Erika Isolauri

University of Turku, Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland

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Publications (378)1592.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Specific probiotic bacteria have proven to be effective in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in early life in at-risk populations. The impact of administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on the risk of acute infectious diseases was studied in healthy children. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 109 one-month-old infants were assigned randomly to a probiotic group receiving a BB-12-containing tablet (n=55) or a placebo (n=54). Test tablets were administered to the infants twice a day (daily dose of BB-12 10 billion CFU) until the age of two years with a novel slow-release pacifier or a spoon. Breastfeeding habits, pacifier use, dietary habits, medications and all signs and symptoms of acute infections were registered in diaries by parents and in questionnaires by trained professionals. Results: The infants receiving BB-12 were reported to have experienced fewer respiratory tract infections (87% vs. 100%; RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76, 1.00; P=0.033) than the controls. No significant differences between the groups were observed in reported gastrointestinal symptoms, otitis media or fever. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar, as was the duration of breastfeeding. Conclusion: Administration of BB-12 in early childhood may reduce respiratory tract infections.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.174.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Pediatric Research

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
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    ABSTRACT: During pregnancy there are significant changes in gut microbiota composition and activity. The impact of secretor status as determined by genotyping FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2) gene was taken as one of the confounding factors associated with faecal microbiota changes during pregnancy. In this prospective study, we followed women during pregnancy (total = 123 of which secretors = 108, non-secretors = 15) and characterised their gut microbiota by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation (FISH), Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. qPCR revealed that C . coccoides group counts decreased significantly in non-secretors in comparison to secretors (p = 0.02). Similar tendency was found by FISH analysis in Clostridium histolyticum and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus groups between the secretor and the non-secretor pregnant women. DGGE analysis showed significant decrease in richness of Clostridium sp. between secretor and non-secretor mothers during pregnancy. Pyrosequencing based analysis at phyla level showed that there is greater increase in Actinobacteria in secretors in comparison to non-secretors, whereas Proteobacteria showed more increase in non-secretors. Change in relative abundance of Clostridiaceae family from first to third trimester were significantly associated with secretor status of pregnant women (p = 0.05). Polyphasic approach for microbiota analysis points out that the host secretor status (FUT2 genotype) affects the gut microbiota during pregnancy. This may lead to altered infant gut microbiota colonization.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Mode of delivery and type of feeding impact gut microbiota. We demonstrated higher fecal bifidobacteria in infants who were breastfed or fed formula with prebiotics polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) versus formula without prebiotics. Here we tested feces of that cohort for lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus, two types of bacteria present in breast milk. In a double-blind, randomized study, 21- to 30-day old term infants vaginally delivered and exclusively formula-fed received a cow's milk-based formula (Control; n = 80) or the same formula with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio) of PDX/GOS (PDX/GOS; n = 77). A reference breastfed group (BF; n = 71) was included. Stool samples were obtained at baseline and after 30 and 60 days of feeding to assess fecal bacteria by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Pairwise comparisons between baseline-adjusted means log10 CFU/g feces of total lactobacilli counts (8.37 in Control, 8.46 in PDX/GOS, and 8.42 in BF) showed a significant difference only between PDX/GOS and Control at 30 and 60 days combined (p = 0.035), utilizing generalized estimating equations method. Baseline-adjusted odds ratio of colonization with S. aureus was lower in Control (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22-1.00, p = 0.049) and PDX/GOS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.94, p = 0.03) groups versus BF group. Bacteria found in breast milk such as lactobacilli and S. aureus can also be found in infant feces. S. aureus, traditionally considered harmful, may aid in educating the co-evolving immune system. Modifying formula by adding prebiotics may bring gut microbiota closer to that of breastfed infants in terms of beneficial microbes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and reduced allergen load may lessen the daily crying of colic infants but the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has remained obscure. Infants with colic (n=30) were enrolled during the first 6 weeks of life. All families received behavioral support and allergen avoidance diet: breast-feeding mothers followed cow's milk elimination diet and formula-fed infants received extensively hydrolyzed casein formula. The randomized, double-blind intervention employed of LGG 4.5x10(9) cfu/day or placebo for a 4-week study period. Daily crying was recorded by diaries and parental interviews. Fecal calprotectin and gut microbiota composition by qPCR were evaluated before and after the intervention. Daily crying time was comparable between the probiotic (173 minutes) and the placebo group (174 min; p=0.99) at the end of the intervention according to the parental diary. However, parents reported a decrease of 68% (95% CI, 58-87) in daily crying in the probiotic and 49% (95% CI, 32-66) in the placebo group (p=0.05). LGG in infants treated in tandem with behavioral support and a cow's milk elimination diet did not provide additional treatment effect for diary-verified colic crying although parental report of crying suggested the probiotic intervention effective.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.127.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Pediatric Research

