[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand activity of the extracts of 62 herbal medicines was examined using yeast reporter assay. Fifty-eight herbal extracts exhibited AhR ligand activity. The highest activity was observed with Ogon (Scutellariae Radix), followed by Oren (Coptidis Rhizoma), Kujin (Sophorae Radix) and Shoma (Cimicifiigae Rhizoma). When these extracts were treated with hesperinase, a hydrolase for sugar conjugates, the aglycones showed higher activity than the parent extracts. Among the constituents of Ogon extract, baicalein and wogonin showed AhR ligand activity, while the sugar conjugate of baicalein, baicalin, was inactive. Among the flavonoid components of these herbal medicines, flavone and chrysin exhibited high ligand activity for AhR. Ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity due to CYP1A1 in HepG2 cells was enhanced by the addition of baicalein. Baicalein also decreased the 3-methylcholanthrene- induced increase of EROD activity, but this effect was not statistically significant. When wogonin or baicalein was orally administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg to mice, EROD activity in liver was only slightly changed. Furthermore, when Ogon extract was co-administered with 3-methylcholanthrene, the EROD and methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities were not significantly changed. These results indicate that many herbal extracts have AhR ligand activity, and their inducing effect on CYP1A1/2 can be evaluated in HepG2 cells.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, we examined the metabolism of the carbamate insecticides methiocarb and carbaryl by rat liver microsomes and plasma, and its effect on their endocrine-disrupting activities. Methiocarb and carbaryl were not enzymatically hydrolyzed by rat liver microsomes, but were hydrolyzed by rat plasma, mainly to methylthio-3,5-xylenol (MX) and 1-naphthol, respectively. When methiocarb was incubated with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, methiocarb sulfoxide was formed. The hydrolysis product, MX, was also oxidized to the sulfoxide, 3,5-dimethyl-4-(methylsulfinyl)phenol (SP), by rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. These oxidase activities were catalyzed by cytochrome P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase. Methiocarb and carbaryl both exhibited estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ agonistic activity. MX and 1-naphthol showed similar activities, but methiocarb sulfoxide and SP showed markedly decreased activities. On the other hand, methiocarb and carbaryl exhibited potent antiandrogenic activity in the concentration range of 1×10(-6)-3×10(-5)M. Their hydrolysis products, MX, and 1-naphthol also showed high activity, equivalent to that of flutamide. However, methiocarb sulfoxide and SP showed relatively low activity. Thus, hydrolysis of methiocarb and carbaryl and oxidation of methiocarb to the sulfoxide markedly modified the estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of methiocarb and carbaryl.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. We used chimeric mice (PXB mice®), which were repopulated with human hepatocytes, to evaluate their predictabilities of human pharmacokinetics. 2. The relationships of total clearance (CLt) and the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) between that predicted from single-species allometric scaling (SSS) of PXB mice and the observed human values indicated good correlations for various drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and non-CYPs. 3. We examined the Dedrick plot with which the plasma concentration-time curves can exhibit superimposability using SSS of PXB mice for CLt and Vdss. The predicted plasma concentration-time curves using the complex Dedrick plot from PXB mice were generally superimposed with the observed human data. 4. However, the predicted curve of diazepam was not superimposable with the observed profile. Residual mouse hepatocytes in the livers of PXB mice may affect predictability of CLt of diazepam because significant discrepancy of in vitro intrinsic clearance in PXB mouse liver microsomes consisted of low and high replacement of human hepatocytes were observed. 5. The complex Dedrick plot with SSS from PXB mice is useful for predicting the plasma concentration-time curve in drug discovery, although there are some limitations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatotoxicity induced by the metabolic activation of drugs is a major concern in drug discovery and development. Three-dimensional (3-D) cultures of hepatocyte spheroids may be superior to monolayer cultures for evaluating drug metabolism and toxicity because hepatocytes in spheroids maintain the expression of various metabolizing enzymes and transporters, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP). In this study, we examined the hepatotoxicity due to metabolic activation of acetaminophen (APAP) using fluorescent indicators of cell viability and intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH) in rat hepatocyte spheroids grown on micro-space cell culture plates. The mRNA expression levels of some drug-metabolizing enzymes were maintained during culture. Additionally, this culture system was compatible with microfluorometric imaging under confocal laser scanning microscopy. APAP induced a decrease in intracellular ATP at 10 mM, which was blocked by the CYP inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT). APAP (10 mM, 24 h) decreased the levels of both intracellular ATP and GSH, and GSH-conjugated APAP (APAP-GSH) were formed. All three effects were blocked by ABT, confirming a contribution of APAP metabolic activation by CYP to spheroid toxicity. Fluorometric imaging of hepatocyte spheroids on micro-space cell culture plates may allow the screening of drug-induced hepatotoxicity during pharmaceutical development.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Toxicology in Vitro
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Permethrin is a widely applied broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that consists of a mixture of cis- and trans-isomers. We examined the changes of estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities resulting from metabolism of the isomers. Both cis- and trans-permethrin were hydrolyzed to 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (PBAlc) by rat liver microsomes, but the extent of hydrolysis of trans-permethrin was much greater than that of the cis-isomer. In the presence of NADPH, PBAlc was further transformed to 4'-hydroxylated PBAlc (4'-OH PBAlc), 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (PBAld) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBAcid). cis-Permethrin, but not trans-permethrin, also afforded its 4'-hydroxylated derivative (4'-OH cis-permethrin). trans-Permethrin was an anti-androgen, but also showed weak estrogenic activity, while cis-permethrin was a weak estrogen and a weak anti-androgen. After incubation with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, cis-permethrin but not trans-permethrin was metabolically activated for estrogenic activity. On the other hand, estrogenic activity of trans-permethrin was not changed, but its anti-androgenic activity was enhanced after incubation. 4'-OH PBAlc and PBAlc showed estrogenic activity, while PBAld and PBAlc showed anti-androgenic activity. PBAcid showed neither activity. 4'-OH cis-permethrin showed both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Overall, our results indicate that permethrin is metabolically activated for estrogenic and anti-androgen activities, and the microsomal transformation of permethrin to 4'-OH cis-permethrin, 4'-OH PBAlc and PBAlc contributes to the both metabolic activations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. Human-chimeric mice with humanized liver have been constructed by transplantation of human hepatocytes into several types of mice having genetic modifications that injure endogenous liver cells. Here, we focus on liver urokinase-type plasminogen activator-transgenic severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice, which are the most widely used human-chimeric mice. Studies so far indicate that drug metabolism, drug transport, pharmacological effects and toxicological action in these mice are broadly similar to those in humans. 2. Expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes is known to be different between humans and rodents. However, the expression pattern of cytochrome P450, aldehyde oxidase and phase II enzymes in the liver of human-chimeric mice resembles that in humans, not that in the host mice. 3. Metabolism of various drugs, including S-warfarin, zaleplon, ibuprofen, naproxen, coumarin, troglitazone and midazolam, in human-chimeric mice is mediated by human drug-metabolizing enzymes, not by host mouse enzymes, and thus resembles that in humans. 4. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of various drugs in human-chimeric mice are also similar to those in humans. 5. The current consensus is that chimeric mice with humanized liver are useful to predict drug metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P450, aldehyde oxidase and phase II enzymes in humans in vivo and in vitro. Some remaining issues are discussed in this review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been many concerns expressed regarding the possible adverse effects of thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), since thyroid hormones play crucial roles in normal vertebrate development. A vast amount of PBDEs have been used as flame retardants for the last two decades and our environment has been contaminated with them. Some PBDEs, especially hydroxylated PBDEs, reportedly show an affinity to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and act as thyroid hormone agonists, but in other studies they were reported to inhibit the actions of thyroid hormones. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the binding affinities of PBDEs and their metabolites to TR and their ability to induce thyroid hormone-responsive transcription using luciferase reporter gene assays in two different cell lines, a pituitary cell line, MtT/E-2, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The binding assay showed that many of the examined PBDEs have significant affinity to TR. Interestingly, some of these PBDEs, such as 4'OH-BDE-17 and 2'OH-BDE-28, acted as agonists in the reporter gene assay in MtT/E-2 cells, while they acted as antagonists in CHO cells. Our results demonstrated that whether PBDEs and their metabolites are TR agonists or antagonists depends on the cell type used in the assay, which may suggest that the thyroid hormone-disrupting actions of PBDEs differ among target tissues or species.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of halogenated compounds on thyroid hormone metabolism via inhibition of iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) activity. The structure-activity relationships of 44 halogenated compounds for IYD-inhibitory activity were examined in vitro using microsomes of HEK-293T cells expressing recombinant human IYD. The compounds examined were 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 15 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two agrichemicals, five antiparasitics, two pharmaceuticals and three food colorants. Among them, 25 halogenated phenolic compounds inhibited IYD activity at the concentration of 1×10(-4)M or 6×10(-4)M. Rose bengal was the most potent inhibitor, followed by erythrosine B, phloxine B, benzbromarone, 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 4-hydroxy-2,3',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 4-hydroxy-2',3,4',5,6'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, triclosan, and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. However, among PCBs and PBDEs without a hydroxyl group, including their methoxylated metabolites, none inhibited IYD activity. These results suggest that halogenated compounds may disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis via inhibition of IYD, and that the structural requirements for IYD-inhibitory activity include halogen atom and hydroxyl group substitution on a phenyl ring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. Hydrolytic metabolism of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, heptyl- and dodecylparaben by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, as well as human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, was investigated and the structure-metabolic activity relationship was examined. 2. Rat liver microsomes showed the highest activity toward parabens, followed by small-intestinal and lung microsomes. Butylparaben was most effectively hydrolyzed by the liver microsomes, which showed relatively low hydrolytic activity towards parabens with shorter and longer alkyl side chains. 3. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited relatively higher activity toward longer-side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity towards heptylparaben. 4. Rat lung and skin microsomes showed liver-type substrate specificity. Kidney and pancreas microsomes and plasma of rats showed small-intestinal-type substrate specificity. 5. Liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activity was completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Ces1e and Ces1d isoforms were identified as carboxylesterase isozymes catalyzing paraben hydrolysis by anion exchange column chromatography of Triton X-100 extract from liver microsomes. 6. Ces1e and Ces1d expressed in COS cells exhibited significant hydrolase activities with the same substrate specificity pattern as that of liver microsomes. Small-intestinal carboxylesterase isozymes Ces2a and Ces2c expressed in COS cells showed the same substrate specificity as small-intestinal microsomes, being more active toward longer-alkyl-side-chain parabens. 7. Human liver microsomes showed the highest hydrolytic activity toward methylparaben, while human small-intestinal microsomes showed a broadly similar substrate specificity to rat small-intestinal microsomes. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes showed the same substrate specificity patterns as human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. Human chimeric mice (h-PXB mice) having humanized liver, constructed by transplantation of human hepatocytes, were evaluated as an experimental model for predicting human drug metabolism. Metabolism of zaleplon in h-PXB mice was compared with that in rat chimeric mice (r-PXB mice) constructed by transplantation of rat hepatocytes. 2. Zaleplon is metabolized to 5-oxo-zaleplon by aldehyde oxidase and to desethyl-zaleplon by cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) in rat and human liver preparations. 3. Liver S9 fraction of h-PXB mice metabolized zaleplon to 5-oxo-zaleplon and desethyl-zaleplon in similar amounts. However, liver S9 fractions of r-PXB and control (urokinase-type plasminogen activator-transgenic severe combined immunodeficient) mice predominantly metabolized zaleplon to desethyl-zaleplon. 5-Oxo-zaleplon was detected as a minor metabolite. 4. Oxidase activity of h-PXB mouse liver cytosol toward zaleplon was about 10-fold higher than that of r-PXB or control mice. In contrast, activities for desethyl-zaleplon formation were similar in liver microsomes from these mice, as well as rat and human liver microsomes. 5. In vivo, the level of 5-oxo-zaleplon in plasma of h-PXB mice was about 7-fold higher than that in r-PXB or control mice, in agreement with the in vitro data. Thus, aldehyde oxidase in h-PXB mice functions as human aldehyde oxidase, both in vivo and in vitro. 6. In contrast, the plasma level of desethyl-zaleplon in r-PXB and control mice was higher than that in h-PXB mice. 7. These results suggest h-PXB mice with humanized liver could be a useful experimental model to predict aldehyde oxidase- and CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the effect of sunlight on the persistence and ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals contaminating the aquatic environment, we exposed nine pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen (AA), amiodarone (AM), dapsone (DP), dexamethasone (DX), indomethacin (IM), naproxen (NP), phenytoin (PH), raloxifene (RL), and sulindac (SL)) in aqueous media to sunlight and to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254, 302 or 365 nm (UV-C, UV-B or UV-A, respectively). Degradation of the pharmaceuticals was monitored by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sunlight completely degraded AM, DP and DX within 6 hr, and partly degraded the other pharmaceuticals, except AA and PH, which were not degraded. Similar results were obtained with UV-B, while UV-A was less effective (both UV-A and -B are components of sunlight). All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UV-C, which is used for sterilization in sewage treatment plants. Thus, the photodegradation rates of pharmaceuticals are dependent on both chemical structure and the wavelength of UV exposure. Toxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UV irradiation reduced the toxicity of some pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms by decreasing their amount (photodegradation) and increased the toxicity of others by generating toxic photoproduct(s). These results indicate the importance of investigating not only parent compounds, but also photoproducts in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo and in vitro metabolism of the sedative-hypnotic agent Zaleplon (ZAL) to 5-hydroxylated ZAL (5-oxo-ZAL) and N-desethylated ZAL (desethyl-ZAL) was studied in four strains of rats. Incubation of ZAL with liver microsomes afforded desethyl-ZAL via cytochrome P450-catalyzed reaction, with little strain difference. In contrast, incubation of ZAL with liver cytosol afforded 5-oxo-ZAL with marked strain differences. ZAL hydroxylase activity was well correlated with aldehyde oxidase activity in these strains. The highest level of 5-oxo-ZAL and the highest activity of aldehyde oxidase were observed in cytosol from Sea:SD rats, followed by Jcl:SD rats, while Crj:SD and WKA/Sea rats showed low levels. When ZAL was administered to Sea:SD and WKA/Sea rats, both 5-oxo-ZAL and desethyl-ZAL were detected in blood as the major in vivo metabolites. However, the concentration of 5-oxo-ZAL was far higher in Sea:SD rats than in WKA/Sea rats, while that of desethyl-ZAL was far lower in Sea:SD rats. The levels of 5-oxo-ZAL in blood were closely correlated with the strain differences of cytosolic ZAL hydroxylase activity and benzaldehyde oxidase activity. Our results indicate that variability in the formation of 5-oxo-ZAL from ZAL in vivo in various strains of rats is primarily due to strain differences of hepatic aldehyde oxidase activity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was focused on photodegradation of acetaminophen (AA) exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254 nm delivered by a system similar to that used for sterilization in sewage treatment plants. The degradation of AA during irradiation for up to 96 h was monitored by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Based on the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of the protonated ion and the mass fragmentation pattern in electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS/MS), the photoproduct was identified as 1-(2-amino-5-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone (1). Examination of toxicity by means of a luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that AA solution was nontoxic, whereas photo-exposed AA solution was toxic (EC50: 29.46 mg/L). The toxicity of synthetic compound 1 was shown to account for a substantial part of the toxicity of photo-exposed AA. These results indicate the importance of investigating not only parent compounds, but also photoproducts the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. When benzophenone-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone; BP-3) was incubated with liver microsomes of untreated rats in the presence of NADPH, the 5-hydroxylated metabolite, 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (5-OH-BP-3), was formed as a major novel metabolite of BP-3. The 4-desmethylated metabolite, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (2,4-diOH-BP), previously reported as the major in vivo metabolite of BP-3, was also detected. However, the amount of 5-OH-BP-3 formed in vitro was about the same as that of 2,4-diOH-BP. 2. The oxidase activity affording 5-OH-BP-3 was inhibited by SKF 525-A and ketoconazole, and partly by quinidine and sulfaphenazole. The oxidase activity affording 2,4-diOH-BP was inhibited by SKF 525-A, ketoconazole and α-naphthoflavone, and partly by sulfaphenazole. 3. The oxidase activity affording 5-OH-BP-3 was enhanced in liver microsomes of dexamethasone-, phenobarbital- and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats. The activity affording 2,4-diOH-BP was enhanced in liver microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene- and phenobarbital-treated rats. 4. When examined recombinant rat cytochrome P450 isoforms catalyzing the metabolism of BP-3, 5-hydroxylation was catalyzed by P450 3A2, 1A1, 2B1, 2C6 and 2D1, while 4-desmethylation was catalyzed by P450 2C6 and 1A1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prediction of human drug metabolism is important for drug development. Recently, the number of new drug candidates metabolized by not only cytochrome P450 (P450) but also non-P450 has been increasing. It is necessary to consider species differences in drug metabolism between humans and experimental animals. We examined species differences of drug metabolism, especially between humans and rats, for ibuprofen and (S)-naproxen as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are metabolized by P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), sulfotransferase (SULT), and amino acid N-acyltransferase for taurine conjugation in liver, using human chimeric mice (h-PXB mice) repopulated with human hepatocytes and rat chimeric mice (r-PXB mice) transplanted with rat hepatocytes. We performed the direct comparison of excretory metabolites in urine between h-PXB mice and reported data for humans as well as between r-PXB mice and rats after administration of ibuprofen and (S)-naproxen. Good agreement for urinary metabolites (% of dose) was observed not only between humans and h-PXB mice but also between rats and r-PXB mice. Therefore, the metabolic profiles in humans and rats reflected those in h-PXB mice and r-PXB mice. Our results indicated that h-PXB mice should be helpful for predicting the quantitative metabolic profiles of drugs mediated by P450 and non-P450 in liver, and r-PXB mice should be helpful for evaluation of species differences in these metabolic enzymes.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aldehyde oxidase (AO) plays a role in metabolizing many drugs, such as methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine. We previously showed that AO activity in rat liver rapidly increases from birth, reaching a plateau within 4 weeks, and is regulated at the protein expression level. However, developmental changes of AO activity and protein expression in human liver have not been reported. Here, we investigated the developmental changes and variability of AO in 16 human livers (13 children ranging from 13 days to 12 years old and 3 adults, 17, 34 and 45 years old). Young children (13 days to 4 months after birth) showed little liver AO activity, evaluated in terms of the activities for oxidation of N-1-methylnicotinamide to N-1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and N-1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide in liver cytosol. However, these oxidase activities were markedly increased after 4 months, reaching the adult level by about 2 years of age. The AO band density in immunoblotting analysis was well correlated with the AO activity among all subjects (p < 0.01, r(2) = 0.771). Therefore, AO activity in the liver of young children is regulated at the AO protein expression level. Thus, as in rats, the AO activity in humans rapidly increases soon after birth, and is regulated at the protein expression level.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics