Gerald E. Hanks

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (530)2750.44 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Biochemical failure (BF) after radiation therapy is defined on the basis of a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (A1 failure) or any event that prompts the initiation of salvage androgen-deprivation therapy without PSA failure (A2). It was hypothesized that A2 failure may have a different prognosis.METHODS Data for 2799 eligible patients from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202 and RTOG 9413 were analyzed. BF was defined according to the 1997 American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition as A1 for PSA failure or as A2 for the start of salvage hormone therapy before 3 consecutive PSA rises.RESULTSRates of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.0; P < .0001) and distant metastasis (DM; HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0; P < .0001) were greater with A2 failure. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 88.2% and 74.6% for A1 and A2, respectively (P < .0001), and the DM rates were 15.7% and 29.0%, respectively (P < .0001). The DM rate was greater at 5 years for A2 patients with DM as the first sign of failure versus patients with other A2 failures (87.3% vs 11.7%, P < .001), and this also correlated with worse OS at 5 years: 81.1% for A2 failure without DM and 52.8% with DM (P < .001). After the removal of patients with DM, the difference between A1 and A2 BF persisted for OS (P = .002) but not for DM (P = .16)CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that patients with rising PSA levels alone have less risk than those with A2 failures; although DM was the largest contributor of adverse risk to A2 failure, it did not account for all excess risk in A2 failure. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the relationship between the expression of 7 promising apoptotic/cell proliferation proteins (Ki-67, p53, MDM2, bcl-2, bax, p16, and Cox-2) and risk of distant metastasis. Experimental design: RTOG 92-02 compared external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to approximately 70 Gy + short-term androgen deprivation therapy (STADT) with EBRT + long-term ADT (LTADT). Immunohistochemical analysis was available for ≥4 biomarkers in 616 of 1,521 assessable cases. Biomarkers were evaluated individually and jointly via multivariable modeling of distant metastasis using competing risks hazards regression, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, T stage, and treatment. Results: Modeling identified four biomarkers (Ki-67, MDM2, p16 and Cox-2) that were jointly associated with distant metastasis. The c-index was 0.77 for the full model and 0.70 for the model without the biomarkers; a relative improvement of about 10% (likelihood ratio P < 0.001). Subdivision of the patients into quartiles based on predicted distant metastasis risk identified a high-risk group with 10-year distant metastasis risk of 52.5% after EBRT + STADT and 31% with EBRT + LTADT; associated 10-year prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) risks were 45.9% and 14.5% with STADT and LTADT. Conclusion: Four biomarkers were found to contribute significantly to a model that predicted distant metastasis and identified a subgroup of patients at a particularly high risk of both distant metastasis and PCSM when EBRT + STADT was used. LTADT resulted in significant reductions in distant metastasis and improvements in PCSM, and there was a suggestion of greater importance in the very high risk subgroup.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Fuel and Energy Abstracts
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    ABSTRACT: Men with Gleason score (GS) 8-10 prostate cancer (PCa) are assumed to have a high risk of micrometastatic disease at presentation. However, local failure is also a major problem. We sought to establish the importance of more aggressive local radiotherapy (RT) to ≥80 Gy. There were 226 men treated consecutively with RT ± ADT from 1988 to 2002 for GS 8-10 PCa. Conventional, three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated (IM) RT was used. Radiation dose was divided into three groups: (1) <75 Gy (n = 50); (2) 75-79.9 Gy (n = 60); or (3) ≥80 Gy (n = 116). The endpoints examined included biochemical failure (BF; nadir + 2 definition), distant metastasis (DM), cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality (OM). Median follow-up was 66, 71, and 58 months for Groups 1, 2, and 3. On Fine and Gray's competing risk regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced BF were RT dose ≥80 Gy (p = 0.011) and androgen deprivation therapy duration ≥24 months (p = 0.033). In a similar model of DM, only RT dose ≥80 Gy was significant (p = 0.007). On Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced OM were RT dose ≥80 Gy (p = 0.035) and T category (T3/4 vs. T1, p = 0.041). Dose was not a significant determinant of cause-specific mortality. Results for RT dose were similar in a model with RT dose and ADT duration as continuous variables. The results indicate that RT dose escalation to ≥80 Gy is associated with lower risks of BF, DM, and OM in men with GS 8-10 PCa, independently of androgen deprivation therapy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: To assess ultrahigh (UH; prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels ≥50 ng/ml) patient outcomes by comparison to other high-risk patient outcomes and to identify outcome predictors. Prostate cancer patients (PCP) from two Phase III Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials (studies 9202 and 9413) were divided into two groups: high-risk patients with and without UH baseline PSA levels. Predictive variables included age, Gleason score, clinical T stage, Karnofsky performance score, and treatment arm. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using either the Cox or Fine and Gray's regression model with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p values. There were 401 patients in the UH PSA group and 1,792 patients in the non-UH PSA PCP group of a total of 2,193 high-risk PCP. PCP with UH PSA were found to have inferior OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39, p = 0.02), DM (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92; p = 0.0006), and BF (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.29-1.73; p < 0.0001) compared to other high-risk PCP. In the UH cohort, PSA level was found to be a significant factor for the risk of DM (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.02) but not OS and BF. Gleason grades of 8 to 10 were found to consistently predict for poor OS, DM, and BF outcomes (with HR estimates ranging from 1.41-2.36) in both the high-risk cohort and the UH cohort multivariable analyses. UH PSA levels at diagnosis are related to detrimental changes in OS, DM, and BF. All three outcomes can be modeled by various combinations of all predictive variables tested.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray's regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age (≤70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p<0.0001) and increased NPCD (10-year rate, 28% vs. 46%, respectively; p<0.0001) but decreased metastasis (10-year rate, 27% vs. 20%, respectively; p<0.0001) and PCSD (10-year rate, 18% vs. 14%, respectively; p<0.0001). To account for competing risks, outcomes were analyzed in 2-year intervals, and age-dependent differences in metastasis and PCSD persisted, even in the earliest time periods. When adjusted for other covariates, an age of >70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p<0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p<0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p<0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: It is believed that men diagnosed with prostate cancer and a low baseline serum testosterone (BST) may have more aggressive disease, and it is frequently recommended they forego testosterone replacement therapy. We used two large Phase III trials involving androgen deprivation therapy and external beam radiation therapy to assess the significance of a BST. All patients with a BST and complete data (n = 2,478) were included in this analysis and divided into four categories: "Very Low BST" (VLBST) ≤16.5th percentile of BST (≤248 ng/dL; n = 408); "Low BST" (LBST) >16.5th percentile and ≤33rd percentile (>248 ng/dL but ≤314 ng/dL; n = 415); "Average BST" (ABST) >33rd percentile and ≤67th percentile (314-437 ng/dL; n = 845); and "High BST" (HBST) >67th percentile (>437 ng/dL; n = 810). Outcomes included overall survival, distant metastasis, biochemical failure, and cause-specific survival. All outcomes were adjusted for the following covariates: treatment arm, BST, age (<70 vs. ≥70), prostate-specific antigen (PSA; <10 vs. 10 ≤ PSA <20 vs. 20 ≤), Gleason score (2-6 vs. 7 vs. 8-10); T stage (T1-T2 vs. T3-T4), and Karnofsky Performance Status (60-90 vs. 100). On multivariable analysis age, Gleason score, and PSA were independently associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure, distant metastasis and a reduced cause-specific and overall survival (p < 0.05), but BST was not. BST does not affect outcomes in men treated with external beam radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE MDM2 regulates p53, which controls cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Both proteins, along with Ki-67, which is an established strong determinant of metastasis, have shown promise in predicting the outcome of men treated with radiation therapy (RT) with or without short-term androgen deprivation (STAD). This report compares the utility of abnormal expression of these biomarkers in estimating progression in a cohort of men treated on RTOG 92-02. PATIENTS AND METHODS Adequate tissue for immunohistochemistry was available for p53, Ki-67, and MDM2 analyses in 478 patient cases. The percentage of tumor nuclei staining positive (PSP) was quantified manually or by image analysis, and the per-sample mean intensity score (MIS) was quantified by image analysis. Cox regression models were used to estimate overall mortality (OM), and Fine and Gray's regressions were applied to the end points of distant metastasis (DM) and cause-specific mortality (CSM). Results In multivariate analyses that adjusted for all markers and treatment covariates, MDM2 overexpression was significantly related to DM (P = .02) and OM (P = .003), and Ki-67 overexpression was significantly related to DM (P < .0001), CSM (P = .0007), and OM (P = .01). P53 overexpression was significantly related to OM (P = .02). When considered in combination, the overexpression of both Ki-67 and MDM2 at high levels was associated with significantly increased failure rates for all end points (P < .001 for DM, CSM, and OM). CONCLUSION Combined MDM2 and Ki-67 expression levels were independently related to distant metastasis and mortality and, if validated, could be considered for risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in clinical trials.