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to compare the composition and diversity of Lactobacillus microbiota in infants living in Malawi and south-western Finland. The composition and diversity of the Lactobacillus group was analyzed in the feces of healthy six-month-old infants living in rural Malawi (n = 44) and south-western Finland (n = 31), using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting (DGGE). Malawian infants had higher counts of lactobacilli than their Finnish counterparts (7.45 log cells/g vs. 6.86 log cells/g, p < 0.001, respectively) and the Lactobacillus community was richer and more diverse in the Malawian infants. Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa were the predominant species in both study groups, but Malawian infants were more often colonized by these species (100 % vs. 74.2 % p < 0.001; 95.5 % vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, Lactobacillus ruminis, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus mucosae were detected more often in the Malawian infants (59.1 % vs. 0.0 %, p < 0.001; 38.6 % vs. 9.7 %, p = 0.004; 29.5 % vs. 0.0 %, p < 0.001; 22.7 % vs. 3.2 %, p = 0.017, respectively). However, Lactobacillus casei group species were only detected in the Finnish infants. Malawian infants have a more abundant Lactobacillus microbiota with a distinct composition compared to Finnish infants. The environment, including diet and hygiene, may be among the factors influencing these differences.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity currently constitute a major threat to human wellbeing. Almost half of the female population are currently overweight. Pregnant overweight women are at risk of gestational diabetes impacting the health of the mother and the child, both short- and long-term. Notwithstanding the extensive scientific interest centred on the problem, research efforts have thus far been unable to devise preventive strategies. Recent scientific advances point to a gut microbiota dysbiosis, with ensuing low-grade inflammation as a contributing element, in obesity and its comorbidities. Such findings would suggest a role for specific probiotics in the search for preventive and therapeutic adjunct applications in gestational diabetes. The aim of this paper is to critically review recent demonstrations of the role of intestinal microbes in immune and metabolic regulation, which could be exploited in nutritional management of pregnant women by probiotic bacteria. By modulating specific target functions, probiotic dietary intervention may exert clinical effects beyond the nutritional impact of food. As this approach in pregnancy is new, an overview of the gut microbiota in shaping host metabolism together with the definition of probiotics are presented, and finally, specific targets and potential mechanisms for probiotics in pregnancy are discussed. Pregnancy appears to be the most critical stage for interventions aiming to reduce the risk of non-communicable disease in future generations, beyond the immediate dangers attributable to the health of the mother, labour and the neonate. Specific probiotic interventions during pregnancy thus provide an opportunity to promote the health not only of the mother but also of the child. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Recent experimental evidence suggests that gut microbiota may alter function within the nervous system providing new insight on the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders. 75 infants who were randomized to receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) or placebo during the first six months of life were followed-up for 13 years. Gut microbiota was assessed at the age of 3 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 months and 13 years using FISH and qPCR, and indirectly by determining the blood group secretor type at the age of 13 years. The diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) by a child neurologist or psychiatrist were based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. At the age of 13 years ADHD or AS was diagnosed in 6/35 (17.1%) children in the placebo and none in the probiotic group (p=0.008). The mean (SD) numbers of Bifidobacterium species bacteria in feces during the first six months of life was lower in affected children 8.26 (1.24)log cells/g than in healthy children 9.12 (0.64) log cells/g; p=0.03. Probiotic supplementation early in life may reduce the risk of neuropsychiatric disorder development later in childhood possible by mechanisms not limited to gut microbiota composition.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.51.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Pediatric Research
  • E Isolauri · S Salminen
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    ABSTRACT: The composition of the gut microbiota, and thus also the modification of the gut microbiota by specific probiotics or prebiotics early in life, may have an impact on the risk of disease in the child. Above the impact on gut microecology, probiotic effects have been attributed to restoration to normal of increased intestinal permeability, improvement of the intestine's immunological barrier functions, alleviation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and reduced generation of proinflammatory cytokines characteristic of local and systemic allergic inflammation. Recent demonstrations from experimental and clinical studies suggest that the gut microbiota is also involved in the control of body weight and energy metabolism, affecting the two main causes of obesity: energy acquisition and storage, and contributing to insulin resistance and the inflammatory state characterising obesity. Current research focuses both on characterising specific probiotic strains and on how the food matrix and the dietary content interacts with the most efficient probiotic strains. It is important to characterise each probiotic to species and strain level and to select strains with documented properties, the probiotic potential being strain-specific. As any proof of causality requires clinical intervention studies in humans in different populations, rigorous and detailed documentation will enhance reproducibility and circumvent confusion.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Beneficial Microbes
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bacterial contact in utero modulates fetal and neonatal immune responses. Maternal probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of immune-mediated disease in the infant. We investigated the immunomodulatory properties of live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its SpaC pilus adhesin in human fetal intestinal models.MethodsTNF-α mRNA expression was measured by qPCR in a human fetal intestinal organ culture model exposed to live L. rhamnosus GG and proinflammatory stimuli. Binding of recombinant SpaC pilus protein to intestinal epithelial cells was assessed in human fetal intestinal organ culture and the human fetal intestinal epithelial cell line H4 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, respectively. TLR-related gene expression in fetal ileal organ culture after exposure to recombinant SpaC was assessed by qPCR.ResultsL. rhamnosus GG significantly attenuates pathogen-induced TNF-α mRNA expression in the human fetal gut. Recombinant SpaC protein was found to adhere to the fetal gut and to modulate varying levels of TLR-related gene expression.Conclusions The human fetal gut is responsive to luminal microbes. L. rhamnosus GG significantly attenuates fetal intestinal inflammatory responses to pathogenic bacteria. The L. rhamnosus GG pilus adhesin SpaC binds to immature human intestinal epithelial cells and directly modulates intestinal epithelial cell innate immune gene expression.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.5.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Pediatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were characterized. Further, the changes in intestinal microbiota composition related to the improvement of this disease 3 months later were assessed. The severity of eczema correlated inversely with microbiota diversity (r=-0.54, P=0.002) and with the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (r= -0.52, P=0.005). During the 3 months follow-up, microbiota diversity increased (P<0.001) and SCORAD values decreased (P<0.001) in all infants. This decrease coincided with the increase in bacteria related to butyrate-producing Coprococcus eutactus (r= -0.59, P=0.02). In conclusion, the high diversity of microbiota and high abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria were associated with milder eczema, thus suggesting they have a role in alleviating symptoms of atopic eczema.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Allergy
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Epigenetics encompasses genomic modifications that are due to environmental factors and do not affect the nucleotide sequence. The gut microbiota has an important role in human metabolism and could be a significant environmental factor affecting our epigenome. To investigate the association of gut microbiota with epigenetic changes, we assessed pregnant women and selected the participants based on their predominant gut microbiota for a study on their postpartum methylation profile. Intriguingly, we found that blood DNA methylation patterns were associated with gut microbiota profiles. The gut microbiota profiles, with either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes as a dominant group, correlated with differential methylation status of gene promoters functionally associated with cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, differential methylation of gene promoters linked to lipid metabolism and obesity was observed. For the first time, we report here a position of the predominant gut microbiota in epigenetic profiling, suggesting one potential mechanism in obesity with comorbidities, if proven in further in-depth studies.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: Modern civilization is faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated or inflammatory health problems such as allergic disease, autoimmune disorders and obesity. An extended version of the hygiene hypothesis has been introduced to emphasize the intimate interrelationship between diet, the immune system, microbiome and origins of human disease. the modern infant, particularly when delivered by caesarean section and without the recommended exclusive breast-feeding, may lack sufficient stimulation of the mucosal immune system to generate a tolerogenic immune milieu and instead be prone to develop chronic inflammatory conditions. These deviations may take the form of allergic or autoimmune disease, or predispose the child to higher weight gain and obesity. Moreover, evidence supports the role of first microbial contacts in promoting and maintaining a balanced immune response in early life and recent findings suggest that microbial contact begins prior to birth and is shaped by the maternal microbiota. Maternal microbiota may prove to be a safe and effective target for interventions decreasing the risk of allergic and non-communicable diseases in future generations. These results support the hypothesis that targeting early interaction with microbes might offer an applicable strategy to prevent disease.