage.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound (CE-IOUS) during surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) when gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) is performed as a part of preoperative imaging work-up.
EOB-MRI is expected to supersede CE-IOUS, which is reportedly indispensable in surgery for CRLM.
One hundred consecutive patients underwent EOB-MRI, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound within 1 month before surgery for CRLM. Conventional IOUS and subsequent CE-IOUS using perflubutane were performed after the laparotomy. All the nodules identified in any of the preoperative or intraoperative examinations were resected and were submitted for histological examination, in principle.
Preoperative imaging examinations identified 242 nodules; 25 additional nodules were newly identified using IOUS, 22 additional nodules were newly identified during CE-IOUS, and a histological examination further identified 4 nodules. Among the 25 nodules newly identified using IOUS, all 21 histologically proven CRLMs and 3 of the 4 benign nodules were correctly diagnosed using CE-IOUS. Among the 22 nodules newly identified using CE-IOUS, 17 nodules in 16 patients were histologically diagnosed as CRLMs. The planned surgical procedure was modified on the basis of IOUS and CE-IOUS findings in 12 and 14 patients, respectively. The sensitivity, positive-predictive value, and accuracy of CE-IOUS were 99%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. Those values of EOB-MRI (82%, 99%, 83%, respectively) were similar to CE-CT (81%, 99%, 81%, respectively).
CE-IOUS is useful in hepatic resection for CRLM, even if EOB-MRI and CE-CT are performed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Annals of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the details of the surgical technique of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with systematic mesopancreas dissection (SMD-PD), using a supracolic anterior artery-first approach.
An artery-first approach in PD has been advocated in pancreatic cancer to judge resectability, clear the superior mesenteric artery margin from invasion, or reduce blood loss. However, the efficacy of an artery-first approach in mesopancreas dissection remains unclear.
This study involved 162 consecutive patients who underwent PD with curative intent. The patients were divided into 82 SMD-PDs and 80 conventional PDs (CoPD) and then stratified further according to the dissection level, that is, level 1 was applied to 24 simple mesopancreas divisions for early inflow occlusion including 11 SMD-PDs, level 2 for 63 en bloc mesopancreas resections (26 SMD-PDs), and level 3 for 75 patients who underwent a hemicircumferential superior mesenteric artery plexus resection to keep the margin free from cancer invasion (45 SMD-PDs). The clinical and imaging results were collected to assess the feasibility and validity of SMD-PD with an artery-first approach.
Blood loss and operation duration were significantly less in the SMD-PD group than in the CoPD group among the total 162 patients. The imaging analysis showed that four fifths of pancreatic arterial branches came from the right dorsal aspect of the superior mesenteric artery and cancer abutment occurred exclusively from the same direction indicating the validity of an artery-first approach.
SMD-PD using an SAA is feasible across PD cases, with acceptable short-term outcomes, and we propose this procedure as a promising option for PD.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Annals of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The efficacy of surgical resection for gastric cancer liver metastases (GCLMs) is currently debated. Hitherto, no large-scale clinical studies have been conducted.Methods
This retrospective multicentre study analysed a database of consecutive patients with either synchronous or metachronous metastases who underwent surgical R0 resection for GCLM between 1990 and 2010. Clinical data were collected from five cancer centres in Japan. Survival curves were assessed, and clinical parameters were evaluated to identify predictors of prognosis.ResultsA total of 256 patients were enrolled. The mean(s.d.) number of hepatic tumours resected was 2·0(2·4). The surgical mortality rate was 1·6 per cent. Median follow-up was 65 (range 1–261) months. Recurrences were detected in 192 patients (75·0 per cent). The median interval from hepatic resection to recurrence was 7 (range 1–72) months, and the dominant site of recurrence was the liver (72·4 per cent). Actuarial 1-, 3- and 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 77·3, 41·9 and 31·1 per cent, and 43·6, 32·4 and 30·1 per cent, respectively. Median overall and recurrence-free survival times were 31·1 and 9·4 months respectively. Multivariable analysis identified serosal invasion of the primary gastric cancer (hazard ratio (HR) 1·50; P = 0·012), three or more liver metastases (HR 2·33; P < 0·001) and liver tumour diameter at least 5 cm (HR 1·62; P = 0·005) as independent predictors of poor survival.Conclusion
Clinically resectable GCLM is rare, but strict and careful patient selection can lead to long-term survival following R0 surgical resection.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · British Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Splenic vein ligation may result in sinistral (left-sided) portal hypertension and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenesis of sinistral portal hypertension following splenic vein ligation in pancreaticoduodenectomy.Methods
Patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer between January 2005 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective study. The venous flow pattern from the spleen and splenic hypertrophy were examined after surgery.ResultsOf 103 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with portal vein resection, 43 had splenic vein ligation. There were two predominant venous flow patterns from the spleen. In the varicose route (27 patients), flow from the spleen passed to colonic varices and/or other varicose veins. In the non-varicose route, flow from the spleen passed through a splenocolonic collateral (14 patients) or a spontaneous splenorenal shunt (2 patients). The varicose route was associated with significantly greater splenic hypertrophy than the non-varicose route (median splenic hypertrophy ratio 1·52 versus 0·94; P < 0·001). All patients with the varicose route had colonic varices, and none had a right colic marginal vein at the hepatic flexure.Conclusion
Pancreaticoduodenectomy with splenic vein ligation may lead to sinistral portal hypertension. To avoid the development of varices, it is important to preserve the right colic marginal vein. Reconstruction of the splenic vein should be considered if the right colic marginal vein is divided.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · British Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cholangiocarcinoma has been reported in workers exposed to chlorinated organic solvents and has consequently been classified as an occupational disease (occupational cholangiocarcinoma) by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of nine workers newly diagnosed with occupational cholangiocarcinoma.Methods
This study was a retrospective study conducted in 13 hospitals and three universities. Clinicopathological findings of nine occupational cholangiocarcinoma patients from seven printing companies in Japan were investigated and compared with 17 cholangiocarcinoma patients clustered in a single printing company in Osaka.ResultsPatient age at diagnosis was 31–57 years. Patients were exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane. Serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was elevated in all patients. Regional dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts without tumor-induced obstruction was observed in two patients. Four patients developed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and five developed hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and/or intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct was observed in four patients with available operative or autopsy specimens.Conclusions
Most of these patients with occupational cholangiocarcinoma exhibited typical findings, including high serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, regional dilatation of the bile ducts, and precancerous lesions, similar to findings previously reported in 17 occupational cholangiocarcinoma patients in Osaka.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences