[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) dependent lifetime risks (LTRs) for Alzheimer Disease (AD) are currently not accurately known and odds ratios alone are insufficient to assess these risks. We calculated AD LTR in 7351 cases and 10 132 controls from Caucasian ancestry using Rochester (USA) incidence data. At the age of 85 the LTR of AD without reference to APOE genotype was 11% in males and 14% in females. At the same age, this risk ranged from 51% for APOE44 male carriers to 60% for APOE44 female carriers, and from 23% for APOE34 male carriers to 30% for APOE34 female carriers, consistent with semi-dominant inheritance of a moderately penetrant gene. Using PAQUID (France) incidence data, estimates were globally similar except that at age 85 the LTRs reached 68 and 35% for APOE 44 and APOE 34 female carriers, respectively. These risks are more similar to those of major genes in Mendelian diseases, such as BRCA1 in breast cancer, than those of low-risk common alleles identified by recent GWAS in complex diseases. In addition, stratification of our data by age groups clearly demonstrates that APOE4 is a risk factor not only for late-onset but for early-onset AD as well. Together, these results urge a reappraisal of the impact of APOE in Alzheimer disease.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Molecular Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 5 loci (BIN1, CLU, CR1, EXOC3L2, and PICALM) as genetic determinants of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We attempted to confirm the association between these genes and the AD risk in 3 contrasting European populations (from Finland, Italy, and Spain). Because CLU and CR1 had already been analyzed in these populations, we restricted our investigation to BIN1, EXO2CL3, and PICALM. In a total of 2816 AD cases and 2706 controls, we unambiguously replicated the association of rs744373 (for BIN1) and rs541458 (for PICALM) polymorphisms with the AD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.15-1.38], p = 2.9 × 10(-7), and OR = 0.80, 95% CI [0.74-0.88], p = 4.6 × 10(-7), respectively). In a meta-analysis, rs597668 (EXOC3L2) was also associated with the AD risk, albeit to a lesser extent (OR = 1.19, 95% CI [1.06-1.32], p = 2.0 × 10(-3)). However, this signal did not appear to be independent of APOE. In conclusion, we confirmed that BIN1 and PICALM are genetic determinants of AD, whereas the potential involvement of EXOC3L2 requires further investigation.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Neurobiology of aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to identify new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease through a staged association study (GERAD+) and by testing suggestive loci reported by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC) in a companion paper. We undertook a combined analysis of four genome-wide association datasets (stage 1) and identified ten newly associated variants with P ≤ 1 × 10(-5). We tested these variants for association in an independent sample (stage 2). Three SNPs at two loci replicated and showed evidence for association in a further sample (stage 3). Meta-analyses of all data provided compelling evidence that ABCA7 (rs3764650, meta P = 4.5 × 10(-17); including ADGC data, meta P = 5.0 × 10(-21)) and the MS4A gene cluster (rs610932, meta P = 1.8 × 10(-14); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.2 × 10(-16)) are new Alzheimer's disease susceptibility loci. We also found independent evidence for association for three loci reported by the ADGC, which, when combined, showed genome-wide significance: CD2AP (GERAD+, P = 8.0 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 8.6 × 10(-9)), CD33 (GERAD+, P = 2.2 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.6 × 10(-9)) and EPHA1 (GERAD+, P = 3.4 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 6.0 × 10(-10)).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For more than half a decade, lithium has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. Worldwide, it is considered the first-line mood stabilizer. Apart from its proven antimanic and prophylactic effects, considerable evidence also suggests an antisuicidal effect in affective disorders. Lithium is also effectively used to augment antidepressant drugs in the treatment of refractory major depressive episodes and prevent relapses in recurrent unipolar depression. In contrast to many psychiatric drugs, lithium has outlasted various pharmacotherapeutic 'fashions', and remains an indispensable element in contemporary psychopharmacology. Nevertheless, data from pharmacogenetic studies of lithium are comparatively sparse, and these studies are generally characterized by small sample sizes and varying definitions of response. Here, we present an international effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Following an initiative by the International Group for the Study of Lithium-Treated Patients (www.IGSLI.org) and the Unit on the Genetic Basis of Mood and Anxiety Disorders at the National Institute of Mental Health,lithium researchers from around the world have formed the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (www.ConLiGen.org) to establish the largest sample to date for genome-wide studies of lithium response in bipolar disorder, currently comprising more than 1,200 patients characterized for response to lithium treatment. A stringent phenotype definition of response is one of the hallmarks of this collaboration. ConLiGen invites all lithium researchers to join its efforts.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Neuropsychobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested for associations between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the area containing the Neuregulin 1 gene (NRG1) and three SNPs within the brain-derived neutrophic factor gene (BDNF) in an Italian sample consisting of 171 schizophrenia subjects and 349 controls. No association was found for any of the polymorphisms tested, either in single locus or in haplotype analysis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Psychiatry Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The only established genetic determinant of non-Mendelian forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). Recently, it has been reported that the P86L polymorphism of the calcium homeostasis modulator 1 gene (CALHM1) is associated with the risk of developing AD. In order to independently assess this association, we performed a meta-analysis of 7,873 AD cases and 13,274 controls of Caucasian origin (from a total of 24 centers in Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA). Our results indicate that the CALHM1 P86L polymorphism is likely not a genetic determinant of AD but may modulate age of onset by interacting with the effect of the ε4 allele of the APOE gene.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene encoding apolipoprotein E (APOE) on chromosome 19 is the only confirmed susceptibility locus for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. To identify other risk loci, we conducted a large genome-wide association study of 2,032 individuals from France with Alzheimer's disease (cases) and 5,328 controls. Markers outside APOE with suggestive evidence of association (P < 10(-5)) were examined in collections from Belgium, Finland, Italy and Spain totaling 3,978 Alzheimer's disease cases and 3,297 controls. Two loci gave replicated evidence of association: one within CLU (also called APOJ), encoding clusterin or apolipoprotein J, on chromosome 8 (rs11136000, OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.90, P = 7.5 x 10(-9) for combined data) and the other within CR1, encoding the complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1, on chromosome 1 (rs6656401, OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, P = 3.7 x 10(-9) for combined data). Previous biological studies support roles of CLU and CR1 in the clearance of beta amyloid (Abeta) peptide, the principal constituent of amyloid plaques, which are one of the major brain lesions of individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a multicenter study involving 217 subjects of European ancestry [106 patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy subjects], we tested the hypothesis that the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) Val(158)Met and/or the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) C(270)T gene polymorphisms are associated with schizophrenia. The COMT and BDNF genotype and their allele distribution did not differ between patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects. These results do not support the hypothesis that the COMT Val(158)Met or BDNF C(270)T gene polymorphisms are associated with liability to schizophrenia.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Schizophrenia Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive and motor deficits have been proposed as markers of abnormal neurodevelopment in schizophrenia and have been associated with genetic liability. In a multicenter study involving 106 subjects, 56 with deficit schizophrenia and 50 with nondeficit schizophrenia, we tested the hypothesis that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with cognitive and motor deficits either in schizophrenia as a whole or in its deficit subtype. The COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism shared 6.6% of the executive/attention dysfunction variance in patients with schizophrenia and 15.6% of the motor impairment variance in patients with deficit schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism influences executive functions in schizophrenia and the neuromotor performance in the deficit subtype only.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Neuropsychobiology