M Iivanainen

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (124)364.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight ( n = 12,381), Apgar scores ( n = 11,129), and gestational age ( n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983–1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974–1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986–1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Twin Research and Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first controlled, randomized follow-up study investigating the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim was to compare the follow-up outcome of short cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and hypnotherapy. Six-month follow-up data were analyzed from 10 weekly individual treatments with cognitive hypnotherapy (n = 8) and CBT (n = 9). The treatment benefits were measured by self-report ADHD symptom scales (BADDS, SCL-16), psychiatric symptom scales (SCL-90, BDI-II), quality of life scale (Q-LES-Q) and independent evaluation (CGI). The treatment benefits remained with both treatment groups when measured with self-report ADHD symptom scales. However, the hypnotherapy and CBT groups differed statistically significantly from each other in general psychological well-being (SCL-90), anxiety (SCL-90) and depression (BDI-II), and almost significantly in ADHD symptoms (SCL-16) indicating better long-term outcome for hypnotherapy. Independent evaluators' ratings qualitatively supported the results. Hypnotherapy seems to be a usable method for treating ADHD in adults. The possible causes discussed for better longterm outcome for hypnotherapy than for CBT include stronger alliance in hypnotherapy, impact of deep relaxation to core symptoms and greater influence of hypnotherapy to emotional regulation. The generalization of the results requires further studies.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Contemporary Hypnosis and Integrative Therapy
  • H Westerinen · M Kaski · L J Virta · F Almqvist · M Iivanainen
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the national study of multiple registers in 2000, the average prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) was 0.70%, with marked differences by age group (range 0.38-0.96%) - what are these differences in detail, and can they be understood? Method: This study was based on two national health registers and six social benefit registers. Prevalence of ID was calculated by 1-year age cohorts. Results: The multiple register prevalence of ID increased steadily from 0.20% in the first life year to 0.74% (male: 0.90%, female: 0.58%) at 10 years. For boys, the rate fell to 0.71% at 11 years. For both sexes, a steady increase was noted in the distribution up to 40 years (male: 0.84%, female: 0.73%), followed by a sharper increase to the maximum prevalence (male: 1.19% at 48 years, female: 1.05% at 50 years). At the pension age of 66 years, a sudden drop to 0.49% occurred for men and women. Different registers gave very different age distributions. Conclusions: By examining the data by 1-year age cohorts, and by understanding the role of each register, it could be deduced that a proportion of cases in younger age groups is lacking, and a remarkable proportion of elderly ID persons is missing from the pooled data. The findings were more difficult to interpret, if the data were grouped into bigger age groups.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether exposure to prenatal ultrasound increases non-right-handedness in boys. The association between exposure to prenatal ultrasound and handedness was tested, using logistic regression analysis, in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial data. We applied an intention-to-treat approach in this analysis of a subset of 4150 subjects whose parents answered a follow-up questionnaire on handedness when the children were aged 13-15 years. The odds ratio for non-right-handedness of children who had been exposed to prenatal ultrasound was 1.16 (0.98-1.37) for all subjects, 1.12 (0.89-1.41) for boys and 1.24 (0.97-1.58) for girls. We could not confirm the hypothesis that prenatal ultrasound exposure and handedness are associated. Our findings were independent of the particular definition of handedness used, whether it was considered according to the writing hand alone or defined using a laterality quotient.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Contemporary Hypnosis
  • R. Tenhunen · M. Iivanainen · J. Kovanen
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-2-microglobulin was measured in specimens of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 167 patients classified in 14 diagnostic categories at an outpatient Department of Neurology. In the control group of 29 subjects without any obvious disease of the nervous system, the concentration of beta-2-microglobulin was 1.15 ± 0.37 mg/l (M ± s.d.). The concentration was almost significantly eleveated in the groups with fresh brain infarct, central nervous system infection, and polyneuropathy. The serum concentrations of beta-2-microglobulin did not differ significantly among these diagnostic categories. The mean ratio between CSF and serum beta-2-microglobulin was 0.79 ± 0.32 in the control group and more than 1.0 in the patients with brain infarcts, CNS infections and spinal paresis, but the differences were not statistically significant.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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    Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy has a pervasive impact on the lives of people with intellectual disability and their carers. The delivery of high-quality care is impacted on by the complexity and diversity of epilepsy in this population. This article presents the results of a consensus clinical guideline process. A Delphi process identified a list of priority areas for the development of evidence-based guidelines. All guidelines were graded and consensus on scoring was achieved across the guideline group. There is a dearth of high-quality evidence from well-constructed studies on which to base guidance. However, the development of internationally derived consensus guidelines may further support the management of epilepsy in adults with an intellectual disability.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
  • M. Iivanainen

    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
  • Olli Waltimo · Matti Iivanainen · Eero Hokkanen

    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica

  • No preview · Book · Jan 2009
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • H Westerinen · M Kaski · L Virta · F Almqvist · M Iivanainen
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    ABSTRACT: Based on standard social benefit registers, the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in Finland is estimated to be 0.6%, while epidemiological surveys yield 1.1%. Combining several registers, our aim was to find a more reliable estimate of the prevalence of ID, especially among children and adolescents. This is important when special or inclusive general services are planned to meet the various needs of people with ID. A survey based on eight national health and social benefit registers. Combining different registers yielded a mean ID prevalence of 0.70% (95% CI 0.69-0.70%), with marked differences according to sex and age group (range 0.38-0.96%). Capture-recapture analysis gave higher prevalence estimates (range 0.57-1.08%). When several health and social benefit registers are surveyed, the estimated prevalence of ID increases, approaching that obtained in epidemiological surveys.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
  • T Koskentausta · M Iivanainen · F Almqvist
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    ABSTRACT: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher risk for psychiatric disturbance than their peers with normal intelligence, but research data on risk factors are insufficient and partially conflicting. The subjects comprised 75 children with ID aged 6-13 years. Data were obtained from case files and the following four questionnaires completed by their parents or other carers: Developmental Behaviour Checklist, American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adaptive Behavior Scale, a questionnaire on additional disabilities, and a questionnaire on family characteristics and child development. The risk of psychopathology was most significantly increased by moderate ID, limitations in adaptive behaviour, impaired language development, poor socialization, living with one biological parent, and low socio-economic status of the family. The risk of psychopathology in children with ID is increased by factors related to family characteristics and child development. Identifying these factors will help diagnose and possibly prevent psychiatric disorders in these children.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
  • K Patja · P Eero · M Iivanainen
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to address the unresolved question of the risk of neoplasms among people with intellectual disability (ID). A total of 2173 individuals with ID from a large, representative, nation-wide population study conducted in Finland in 1962 were followed-up for cancer incidence between 1967 and 1997. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed to expected numbers of cancer cases. Expected rates were based on national incidence rates. The observed number of cancers in the cohort (173) was close to what was expected [SIR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.8-1.0]. There was a significantly reduced risk of cancers of the prostate (SIR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.0-0.5), urinary tract (SIR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and lung (SIR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-1.0). The risk was increased in cancers of the gallbladder (SIR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.1-5.8) and thyroid gland (SIR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.0-4.8). The risks of lung and gallbladder cancer were lowest and highest, respectively, in those subjects with profound and severe ID, a group who also had significantly elevated SIRs for brain cancer (SIR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.5-14.4) and testicular cancer (SIR = 9.9, 95% CI = 1.2-35.6). The incidence of cancer among people with ID was comparable with the general population, despite their low prevalence of smoking and apparently decreased diagnostic screening activity. Nevertheless, a few types of cancer carry a higher risk in the population with ID, possibly because of conditions typical among this group, such as gallstones or oesophageal reflux.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical guidelines exist for the treatment of chronic epilepsy and epilepsy in women(2). This publication provides guidance for the clinician investigating and managing epilepsy in adults who have an intellectual disability as defined by an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of less than 70, onset in the developmental period and difficulties with adaptive functioning, (C) 2001 BEA Trading Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2001 · Seizure
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    K Patja · P Mölsä · M Iivanainen
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate cause-specific mortality in people with intellectual disability (ID). It was based on a 35-year follow-up study of a nation-wide population of 2369 subjects aged between 2 and 97 years. The 1095 deceased people had accumulated 64 539 person-years. The research took the form of a prospective cohort study with mortality follow-up. Observed and expected deaths were calculated as standardized mortality ratios using the Finnish general population as the reference. Cause-specific mortality ratios were calculated by the level of ID, sex and age. The three most common causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and neoplasms. Disease mortality was high up to 40 years of age, but did not increase thereafter. The difference between sexes in cause-specific mortality was smaller than in the general population. Cause-specific mortality differed significantly from the general population, with reduced mortality from neoplasms and external causes, but ageing individuals with mild ID had similar mortality patterns to the general population. The disparities in the cause-specific mortality between younger people with ID and the general population fade with advancing age, producing similar health risks. In preventative work, special attention should focus on common diseases and accidents in the community.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
  • K.I.M. Patja · M Iivanainen · H Vesala · H Oksanen · I Ruoppila
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    ABSTRACT: A 35-year follow-up study based on a nation-wide population study of the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) was undertaken. The study population consisted of a total of 60,969 person-years. A prospective cohort study with mortality follow-up for 35 years was used and the life expectancy of people with ID was calculated for different levels of intelligence. Proportional hazard models were used to assess the influence of level of intelligence and associated disorders on survival. People with mild ID did not have poorer life expectancy than the general population and subjects with mild ID did not have lower life expectancy in the first 3 decades of life. In cases with profound ID, the proportion of expected life lost was > 20% for almost all age groups. The female preponderance was manifested from the age of 60 years onwards, 25 years later than in the general population. Respectively, survival between sexes differed less. Epilepsy and/or hearing impairment increased the relative risk of death for all levels of ID. The prevalence of people with ID over 40 years was 0.4%. People with ID now live longer than previously expected, and the ageing of people with mild ID appears to be equal to that of the general population, posing new challenges to health care professionals.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2000 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research

Publication Stats

3k Citations
364.78 Total Impact Points


  • 1970-2014
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Child Neurology
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Bacteriology and Immunology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2009
    • Alimetrics Ltd, Espoo, Finland
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1977-2009
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • • Department of Neuroradiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1999
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1983
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1973-1978
    • Niuvanniemi Hospital
      Kuopio, Northern Savo, Finland