I R Starkey

Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (30)336.76 Total impact

  • N D Palmer · S Fort · I R Starkey · T RD Shaw · D B Northridge
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The technique of coronary stenting has evolved over recent years, with improved stent technology and effective antiplatelet therapies to prevent stent thrombosis. In Europe, reductions in stent and equipment costs have resulted from increased market competition. The impact of these changes on the in-hospital procedural cost of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the current clinical setting is not known. METHODS: We compared the initial equipment and pharmaceutical costs of one hundred consecutive, unselected patients undergoing PCI in 1998 to a similar population who underwent PCI in 1994. RESULTS: Similar patient characteristics were noted, yet more complex disease (multivessel, AHA type B2/C lesions) was treated in the 1998 population. The stent utilization rate (83% vs 15%, p < 0.0001) and use of intravenous and/or oral antiplatelet therapy (abciximab, ticlopidine) (64% vs 4%, p < 0.0001) was higher in 1998. Similar angiographic success was achieved in each group with low complication rates. Mean hospital stay was reduced in the 1998 group (2.6 +/- 2.8 vs 4.3 +/- 3.8 days, p < 0.001). Repeat PCI was required more frequently in the 1994 population (26% vs 9%, p < 0.001). Overall there was no significant difference in the mean equipment cost between the two groups ( pound 1551 vs pound 1422, p=ns). CONCLUSION: Despite the widespread use of coronary stenting and antiplatelet therapies there appears to be no difference in current in-hospital equipment costs for PCI compared to 1994. Improved clinical outcomes in the 1998 population imply that stenting is a cost-effective therapy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2000 · International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions
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    ABSTRACT: Chest pain accounts for much of the rising numbers of emergency admissions, but in-patient assessment is not necessarily the best way of dealing with these patients. We ran a 'rapid-assessment chest pain clinic' to provide an alternative route of assessment, and audited its outcome. General practitioners referred patients with recent-onset chest pain, increasing chest pain, chest pain at rest, or other chest pain of concern, on the understanding that they would be seen within 24 h. During 8 1/2 months, 334 patients were referred and 317 patients were seen, most of whom had exercise electrocardiography. A median of 6 months later, 278 patients were personally contacted to determine outcome. Of these, 18% had been admitted immediately with acute coronary syndromes, and 49% had been diagnosed as non-coronary chest pain (none of whom subsequently infarcted or died). Continuing symptoms were infrequent, and satisfaction was high, although 13% of patients had been revascularized. A significant number of patients required immediate admission and/or ultimate revascularization, but many more did not. The majority of these patients had non-coronary chest pain, and this diagnosis was substantiated by their excellent outcome and (in some cases) by further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1998 · QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether spectral analysis of unprocessed radiofrequency (RF) signal offers advantages over standard videodensitometric analysis in identifying the morphology of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. 97 regions of interest (ROI) were imaged at 30 MHz from postmortem, pressure perfused (80 mm Hg) coronary arteries in saline baths. RF data were digitised at 250 MHz. Two different sizes of ROI were identified from scan converted images, and relative amplitudes of different frequency components were analysed from raw data. Normalised spectra was used to calculate spectral slope (dB/MHz), y-axis intercept (dB), mean power (dB), and maximum power (dB) over a given bandwidth (17-42 MHz). RF images were constructed and compared with comparative histology derived from microscopy and radiological techniques in three dimensions. Mean power was similar from dense fibrotic tissue and heavy calcium, but spectral slope was steeper in heavy calcium (-0.45 (0.1)) than in dense fibrotic tissue (-0.31 (0.1)), and maximum power was higher for heavy calcium (-7.7 (2.0)) than for dense fibrotic tissue (-10.2 (3.9)). Maximum power was significantly higher in heavy calcium (-7.7 (2.0) dB) and dense fibrotic tissue (-10.2 (3.9) dB) than in microcalcification (-13.9 (3.8) dB). Y-axis intercept was higher in microcalcification (-5.8 (1.1) dB) than in moderately fibrotic tissue (-11.9 (2.0) dB). Moderate and dense fibrotic tissue were discriminated with mean power: moderate -20.2 (1.1) dB, dense -14.7 (3.7) dB; and y-axis intercept: moderate -11.9 (2.0) dB, dense -5.5 (5.4) dB. Different densities of fibrosis, loose, moderate, and dense, were discriminated with both y-axis intercept, spectral slope, and mean power. Lipid could be differentiated from other types of plaque tissue on the basis of spectral slope, lipid -0.17 (0.08). Also y-axis intercept from lipid (-17.6 (3.9)) differed significantly from moderately fibrotic tissue, dense fibrotic tissue, microcalcification, and heavy calcium. No significant differences in any of the measured parameters were seen between the results obtained from small and large ROIs. Frequency based spectral analysis of unprocessed ultrasound signal may lead to accurate identification of atherosclerotic plaque morphology.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1998 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)

  • No preview · Article · Mar 1998 · The Lancet
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 1998 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    I R Starkey

    Preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to compare the myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) measured across the left ventricular (LV) posterior wall during the cardiac cycle between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), athletes and patients with LV hypertrophy due to systemic hypertension and to determine whether it might be used to discriminate these groups. The MVG is a new ultrasound variable, based on the color Doppler technique, that quantifies the spatial distribution of transmyocardial velocities. A cohort of 158 subjects was subdivided by age into two groups: Group I (mean [+/-SD] 30 +/- 7 years) and Group II (58 +/- 8 years). Within each group there were three categories of subjects: Group Ia consisted of patients with HCM (n = 25), Group Ib consisted of athletes (n = 21), and Group Ic consisted of normal subjects; Group IIa consisted of patients with HCM (n = 19), Group IIb consisted of hypertensive patients (n = 27), and Group IIc consisted of normal subjects (n = 33). The MVG (mean [+/-SD] s-1) measured in systole was lower (p < 0.01) in patients with HCM (Group Ia 3.2 +/- 1.1; Group IIa 2.9 +/- 1.2) compared with athletes (Group Ib 4.6 +/- 1.1), hypertensive patients (Group IIb 4.2 +/- 1.8) and normal subjects (Group Ic 4.4 +/- 0.8; Group IIc 4.8 +/- 0.8). In early diastole, the MVG was lower (p < 0.05) in patients with HCM (Group Ia 3.7 +/- 1.5; Group IIa 2.6 +/- 0.9) than in athletes (Group Ib 9.9 +/- 1.9) and normal subjects (Group Ic 9.2 +/- 2.0; Group IIc 3.6 +/- 1.5), but not hypertensive patients (Group IIb 3.3 +/- 1.3). In late diastole, the MVG in patients with HCM (Group Ia 1.3 +/- 0.8; Group IIa 1.4 +/- 0.8) was lower (p < 0.01) than that in hypertensive patients (Group IIb 4.3 +/- 1.7) and normal subjects (Group IIc 3.8 +/- 0.9). An MVG < or = 7 s-1, as a single diagnostic approach, differentiated accurately (0.96 positive and 0.94 negative predictive value) between patients with HCM and athletes when the measurements were taken during early diastole. In both age groups, the MVG was lower in both systole and diastole in patients with HCM than in athletes, hypertensive patients or normal subjects. The MVG measured in early diastole in a group of subjects 18 to 45 years old would appear to be an accurate variable used to discriminate between HCM and hypertrophy in athletes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 1997 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) is a recently introduced ultrasonic parameter which describes the spatial distribution of intramural myocardial velocities and their changes throughout the cardiac cycle. To determine the potential clinical role of the MVG, a group of patients with globally abnormal left ventricular systolic function was studied. Methods: The group comprised of 27 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients (age 54 ± 6 years) and 25 age-matched healthy volunteers (HV) who served as a control group. MVG was measured across the left ventricular posterior wall throughout the cardiac cycle. Results: In the DCM group, MVG was significantly lower than in the HV group in systole during isovolumic contraction (IC): (0.2 ± 0.3) s−1 vs. (1.5 ± 0.9) s−1; P < 0.01 and ventricular ejection (VE) (1.4 ± 0.7) s−1 vs. (4.7 ± 0.9) s−1; P < 0.01, and in late diastole during atrial contraction (AC) (1.4 ± 1.1) s−1 vs. (3.3 ± 0.9) s−1; P < 0.01. Additionally, in those DCM patients who had a global restrictive filling pattern assessed by standard transmitral pulse-wave Doppler (11/27), MVG was higher (P < 0.01) in early diastole during rapid ventricular filling (RVF) (6.9 ± 1.4) s−1 compared to both normals (4.1 ± 1.2) s−1 and DCM
    No preview · Article · Jun 1997 · European Journal of Ultrasound
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    ABSTRACT: Nonuniform rotation of mechanical intravascular ultrasound transducers may give rise to a geometric distortion of the ultrasound image known as the rotation angle artefact. This investigation studied the influence of different degrees and combinations of catheter shaft angulation on image morphology and the quantitative impact of the artefact using a circular perspex phantom and 3.5 F, 30 MHz Boston Scientific "Sonicath" catheters connected to a Hewlett Packard Sonos intravascular scanner. Major and minor diameters, cross-sectional area and circumference of the phantom lumen were measured and a "distortion index" calculated. Visually apparent geometric distortion was graded from 1 (absent) to 4 (severe). As expected, eccentric transducer location was associated much more frequently with identifiable distortion (70%) than was a concentric location (6%). Greater distortion occurred with increasing degrees of catheter shaft angulation, and was more pronounced in images from older catheters. The lumen area measurements in images in which no artefact was identified were accurate to within +/- 10% in 97% of cases, compared to only 81% of cases when an artefact was noted. The quantitative accuracy of an image in which geometric distortion is identified is thus not reliable. The direction of the quantitative error cannot be confidently predicted in any given case, although the mean lumen area tends to increase as the grade of distortion increases.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Intravascular ultrasound is widely used to guide coronary stent implantation. The key quantitative criterion for successful implantation is the demonstration of adequate expansion of the stented lumen relative to that of the adjacent reference vessel segments. In this study we aimed to establish the reproducibility of intravascular ultrasound measurements of the reference segments in lesions undergoing coronary stenting. Measurements of the reference segment lumen dimensions warn made in a blinded fashion by two experienced observers, and reproducibility was assessed by calculating the mean difference and standard deviation of the paired measurements. The unselected intraobserver random variability of the mean reference lumen area measured 0.6 mm2. The interobserver random variability was 0.94 mm2. The intraobserver and interobserver variability of minimum lumen area within the stent was smaller, measuring 0.30 mm2 and 0.52 mm2, respectively. There was 91% intraobserver agreement, and 75% interobserver agreement, in identifying adequate stent expansion as defined by a stent-to-mean reference lumen area ratio of > 0.8. The potentially significant level of variability inherent in selecting and measuring the reference segments, and its impact on clinical decision-making, should be remembered when this method of assessing the acute quantitative outcome of stent implantation is applied.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis
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    ABSTRACT: Intravascular ultrasound is widely used to guide coronary stent implantation. The key quantitative criterion for successful implantation is the demonstration of adequate expansion of the stented lumen relative to that of the adjacent reference vessel segments. In this study we aimed to establish the reproducibility of intravascular ultrasound measurements of the reference segments in lesions undergoing coronary stenting. Measurements of the reference segment lumen dimensions were made in a blinded fashion by two experienced observers, and reproducibility was assessed by calculating the mean difference and standard deviation of the paired measurements. The unselected intraobserver random variability of the mean reference lumen area measured 0.8 mm2. The interobserver random variability was 0.94 mm2. The intraobserver and interobserver variability of minimum lumen area within the stent was smaller, measuring 0.30 mm2 and 0.52 mm2, respectively. There was 91% intraobserver agreement, and 75% interobserver agreement, in identifying adequate stent expansion as defined by a stent-to-mean reference lumen area ratio of >0.8. The potentially significant level of variability inherent in selecting and measuring the reference segments, and its impact on clinical decision-making, should be remembered when this method of assessing the acute quantitative outcome of stent implantation is applied. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 40:1–7, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis
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    ABSTRACT: Visual assessment of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) video images cannot reliably identify thrombus. We examined if texture analysis of radiofrequency (r.f.) data or videodensitometric data (VD) could distinguish thrombi of different ages and cell compositions. Whole human blood (red clot = RC), platelet-rich plasma (white clot = WC) and plasma (n = 6/group) were imaged at 4 and 24 h with 30 MHz IVUS transducers. At 4 h, VD- and r.f.-based analyses revealed significant differences between RC and WC with variance (VD red 26.4 +/- 2.5, white 33.9 +/- 7.8; r.f. red 1.4 +/- 0.5, white 4.9 +/- 1.3), kurtosis (VD red 0.29 +/- 0.9, white 0.23 +/- 0.3) and skewness (VD red 0.23 +/- 0.13, white 0.35 +/- 0.52; r.f. red 0.06 +/- 0.01, white -0.06 +/- 0.05). Also mean grey-level from both data sets was higher in RC (VD 134.8 +/- 18.0; r.f. -13.3 +/- 1.2) than in WC (VD 105.3 +/- 17.4, r.f. 16.5 +/- 2.2) (p < 0.01). With increasing time, variance increased in WC (5.5 +/- 1.5 at 24 h) and decreased in RC (0.9 +/- 0.3.3 at 24 h). The more heterogeneous structure of WC may be distinguished from that of RC using texture analysis of either VD or r.f.-signals.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 1996 · BMJ Clinical Research
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 1996 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 1995 · BMJ Clinical Research
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    ABSTRACT: A 60 year old right handed barman was referred to the regional cardiology service for consideration for coronary angiography. He gave a 12 month history of chest pain on exertion and recently of pain at rest. At his local hospital a 12 lead electrocardiogram had shown an old full thickness inferior myocardial infarction and exercise testing had yielded a moderately positive result. He had stopped smoking in the previous six months and did not have diabetes or hypertension. He was taking atenolol, nitrates, and aspirin. On the day before referral he suddenly developed weakness of the right arm …
    No preview · Article · Jun 1995 · BMJ Clinical Research
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    P P Kearney · I R Starkey · G R Sutherland

    Preview · Article · Jun 1995 · Heart

  • No preview · Article · May 1995 · American Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the value of an open access echocardiography service. Study of new open access service for general practitioners, who were invited to refer patients taking diuretics for suspected heart failure, untreated patients with symptoms of possible heart failure, and asymptomatic patients with risk factors for left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Regional cardiology centre. 259 consecutive patients. Presence or absence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and consequent changes in clinical management. 119 treated patients, 99 untreated patients, and nine asymptomatic patients were referred over five months. 32 were considered to be inappropriately referred. Among the treated patients, 31 had impaired left ventricular systolic function and five had valvular disease; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were recommended for 34 of these patients. In addition, 53 were thought not to need diuretics. Eight untreated patients had impaired systolic function and six valvular disease. The service was well used by general practitioners and led to advice to change management in more than two thirds of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1995 · BMJ Clinical Research

Publication Stats

924 Citations
336.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987-2000
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1986
    • Liverpool Hospital
      Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia