[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Ageing research reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of existing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging systems are still huge and complicated laboratory systems and neither compact nor user-friendly nor mobile medically certified CARS systems. We have developed a new flexible multiphoton/CARS tomograph for imaging in a clinical environment. The system offers exceptional 360° flexibility with a very stable setup and enables label free 'in vivo histology' with chemical contrast within seconds. It can be completely operated by briefly trained non-laser experts. The imaging capability and flexibility of the novel in vivo tomograph are shown on optical biopsies with subcellular resolution and chemical contrast of patients suffering from psoriasis and squamous cell carcinoma.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Laser Physics Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-invasive skin analysis by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is limited because of the absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. There are several possibilities for enhancing OCT images. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that image quality can be improved using the hyperosmolar agents glucose and glycerol while investigating human ridged and meshed skin areas, without causing damage to the tissue. The experiments were carried out on the palm and the forearm of ten volunteers. After application of the substances in the test area, the penetration depth and image contrast were measured at intervals of 5 min for a total duration of 60 min. Both agents clearly improved the OCT imaging depth in comparison to untreated human skin. The results demonstrated that glucose had a faster diffusion rate than glycerol. Consequently, it can be concluded that the treatment with glucose or glycerol for optical clearing of the skin tissue results in an improved image quality if applied 15-25 min prior to clinical testing.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Laser Physics Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, we report a case of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), which we correlated and evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and conventional H&E histology.
A commercially available OCT scanner was used for imaging. Several multi-slice images were obtained from the central portion of the lesion. Correlation of OCT findings with histology was performed retrospectively.
Microcystic adnexal carcinoma showed characteristic criteria, which were divided into superficial and sub-epidermal findings.
The use of OCT can visualize characteristic criteria of MAC, thus enabling prompt diagnosis before surgery.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Skin Research and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous carotenoids could mirror the current redox status of epidermis and should be investigated in vivo. Optical methods are indispensable in this regard. This paper summarizes methods used for non-invasive measurement of cutaneous carotenoids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, the spatial localization of leucocytes, bacteria, and erythrocytes in the crystal pattern of a dried droplet of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is established. Characteristic lines are detected and identified in the Raman spectrum of the CSF that point to the presence of pathologic cells therein and can be used in a timely way to diagnose meningitis, the spectroscopic sample preparation procedure being simple enough. A dry CSF sample retains its characteristic spectral features for no less than three days, which is important for its safe keeping and transportation, and also for the computer processing of its spectra.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Laser Physics Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to solve the water insolubility limitation of themedically and cosmetically interesting substance Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML)extract by encapsulation, and to evaluate and investigate the penetration efficacy of free and encapsulated GML in two different vehicles (water and cream) in porcine ear skin. The follicular penetration depth was determined in 50 hair follicles for each of the four formulations by means of fluorescence microscopy. Tape stripping was used to compare the distribution properties of GML with all formulations on the stratum corneum. The results showed that encapsulated and free GML in the cream base penetrated deeper into hair follicles than if applied in an aqueous base. In addition, encapsulated GML could be distributed more homogeneously on the stratum corneum than the free GML. In conclusion, it was found that encapsulated GML in a cream base had the most effective penetration level in porcine ear skin.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) on inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis was investigated. Three plaques of six psoriatic patients were subjected to different treatments (A: TTP, brine baths (BB)+5% salicylic acid ointment (SAO); B: BB+SAO; C: BB, UV irradiation, SAO+dithranol). While redness and infiltration was reduced in groups A and C, scaling was reduced in group C. TTP temporarily reduced the bacterial colonization on the skin lesions. In summary, the treatment of psoriatic plaques with TTP showed no significant advantage over conventional therapies.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Clinical Plasma Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liposomes are frequently described as drug delivery systems for dermal and transdermal applications. Recently, it has been shown that particulate substances penetrate effectively into hair follicles and that the follicular penetration depth can be increased by massaging the skin, which simulates the in vivo movement of hairs in the hair follicles. In the present study, massage was applied to skin mounted to Franz diffusion cells. By means of confocal laser scanning microscopy, the influence of massage and occlusion on the follicular penetration depths of rigid and flexible liposomes loaded with a hydrophilic and lipophilic dye was investigated. The application of massage increased follicular penetration significantly. Occlusion resulted in an increased follicular penetration depth only for rigid liposomes, whereas invasomes did not penetrate more effectively if occlusion was applied. The results confirm that massage is an important tool for increasing follicular penetration in ex vivo studies using Franz diffusion cells. Occlusion may reduce the efficacy of follicular penetration depending on the specific liposomal preparation. Rigidity in particular appears to be a relevant parameter.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser spectroscopic methods, for instance resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy, permit us for the first time to investigate the antioxidative status in human skin non-invasively by measurement of carotenoid concentration. The individual antioxidant concentration of the human skin is determined by the nutritional habits, on the one hand, and by stressors, such as shift work, on the other. Due to the disturbance of the circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion, shift work is associated with, inter alia, insomnia and gastrointestinal disorders. The study at hand was the first to determine the cutaneous antioxidant concentration of midwives using reflectance spectroscopy and to relate the results to shift work. Seven midwives took part in the study. An LED-based compact scanner system was used for non-invasive measurements of carotenoids in human skin. The measuring principle is based on reflection spectroscopy. The study at hand suggests that the cutaneous antioxidative status may be adversely affected by shift work. Despite numerous international strategies of programmes available which invite people to eat more healthily, there are only a few measures aiming at stress reduction and management. In this field the use of reflectance spectroscopic investigation methods could play an essential role in the future.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Laser Physics Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) represents a novel therapeutic method with promising capabilities in the field of dermatological interventions, in particular disinfection but also wound antisepsis and regeneration. The energy transfer by plasma into living tissue is not easily educible, as a variety of features such as the medium's actual molecule-stream, the ions, electrons and free radicals involved, as well as the emission of ultraviolet, visible and infrared light contribute to its increasingly well characterized effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several nanoparticle-based formulations used in cosmetics and dermatology are exposed to sunlight once applied to the skin. Therefore, it is important to study possible synergistic effects of nanoparticles and ultraviolet radiation.
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) was used to detect intracellular free radicals induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation and amorphous silica nanoparticle and to evaluate the influence of nanoparticle surface chemistry on particle cytotoxicity toward HaCaT cells. Uncoated titanium dioxide nanoparticles served as positive control. In addition, particle intracellular uptake, viability, and induction of interleukin-6 were measured.
We found that photo-activated titanium dioxide particles induced a significant amount of intracellular free radicals. On the contrary, no intracellular free radicals were generated by the investigated silica nanoparticles in the dark as well as under UVB radiation. However, under UVB exposure, the non-functionalized silica nanoparticles altered the release of IL-6. At the same concentrations, the amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles had no influence on UVB-induced IL-6 release.
EPR spectroscopy is a useful technique to measure nanoparticle-induced intracellular free radicals. Non-toxic concentrations of silica particles enhanced the toxicity of UVB radiation. This synergistic effect was not mediated by particle-generated free radicals and correlated with particle surface charge and intracellular distribution.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Skin Research and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a highly efficient chemotherapeutic; however, it induces dermal side effects such as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) in up to 80% of cases, probably by being emitted with the sweat onto the skin surface. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine whether a topically applied ointment containing antioxidants with a high radical protection factor is able to prevent the formation of PPE. Methods: Twenty patients suffering from ovarian carcinoma and treated with PLD were observed. Results: 60% of the patients tolerated the regular application of the cream and developed no PPE. The remaining 40% interrupted the application. Six of them developed PPE and resumed ointment application thereafter. In these cases the PPE disappeared or was strongly reduced. Conclusion: The results of the observation clearly demonstrate that topical application of the ointment is an efficient strategy against the development of PPE during chemotherapy with PLD.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Skin pharmacology and physiology