[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E. coli YdbK is predicted to be a pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). However, enzymatic activity and the regulation of gene expression of it are not well understood. In this study, we found that E. coli cells overexpressing the ydbK gene had enhanced PFOR activity, indicating the product of ydbK to be a PFOR. The PFOR was labile to oxygen. The expression of ydbK was induced by superoxide generators such as methyl viologen (MV) in a SoxS-dependent manner after a lag period. We identified a critical element upstream of ydbK gene required for the induction by MV and proved direct binding of SoxS to the element. E. coli ydbK mutant was highly sensitive to MV, which was enhanced by additional inactivation of fpr gene encoding ferredoxin (flavodoxin):NADP(H) reductase (FPR). Aconitase activity, a superoxide sensor, was more extensively decreased by MV in the E. coli ydbK mutant than in wild-type strain. The induction level of soxS gene was higher in E. coli ydbK fpr double mutant than in wild-type strain. These results indicate that YdbK helps to protect cells from oxidative stress. It is possible that YdbK maintains the cellular redox state together with FPR and is involved in the reduction of oxidized proteins including SoxR in the late stages of the oxidative stress response in E. coli.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a mediator of ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we constructed two types of stable HeLa cell lines overexpressing SOD2, HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the protection against radiation by SOD2. SOD2 overexpression in mitochondria enhanced the survival of HeLa S3 and T-REx HeLa cells following γ-irradiation. The levels of γH2AX significantly decreased in HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2 cells compared with those in the control cells. MitoSox(TM) Red assays showed that both lines of SOD2-expressing cells showed suppression of the superoxide generation in mitochondria. Furthermore, flow cytometry with a fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein) revealed that the cellular levels of ROS increased in HeLa S3 cells during post-irradiation incubation, but the increase was markedly attenuated in HeLa S3/SOD2 cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, of 47,000 probe sets analyzed, 117 and 166 probes showed more than 2-fold changes after 5.5 Gy of γ-irradiation in control and HeLa S3/SOD2 cells, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed different expression profiles in irradiated control cells and irradiated SOD2-overexpressing cells. These results indicate that SOD2 protects HeLa cells against cellular effects of γ-rays through suppressing oxidative stress in irradiated cells caused by ROS generated in the mitochondria and through regulating the expression of genes which play a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Radiation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 8-oxo-dGTP is generated in the nucleotide pool by direct oxidation of dGTP or phosphorylation of 8-oxo-dGDP. It can be incorporated
into DNA during replication, which would result in mutagenic consequences. The frequency of spontaneous mutations remains
low in cells owing to the action of enzymes degrading such mutagenic substrates. Escherichia coli MutT and human MTH1 hydrolyze 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGMP. Human NUDT5 as well as human MTH1 hydrolyze 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP.
These enzymes prevent mutations caused by misincorporation of 8-oxo-dGTP into DNA. In this study, we identified a novel MutT
homolog (NDX-1) of Caenorhabditis elegans that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP. NDX-1 did not hydrolyze 8-oxo-dGTP, 2-hydroxy-dATP or 2-hydroxy-dADP. Expression
of NDX-1 significantly reduced spontaneous A:T to C:G transversions and mitigated the sensitivity to a superoxide-generating
agent, methyl viologen, in an E. coli mutT mutant. In C. elegans, RNAi of ndx-1 did not affect the lifespan of the worm. However, the sensitivity to methyl viologen and menadione bisulfite of the ndx-1-RNAi worms was enhanced compared with that of the control worms. These facts indicate that NDX-1 is involved in sanitization
of 8-oxo-dGDP and plays a critical role in defense against oxidative stress in C. elegans.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is involved in bypass replication of damaged bases in DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated continuously during normal metabolism and as a result of exogenous stress such as ionizing radiation. ROS induce various kinds of base damage in DNA. It is important to examine whether Pol IV is able to bypass oxidatively damaged bases. In this study, recombinant Pol IV was incubated with oligonucleotides containing thymine glycol (dTg), 5-formyluracil (5-fodU), 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmdU), 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG) and 1,2-dihydro-2-oxoadenine (2-oxodA). Primer extension assays revealed that Pol IV preferred to insert dATP opposite 5-fodU and 5-hmdU, while it inefficiently inserted nucleotides opposite dTg. Pol IV inserted dCTP and dATP opposite 8-oxodG, while the ability was low. It inserted dCTP more effectively than dTTP opposite 2-oxodA. Pol IV's ability to bypass these lesions decreased in the order: 2-oxodA > 5-fodU~5-hmdU > 8-oxodG > dTg. The fact that Pol IV preferred to insert dCTP opposite 2-oxodA suggests the mutagenic potential of 2-oxodA leading to A:T→G:C transitions. Hydrogen peroxide caused an ~2-fold increase in A:T→G:C mutations in E. coli, while the increase was significantly greater in E. coli overexpressing Pol IV. These results indicate that Pol IV may be involved in ROS-enhanced A:T→G:C mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidatively damaged bases in DNA cause many types of deleterious effects. The main enzyme that removes such lesions is DNA glycosylase, and accordingly, DNA glycosylase plays an important role in genome stability. Recently, a relationship between DNA glycosylases and aging has been suggested, but it remains controversial. Here, we investigated DNA glycosylases of C. elegans, which is a useful model organism for studying aging. We firstly identified a C. elegans homolog of endonuclease III (NTH), which is a well-conserved DNA glycosylase for oxidatively damaged pyrimidine bases, based on the activity and homology. Blast searching of the Wormbase database retrieved a sequence R10E4.5, highly homologous to the human NTH1. However, the R10E4.5-encoded protein did not have NTH activity, and this was considered to be due to lack of the N-terminal region crucial for the activity. Therefore, we purified the protein encoded by the sequence containing both R10E4.5 and the 117-bp region upstream from it, and found that the protein had the NTH activity. The endogenous CeNTH in the extract of C. elegans showed the same DNA glycosylase activity. Therefore, we concluded that the genuine C. elegans NTH gene is not the R10E4.5 but the sequence containing both R10E4.5 and the 117-bp upstream region. NTH-deficient C. elegans showed no difference from the wild-type in lifespan and was not more sensitive to two oxidizing agents, H2O2 and methyl viologen. This suggests that C. elegans has an alternative DNA glycosylase that repairs pyrimidine bases damaged by these agents. Indeed, DNA glycosylase activity that cleaved thymine glycol containing oligonucleotides was detected in the extract of the NTH-deficient C. elegans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative base damage leads to alteration of genomic information and is implicated as a cause of aging and carcinogenesis. To combat oxidative damage to DNA, cells contain several DNA glycosylases including OGG1, NTH1 and the Nei-like proteins, NEIL1 and NEIL2. A third Nei-like protein, NEIL3, is composed of an amino-terminal Nei-like domain and an unknown carboxy-terminal domain. In contrast to the other well-described DNA glycosylases, the DNA glycosylase activity and in vivo repair function of NEIL3 remains unclear. We show here that the structural modeling of the putative NEIL3 glycosylase domain (1-290) fits well to the known Escherichia coli Fpg crystal structure. In spite of the structural similarity, the recombinant NEIL3 and NEIL3(1-290) proteins do not cleave any of several test oligonucleotides containing a single modified base. Within the substrates, we detected AP lyase activity for single-stranded (ss) DNA but double-stranded (ds) DNA. The activity is abrogated completely in mutants with an amino-terminal deletion and at the zinc-finger motif. Surprisingly, NEIL3 partially rescues an E. coli nth nei mutant from hydrogen peroxide sensitivity. Taken together, repair of certain base damage including base loss in ssDNA may be mediated by NEIL3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5-formyluracil (5-foU), a major mutagenic oxidative damage of thymine, is removed from DNA by Nth, Nei and MutM in Escherichia coli. However, DNA polymerases can also replicate past the 5-foU by incorporating C and G opposite the lesion, although the mechanism
of correction of the incorporated bases is still unknown. In this study, using a borohydride-trapping assay, we identified
a protein trapped by a 5-foU/C-containing oligonucleotide in an extract from E. coli mutM nth nei mutant. The protein was subsequently purified from the E. coli mutM nth nei mutant and was identified as KsgA, a 16S rRNA adenine methyltransferase. Recombinant KsgA also formed the trapped complex
with 5-foU/C- and thymine glycol (Tg)/C-containing oligonucleotides. Furthermore, KsgA excised C opposite 5-foU, Tg and 5-hydroxymethyluracil
(5-hmU) from duplex oligonucleotides via a β-elimination reaction, whereas it could not remove the damaged base. In contrast,
KsgA did not remove C opposite normal bases, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and 2-hydroxyadenine. Finally, the introduction of the
ksgA mutation increased spontaneous mutations in E. coli mutM mutY and nth nei mutants. These results demonstrate that KsgA has a novel DNA glycosylase/AP lyase activity for C mispaired with oxidized
T that prevents the formation of mutations, which is in addition to its known rRNA adenine methyltransferase activity essential
for ribosome biogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Base moieties in DNA are spontaneously threatened by naturally occurring chemical reactions such as deamination, hydrolysis and oxidation. These DNA modifications have been considered to be major causes of cell death, mutations and cancer induction in organisms. Organisms have developed the DNA base excision repair pathway as a defense mechanism to protect them from these threats. DNA glycosylases, the key enzyme in the base excision repair pathway, are highly conserved in evolution. Uracil constantly occurs in DNA. Uracil in DNA arises by spontaneous deamination of cytosine to generate pro-mutagenic U:G mispairs. Uracil in DNA is also produced by the incorporation of dUMP during DNA replication. Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) acts as a major repair enzyme that protects DNA from the deleterious consequences of uracil. The first UNG activity was discovered in E. coli in 1974. This was also the first discovery of base excision repair. The sequence encoded by the ung gene demonstrates that the E. coli UNG is highly conserved in viruses, bacteria, archaea, yeast, mice and humans. In this review, we will focus on central and recent findings on the generation, biological consequences and repair mechanisms of uracil in DNA and on the biological significance of uracil-DNA glycosylase.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Radiation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uracil arises in DNA from spontaneous deamination of cytosine and through incorporation of dUMP by DNA polymerase during DNA replication. Excision of uracil by the action of uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung) initiates the base excision repair pathway to counter the promutagenic base modification. In this study, we cloned a cDNA-encoding Caenorhabditis elegans homologue (CeUng-1) of Escherichia coli Ung. There was 49% identity in amino acid sequence between E.coli Ung and CeUng-1. Purified CeUng-1 removed uracil from both U:G and U:A base pairs in DNA. It also removed uracil from single-stranded oligonucleotide substrate less efficiently than double-stranded oligonucleotide. The CeUng-1 activity was inhibited by Bacillus subtilis Ung inhibitor, indicating that CeUng-1 is a member of the family-1 Ung group. The mutation in the ung-1 gene did not affect development, fertility and lifespan in C.elegans, suggesting the existence of backup enzyme. However, we could not detect residual uracil excision activity in the extract derived from the ung-1 mutant. The present experiments also showed that the ung-1 mutant of C.elegans was more resistant to NaHSO(3)-inducing cytosine deamination than wild-type strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteria and eukaryotes possess redundant enzymes that recognize and remove oxidatively damaged bases from DNA through base excision repair. DNA glycosylases remove damaged bases to initiate the base excision repair. The exocyclic methyl group of thymine does not escape oxidative damage to produce 5-formyluracil (5-foU) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmU). 5-foU is a potentially mutagenic lesion. A homolog of E. coli endonuclease III (SpNth1) had been identified and characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, we found that SpNth1 recognizes and removes 5-foU and 5-hmU from DNA with similar efficiency. The specific activities for the removal of 5-foU and 5-hmU were comparable with that for thymine glycol. The expression of SpNth1 reduced the hydrogen peroxide toxicity and the frequency of spontaneous mutations in E. coli nth nei mutant. It was also revealed that SpNth1 had DNA glycosylase activity for removing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) from 8-oxoG/G and 8-oxoG/A mispairs. These results indicated that SpNth1 has a broad substrate specificity and is involved in the base excision repair of 8-oxoG and thymine residues oxidized in the methyl group in S. pombe.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Radiation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is of interest to perform a systematic comparative analysis of the conserved domains in DNA glycosylases and the evolution of DNA base excision repair systems. Furthermore, it is important to characterize the roles and regulation of base excision repair during the development of organisms. To address these issues, we first identified 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)-DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis as a good model system.
A cDNA clone coding for a peptide with homology to human Ogg1 was identified in the expressed sequence tag (EST) database from the Ciona cDNA resources. We examined whether CiOgg1 has DNA glycosylase/AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activities for 8-oxoG-containing oligonucleotide. Furthermore, the expression level of CiOgg1 was compared in various tissues of Ciona intestinalis.
The CiOgg1gene encoded a protein of 351 amino acids, which shows 37% identity of amino acid sequence with human Ogg1. The Helix-hairpin-Helix motif was highly conserved. The ascidian enzyme had functional 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase/AP lyase activities, which removed 8-oxoG opposite cytosine from DNA. Expression of the CiOgg1 significantly reduced the frequency of spontaneous G:C to T:A transversions in E. coli mutM mutY. The highest expression level was observed in testis in Ciona intestinalis.
The structure and functions of Ogg1 are well conserved in Ciona intestinalis. CiOgg1 is involved in the repair of 8-oxoG in DNA in Ciona intestinalis.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · International Journal of Radiation Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad60 gene is essential for cell growth and is involved in repairing DNA double-strand breaks. Rad60 physically interacts with
and is functionally related to the structural maintenance of chromosomes 5 and 6 (SMC5/6) protein complex. In this study,
we investigated the role of Rad60 in the recovery from the arrest of DNA replication induced by hydroxyurea (HU). rad60-1 mutant cells arrested mitosis normally when treated with HU. Significantly, Rad60 function is not required during HU arrest
but is required on release. However, the mutant cells underwent aberrant mitosis accompanied by irregular segregation of chromosomes,
and DNA replication was not completed, as revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The deletion of rhp51 suppressed the aberrant mitosis of rad60-1 cells and caused mitotic arrest. These results suggest that Rhp51 and Rad60 are required for the restoration of a stalled
or collapsed replication fork after release from the arrest of DNA replication by HU. The rad60-1 mutant was proficient in Rhp51 focus formation after release from the HU-induced arrest of DNA replication or DNA-damaging
treatment. Furthermore, the lethality of a rad60-1 rqh1Δ double mutant was suppressed by the deletion of rhp51 or rhp57. These results suggest that Rad60 is required for recombination repair at a step downstream of Rhp51. We propose that Rhp51-dependent
DNA structures that cannot activate the mitotic checkpoints accumulate in rad60-1 cells.
Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequency of G:C-->C:G transversions significantly increases upon exposure of cells to ionizing radiation or reactive oxygen species. Transversions can be prevented by base excision repair, which removes the causative modified bases from DNA. Our previous studies revealed that MutY is responsible for removing guanine from 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine/guanine mispairs (8-oxoG/G) and prevents the generation of G:C-->C:G transversions in E. coli. SpMYH, a homolog of E. coli MutY, had been identified and characterized in the fission yeast S. pombe. Purified SpMYH has adenine DNA glycosylase activity on A/8-oxoG and A/G mismatch-containing oligonucleotides. In this study, we examined whether SpMYH has a similar activity allowing it to remove G from 8-oxoG/G in DNA. The purified SpMYH tightly bound to duplex oligonucleotides containing 8-oxoG/G and removed the unmodified G from 8-oxoG/G as efficiently as A from 8-oxoG/A. The activity was absent in the cell extract prepared from an SpMYH-knockout strain of S. pombe. The expression of SpMYH markedly reduced the frequency of spontaneous G:C-->C:G transversions in the E. coli mutY mutant. These results demonstrate that SpMYH is involved in the repair of 8-oxoG/G, by which it prevents mutations induced by oxidative stress in S. pombe.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Radiation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the cellular processing and repair mechanisms for radiation-induced clustered DNA damage, we examined the correlation between the levels of DNA glycosylases and the sensitivity to ionizing radiation in Escherichia coli.
The lethal effects of gamma-rays, X-rays, alpha-particles and H2O2 were determined in E. coli with different levels of DNA glycosylases. The formation of double-strand breaks by post-irradiation treatment with DNA glycosylase was assayed with gamma-irradiated plasmid DNA in vitro.
An E. coli mutM nth nei triple mutant was less sensitive to the lethal effect of sparsely ionizing radiation (gamma-rays and X-rays) than the wild-type strain. Overproduction of MutM (8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase), Nth (endonuclease III) and Nei (endonulease VIII) increased the sensitivity to gamma-rays, whereas it did not affect the sensitivity to alpha-particles. Increased sensitivity to gamma-rays also occurred in E. coli overproducing human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (hOgg1). Treatment of gamma-irradiated plasmid DNA with purified MutM converted the covalently closed circular to the linear form of the DNA. On the other hand, overproduction of MutM conferred resistance to H2O2 on the E. coli mutM nth nei mutant.
The levels of DNA glycosylases affect the sensitivity of E. coli to gamma-rays and X-rays. Excessive excision by DNA glycosylases converts nearly opposite base damage in clustered DNA damage to double-strand breaks, which are potentially lethal.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · International Journal of Radiation Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteria and eukaryotes possess redundant activities that recognize and remove oxidatively damaged bases from DNA through base excision repair. DNA glycosylases excise damaged bases to initiate the base excision repair pathway. hOgg1 and hNTH1, homologues of E. coli MutM and Nth, respectively, had been identified and characterized in human cells. Recent works revealed that human cells have three orthologues of E. coli Nei, hNEIL1, hNEIL2 and hNEIL3. In the present experiments, hNEIL1 protected the E. coli nth nei mutant from lethal effect of hydrogen peroxide and high frequency of spontaneous mutations under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, hNEIL1 efficiently cleaved double stranded oligonucleotides containing 5-formyluracil (5-foU) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmU) in vitro via beta- and delta-elimination reactions. Similar activities were detected with hNTH1. These results indicate that hNEIL1 and hNTH1 are DNA glycosylases that excise 5-foU and 5-hmU as efficiently as Tg in human cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of 6- and 10-T static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the expression of protooncogenes using Western blot immunohybridization methods. We used a SMF exposure system, which can expose cells to a spatially inhomogeneous 6 T with a strong magnetic field (MF) gradient (41.7 T/m) and a spatially homogeneous 10 T of the highest magnetic flux density in this experiment. HL-60 cells exposed to either 6- or 10-T SMF for periods of 1 to 48 h did not exhibit remarkable differences in levels of c-Myc and c-Fos protein expression, as compared with sham-exposed cells. In contrast, c-Jun protein expression increased in HL-60 cells after exposure to 6-T SMF for 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. These results suggest that a homogeneous 10-T SMF does not alter the expression of the c-jun, c-fos, and c-myc protooncogenes. However, our observation that exposure to a strong MF gradient induced c-Jun expression suggests that a strong MF gradient may have significant biological effects, particularly regarding processes related to an elevation of c-jun gene expression.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mismatched or damaged base pairs in DNA are mutagenic and both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have a series of repair systems that decrease a spontaneous mutation rate. All exocyclic amino groups of cytosine(C), adenine(A), and guanine(G) contribute to hydrogen bonds for base pairing. High temperature and oxidative stresses increase the deamination of these bases and methylated C. These deaminated sites would be initially recognized by components of DNA repair system. We discovered a novel G/thymine(T)-mismatch binding protein (nGTBP) that bound, with high affinity, to a minimal 14-mer DNA heteroduplex with a strict 5'-TRT GNB-3' sequence (R for purine, N for any bases, and B for "not A," namely for C, G, or T ). This italicized G position mismatched with T could be replaced by hypoxanthine, the deaminated A. The nGTBP, however, barely recognized DNA duplexes individually containing 8-oxo-G, thymine glycol, and 5-methylcytosine.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2003 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Formyluracil (5-foU) is a potentially mutagenic lesion of thymine produced in DNA by ionizing radiation and various chemical oxidants. The present authors reported previously that MutM, Nth and Nei in Escherichia coli removed 5-foU from DNA. The present study identified 5-foU DNA glycosylases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to clarify the repair mechanisms of 5-foU in eukaryotic cells.
The borohydride-trapping assay and DNA-nicking assay were carried out to detect and characterize the repair activities for 5-foU in extracts from S. cerevisiae with oligonucleotides containing 5-foU at specific sites.
Two proteins in crude extracts from S. cerevisiae formed covalent complexes with oligonucleotides containing site-specific 5-foU in the presence of NaBH4. Extracts from S. cerevisiae strains defective in either the NTG1 or the NTG2 gene lacked either one or the other of these two proteins. Purified Ntg1 and Ntg2 were trapped in such complexes by the 5-foU-containing oligonucleotides in the presence of NaBH4. Furthermore, purified Ntg1 and Ntg2 efficiently cleaved the oligonucleotide at the 5-foU site.
The results indicate that both Ntg1 and Ntg2 are involved in the repair of 5-foU in DNA, and thereby serve to reduce mutations in S. cerevisiae.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · International Journal of Radiation Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although strong static magnetic fields (SMF) are supposed to have the potential to affect biological systems, the effects have not been evaluated sufficiently. Experiments should be performed with a powerful SMF-generating apparatus to evaluate the biological effects of SMF.
An Escherichia coli mutation assay was used to assess the mutagenic effects of strong SMF. Various mutant strains of E. coli were exposed to up to 9 Tesla (T) for 24 h and the frequencies of rifampicin-resistant mutations were then determined. The expression of the soxS::lacZ fusion gene was assessed by measurement of beta-galactosidase activity.
The results for survival or mutation were obtained with wild-type E. coli strain GC4468 and its derivatives defective in DNA repair enzymes or redox-regulating enzymes were all negative. On the other hand, the mutation frequency was significantly increased by the SMF exposure in soxR and sodAsodB mutants, which are defective in defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. Furthermore, the expression of superoxide-inducible soxS::lacZ fusion gene was stimulated 1.4- and 1.8-fold in E. coli when exposed to 5 and 9 T, respectively.
These results indicate that strong SMF induce mutations through elevated production of intracellular superoxide radicals in E. coli.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · International Journal of Radiation Biology