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.173.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Pediatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims Empirical antibiotic therapy is common in the neonatal period but often discontinued due to the lack of evidence of bacterial infection. Early antibiotic exposure may disturb microbial colonisation and immune maturation and thus increase the risk of immune-mediated diseases in later life. We investigated the long-term immune effects of early antibiotic exposure in neonates with or without evidence of infection. Methods Altogether 622 neonates from ongoing allergy prevention studies underwent skin prick testing at the age of 12 months. Exposure to antibiotics commenced during the first 72 h of life was categorised as follows: no exposure, brief empirical exposure (less than 5 days) or therapy for documented infection (≥5 days). Outcomes were analysed by logistic regression. Results Brief neonatal antibiotic exposure was associated with lower risk of prick test positivity (Table 1). The effect remained statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounding factors (Table 2). Conclusions Brief antibiotic exposure during the first days of life without concomitant infectious disease appears to impact immune development.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2(nd) week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Anaerobe
  • Johanna Jaakkola · Erika Isolauri · Tuija Poussa · Kirsi Laitinen
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    ABSTRACT: As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Maternal and Child Nutrition
  • Henriina Hermansson · Ulla Hoppu · Erika Isolauri
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Caesarean section rates have increased in parallel with those of obesity. Decreased levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived metabolic hormone present in abundant concentrations in cord blood and breast milk, have been documented in association with obesity in children and adults. Objective: To determine whether the mode of delivery affects adiponectin concentrations in cord blood of healthy term infants. Methods: The cord blood adiponectin concentration was measured in 159 consecutive term infants, of whom 131 (82.4%) were born by vaginal delivery, 15 (9.4%) by nonelective caesarean section and 13 (8.2%) by elective caesarean section. Results: The mean adiponectin level was significantly lower in infants born by elective caesarean section compared with those born by vaginal delivery: 15.3 µg/ml (SD = 6.8) and 21.6 µg/ml (SD = 7.3), respectively (p = 0.015). This difference remained significant after adjustment for the infants' gender and birth weight as well as maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy. Conclusion: Elective caesarean section may carry a risk of obesity independently of maternal risk factors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Neonatology
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2nd week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Anaerobe
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We aimed to explore whether maternal dietary counseling to increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) is reflected in infant FA status. Serum cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) FA were analyzed from infants of 45 women randomized to receive dietary counseling from the first trimester of pregnancy and 45 control women. Counseling resulted in a higher intake of polyunsaturated FA and a lower intake of saturated FA. The dietary intake was reflected in cord blood TAGs: the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was lower [mean difference -0.50 (95%CI -0.95 to -0.06)] and the sum of n-3 FA was higher in the intervention than in the control group [1.46 (0.44 to 2.48)% of total FA]. Reasons for the lack of changes in the cord blood CE fraction and FA fractions at 1-month remain unclear, but may indicate that the changes achieved in the maternal diet through counseling were too modest.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

Publication Stats

25k Citations
1,592.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • University of Turku
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Division of Political Science
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
  • 1998-2014
    • Turku University Hospital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
  • 1983-2012
    • University of Tampere
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Medical School
      Tammerfors, Pirkanmaa, Finland
  • 2007
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Clinical Nutrition
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1995-2007
    • University of Helsinki
      • Veterinary Biosciences
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2002
    • British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition
      United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Satakunta Hospital District
      Björneborg, Satakunta, Finland
  • 1999
    • Valio Ltd
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • Turku centre for biotechnology, finland
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1992-1997
    • Tampere University Hospital (TAUH)
      Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1985
    • Central Hospital Central Finland
      Jyväskylä, Central Finland, Finland