Publications (8)27.27 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays an important role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis by activating its receptors on the renal collecting duct (CD) to stimulate renal Na(+) and water excretion. The PG carrier prostaglandin transporter (PGT) is expressed on the CD apical membrane, where it mediates PG reuptake as part of the termination of autocrine PG signaling. Here we tested the hypothesis that dietary salt loading regulates PGT gene transcription in renal CDs. We placed green fluorescence protein (GFP) under control of 3.3 kb of the mouse PGT promoter and injected this construct into the pronuclei of fertilized FVB mouse eggs. Four of thirty-eight offspring were GFP positive by genotyping. We extensively characterized one (no. 29) PGT-GFP transgenic mouse line. On microscopic examination, GFP was expressed in CDs as determined by their expression of aquaporin-2. We fed mice a low (0.03% NaCl)-, normal (0.3% NaCl)-, or high-salt (3% NaCl) diet for 2 wk and quantified CD GFP expression. The average number of GFP-positive CD cells per microscopic section varied directly with dietary salt intake. Compared with mice on the control (0.3% sodium) diet, mice on a low-sodium (0.03%) diet had reduced numbers of GFP-positive cells (71% of control, P < 0.001), whereas mice on a high-sodium (3%) diet had increased numbers of GFP-positive cells (139% of control, P < 0.001). This increase in apparent CD PGT transcription resulted in a 51-55% increase (P < 0.001) in whole kidney PGT mRNA levels as determined by real-time PCR. The regulation of PG signal termination via reuptake represents a new pathway for controlling renal Na(+) balance.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During water deprivation, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), formed by renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs), feedback inhibits the actions of antidiuretic hormone. Interstitial PGE(2) concentrations represent the net of both PGE(2) synthesis by cyclooxygenase (COX) and PGE(2) uptake by carriers such as PGT. We used cultured RMICs to examine the effects of hyperosmolarity on both PG synthesis and PG uptake in the same RMIC. RMICs expressed endogenous PGT as assessed by mRNA and immunoblotting. RMICs rapidly took up [(3)H]PGE(2) to a level 5- to 10-fold above background and with a characteristic time-dependent "overshoot." Inhibitory constants (K(i)) for various PGs and PGT inhibitors were similar between RMICs and the cloned rat PGT. Increasing extracellular hyperosmolarity to the range of 335-485 mosM increased the net release of PGE(2) by RMICs, an effect that was concentration dependent, maximal by 24 h, reversible, and associated with increased expression of COX-2. Over the same time period, there was decreased cell-surface activity of PGT due to internalization of the transporter. With continued exposure to hyperosmolarity over 7-10 days, PGE(2) release remained elevated, COX-2 returned to baseline, and PGT-mediated uptake became markedly reduced. Our findings suggest that hyperosmolarity induces coordinated changes in COX-2-mediated PGE(2) synthesis and PGT-mediated PGE(2) uptake in RMICs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies show that expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in endothelial cells results in decreased cyclooxygenase expression and prostaglandin (PG) levels through limiting heme availability. Regulation of PGs, important inflammatory mediators, may contribute to the anti-inflammatory potential of HO-1. Here we examine the effects of HO-1 expression on PG clearance via the prostaglandin transporter (PGT). Endothelial cells expressing human HO-1 via retroviral transfer exhibit approximately 7-fold higher levels of PGT RNA and equivalently elevated uptake of [(3)H]PGE(2). The pattern and extent of uptake and the substrate inhibitory constants of PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), and thromboxane B(2) are similar to those of cloned PGT. Treatment of cells with stannous chloride, an inducer of HO-1, results in increased expression of PGT while incubation of cells expressing human HO-1 with stannic mesophorphyrin, a substrate inhibitor of HO-1, decreases PG uptake. Therefore, PG clearance via PGT may contribute to the cellular regulation of PG levels by HO-1.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Termination of prostaglandin (PG) signaling has been proposed to involve carrier-mediated uptake across the plasma membrane followed by cytoplasmic oxidation. Here, we tested this hypothesis directly by coexpressing the PG uptake carrier prostaglandin transporter (PGT) in various cell types with and without human PG 15 dehydrogenase (PG15DH). In HeLa cells, which express neither PGT nor PG15DH, exogenously added PGE2 or PGF2alpha were rapidly oxidized to the 13, 14-dihydro, 15-keto metabolites only when PGT and PG15DH were coexpressed, directly confirming the two-step hypothesis. Cells expressing PG15DH that were broken open formed more PG metabolites than cells in which the PGs could gain access to PG15DH only via PGT. Similar results were obtained using the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, in which endogenous PG15DH is induced after exposure to dihydrotestosterone. Because PGT in vivo is expressed in renal collecting duct epithelia, we also expressed PGT in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells grown on filters, where it mediated both the active uptake of PGE2 across the apical membrane and the transepithelial transport of PGE2 to the basolateral compartment. When PG15DH was coexpressed with PGT in these epithelial monolayers, about half of the PGE2 taken up apically was oxidized to 13, 14-dihydro, 15-keto-PGE2, which in turn exited the cells nondirectionally into both the apical and basolateral compartments. Our data represent reconstitution of the longstanding model of PG metabolism consisting of sequential carrier-mediated PG uptake, cytoplasmic oxidation, and diffusional efflux of the PG metabolite.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PGT is a broadly expressed transporter of prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane that is energetically poised to take up prostanoids across the plasma membrane. To gain insight into the function of PGT, we generated mouse monoclonal antibody 20 against a portion of putative extracellular loop 5 of rat PGT. Immunoblots of endogenous PGT in rat kidney revealed a 65-kDa protein in a zonal pattern corresponding to PG synthesis rates (papilla congruent with medulla > cortex). Immunocytochemically, PGT in rat kidneys was expressed in glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells, arteriolar endothelial and muscularis cells, principal cells of the collecting duct, medullary interstitial cells, medullary vasa rectae endothelia, and papillary surface epithelium. Proximal tubules, which are known to take up and metabolize PGs, were negative. Immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry revealed that rat platelets also express abundant PGT. Coexpression of the PG synthesis apparatus (cyclooxygenase) and PGT by the same cell suggests that prostanoids may undergo release and reuptake.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PG transporter (PGT) is expressed in subapical vesicles in the kidney collecting duct. To gain insight into the possible function of the PGT in this tubule segment, we tagged rat PGT with green fluorescent protein at the COOH terminus and generated stable PGT-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines. When grown on permeable filters, green fluorescent protein-PGT was expressed predominantly at the apical membrane. Although the basal-to-apical transepithelial flux of [(3)H]PGE(2) was little changed by PGT expression, the apical-to-basolateral flux was increased 100-fold compared with wild-type cells. Analysis of driving forces revealed that this flux represents PGT-mediated active transepithelial PGE(2) transport. We propose that endogenous PGT is exocytically inserted into the collecting duct apical membrane, where it could control the concentration of luminal PGs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified and/or cloned the PG transporter PGT in the rat (rPGT) (Kanai, N., R. Lu, J. A. Satriano, Y. Bao, A. W. Wolkoff, and V. L. Schuster, Science 268: 866-869, 1995) and the human (hPGT) (Lu, R., and V. L. Schuster, J. Clin. Invest. 98: 1142-1149, 1996). Here we have cloned and expressed the mouse PGT (mPGT) cDNA. The tissue distribution of mPGT mRNA expression is significantly more restricted than that of rPGT and hPGT mRNA. Although the deduced amino acid sequence of mPGT is similar to the rat (91% identity) and human (82% identity) homologues, it has three regions of dissimilarity: amino acids 128-163 and 283-298, and valine 610 and isoleucine 611 (predicted to lie within putative transmembrane span 12). Affinities of hPGT, rPGT, and mPGT for several PG substrates differed, with hPGT having the highest [low Michaelis constant (K(m))] and mPGT the lowest affinity. A chimeric protein, linking the N-terminal domain of mPGT with the C-terminal domain of hPGT, had affinity for PGE2 indistinguishable from that of hPGT, indicating that the C-terminal domain dictates K(m). We mutagenized mouse valine 610 and isoleucine 611 to their corresponding human residues (methionine and glycine, respectively); however, these changes did not convert the inhibition constant of mPGT to that of hPGT. The mouse gene was localized to chromosome 9 in a region syntenic with the region of human chromosome 3 containing the hPGT gene. These studies highlight the species-dependence of tissue expression and function of PGT and lay the groundwork for the use of the mouse as a model system for the study of PGT function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified a novel prostaglandin transporter called PGT (Kanai, N., Lu, R., Satriano, J. A., Bao, Y., Wolkoff, A. W., and Schuster, V. L. (1995) Science 268, 866-869). Based on initial functional studies, we have hypothesized that PGT might mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins (PG), epithelial transport of PGs, or metabolic clearance of PGs. Here we examined the mechanism of PGT transport as expressed in HeLa cells and Xenopus oocytes, using isotopic PG influx and efflux studies. In both native HeLa cells and oocytes, cell membranes were poorly permeable to PGs. In contrast, in oocytes injected with PGT mRNA, the PG influx permeability coefficient was 90-157 times that of oocytes injected with water. The rank order substrate profile was PGF2alpha approximately PGE2 > TXB2 > 6 keto-PGF1alpha. PG influx displayed an overshoot with rapid accumulation of tracer PGE2, followed by a gradual return to baseline. Based on estimated oocyte volumes, the PGT-mediated accumulation of PGE2 reached steady state at intra-oocyte concentrations 25-fold higher than the external media. The accumulation of PG was not due to intracellular binding or metabolism. PGT-mediated uptake was ATP- and temperature-dependent, but not sodium-dependent, and was inhibited by disulfonic stilbenes, niflumic acid, and the thiol reactive anion MTSES (Na(2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate). [3H]PGE2 efflux from PGT-transfected HeLa cells was stimulated by external (trans) PGE2 in a dose-dependent fashion and was inhibited by bromcresol green and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate. Membrane depolarization inhibited uptake of [3H]PGE2, consistent with a model of net outward movement of negative charge during the translocation event. These findings suggest that PGT mediates [3H]PGE2 accumulation via obligatory, electrogenic anion exchange.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
New York, New York, United States
- Department of Medicine
New York Medical College
New York City, New York, United States
- Department of Pharmacology