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival may shorten the length of clinical trials for prostate cancer. We evaluated distant metastasis and general clinical treatment failure as potential surrogates for prostate cancer-specific survival by use of data from the Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group 92-02 randomized trial. Patients (n = 1554 randomly assigned and 1521 evaluable for this analysis) with locally advanced prostate cancer had been treated with 4 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation therapy with external beam radiation therapy and then randomly assigned to no additional therapy (control arm) or 24 additional months of androgen deprivation therapy (experimental arm). Data from landmark analyses at 3 and 5 years for general clinical treatment failure (defined as documented local disease progression, regional or distant metastasis, initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, or a prostate-specific antigen level of 25 ng/mL or higher after radiation therapy) and/or distant metastasis were tested as surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 years by use of Prentice's four criteria. All statistical tests were two-sided. At 3 years, 1364 patients were alive and contributed data for analysis. Both distant metastasis and general clinical treatment failure at 3 years were consistent with all four of Prentice's criteria for being surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 years. At 5 years, 1178 patients were alive and contributed data for analysis. Although prostate cancer-specific survival was not statistically significantly different between treatment arms at 5 years (P = .08), both endpoints were consistent with Prentice's remaining criteria. Distant metastasis and general clinical treatment failure at 3 years may be candidate surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 years. These endpoints, however, must be validated in other datasets.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are associated with greater risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction in men with prostate cancer, but little is known about potential impact on cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the relationship between GnRH agonists and cardiovascular mortality in a large randomized phase III trial of men treated with or without adjuvant goserelin after radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. Between 1987 and 1992, 945 men with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomly assigned to RT and adjuvant goserelin or RT alone. Fine and Gray's regression was used to evaluate treatment effect on cardiovascular mortality. Covariates included age, prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), body mass index, race, Gleason score, stage, acid phosphatase level, prostatectomy history, and nodal involvement. After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 117 cardiovascular-related deaths but no treatment-related increase in cardiovascular mortality. At 9 years, cardiovascular mortality for men receiving adjuvant goserelin was 8.4% v 11.4% for men treated without adjuvant goserelin (Gray's P = .17). In multiple regression analyses, treatment arm was not significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.15; P = .16; when censoring at time of salvage goserelin therapy, HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.69; P = .97). Traditional cardiac risk factors, including prevalent CVD and DM, were significantly associated with greater cardiovascular mortality. GnRH agonists do not seem to increase cardiovascular mortality in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to evaluate adverse effects of GnRH agonists in men with lower cancer-specific mortality.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are associated with greater risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction in men with prostate cancer, but little is known about their potential effects on cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the relationship between duration of GnRHa therapy and cardiovascular mortality in a large randomized trial of men treated with short-term versus longer-term adjuvant goserelin and radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. From 1992 to 1995, 1554 men with locally advanced prostate cancer (T2c-4, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] <150 ng/ml) received RT and 4 mo of goserelin and then were randomized to no additional therapy (arm 1) or 24 mo adjuvant goserelin (arm 2) in a phase 3 trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] 92-02). Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between treatment arm and cardiovascular mortality. Covariates included age, prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes (DM), race, PSA, Gleason score, and stage. After median follow-up of 8.1 yr, 185 cardiovascular-related deaths had occurred. No increase in cardiovascular mortality occurred for men receiving a longer duration of goserelin. At 5 yr, cardiovascular mortality for men receiving longer-term adjuvant goserelin was 5.9% versus 4.8% with short-term goserelin (Gray's p=0.16). In multivariate analyses, treatment arm was not significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.47; p=0.58; when censoring at time of salvage goserelin, HR=1.02, 95%CI, 0.73-1.43; p=0.9). Traditional cardiac risk factors, including age, prevalent CVD, and DM, were significantly associated with greater cardiovascular mortality. Longer duration of adjuvant GnRHa therapy does not appear to increase cardiovascular mortality in men with locally advanced prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. Most men with diabetes are obese, and obesity is associated with greater prostate cancer mortality. Whether diabetes influences outcomes after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We assessed the relationship between prevalent diabetes and mortality using data from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02, a large randomized trial of men (N = 1,554) treated with radiation therapy and short-term versus long-term adjuvant goserelin for locally advanced prostate cancer. Regression and proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate relationships between prevalent diabetes and all-cause mortality, prostate cancer mortality, and non-prostate cancer mortality. Covariates included age, race, tumor stage, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, weight, and treatment arm. There were a total of 765 deaths; 210 (27%) were attributed to prostate cancer. In univariate analyses, prevalent diabetes was associated with greater all-cause mortality and non-prostate cancer mortality but not prostate cancer mortality. After controlling for other covariates, prevalent diabetes remained significantly associated with greater all-cause mortality and non-prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.69 to 2.66; P < .0001) but not prostate cancer mortality (HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.25; P = .34). In contrast, weight was associated with greater prostate cancer mortality (HR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.55; P = .002) but not all-cause or non-prostate cancer mortality. Weight but not prevalent diabetes is associated with greater prostate cancer mortality in men receiving combined modality treatment for locally advanced disease. These observations suggest that the association between obesity and greater prostate cancer mortality is mediated by mechanism(s) other than the characteristic metabolic alterations of diabetes.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Clinical Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether adding 2 years of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) improved outcome for patients electively treated with ADT before and during radiation therapy (RT). Prostate cancer patients with T2c-T4 prostate cancer with no extra pelvic lymph node involvement and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 150 ng/mL were included. All patients received 4 months of goserelin and flutamide before and during RT. They were randomized to no further ADT (short-term ADT [STAD] + RT) or 24 months of goserelin (long-term ADT [LTAD] + RT). A total of 1,554 patients were entered. RT was 45 Gy to the pelvic nodes and 65 to 70 Gy to the prostate. Median follow-up of all survival patients is 11.31 and 11.27 years for the two arms. At 10 years, the LTAD + RT group showed significant improvement over the STAD + RT group for all end points except overall survival: disease-free survival (13.2% v 22.5%; P < .0001), disease-specific survival (83.9% v 88.7%; P = .0042), local progression (22.2% v 12.3%; P < .0001), distant metastasis (22.8% v 14.8%; P < .0001), biochemical failure (68.1% v 51.9%; P <or= .0001), and overall survival (51.6% v 53.9%, P = .36). One subgroup analyzed consisted of all cancers with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 cancers. An overall survival difference was observed (31.9% v 45.1%; P = .0061), as well as in all other end points herein. LTAD as delivered in this study for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer is superior to STAD for all end points except survival. A survival advantage for LTAD + RT in the treatment of locally advanced tumors with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 suggests that this should be the standard of treatment for these high-risk patients.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Clinical Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

Publication Stats

19k Citations
2,750.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987-2014
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009
    • Drexel University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1994-2008
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1985-2001
    • American College of Radiology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000
    • Temple University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1997
    • Philadelphia ZOO
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1992
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      • Department of Radiotherapy
      Maywood, Illinois, United States
    • Philadelphia University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1987-1992
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1991
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1989
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1988
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 1984
    • Wayne State University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • UC Davis Medical Center
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1983
    • Sutter Medical Center
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 1981
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States