[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The regulation of growth hormone (GH) was traditionally thought to be under the control of two main hypothalamic neuropeptides; GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin. In 1999, with the isolation of ghrelin, as a gastric-derived peptide with potent GH-releasing activity, concept of regulation of the somatotropic axis completely changed. In addition to its GH-releasing activity, ghrelin exhibited the capacity to modulate food intake and body weight. The role of this splanchnic factor in regulating GH as a nexus of energy balance control and GH are explored in this chapter. From a physiological standpoint, a novel mechanism of GH regulation mediated by ghrelin exists, implicating the peripheral modulation of the cannabinoid receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men.
Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40-79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participants underwent assessment of lifestyle, health factors, physical characteristics and gave a fasting blood sample. The occurrence of pain was assessed at baseline and follow up (a mean of 4.3 years later) by shading painful sites on a body manikin. The presence of CWP was determined using the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D) was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between baseline vitamin D levels and the new occurrence of CWP.
Two thousand three hundred thirteen men, mean age 58.8 years (SD = 10.6), had complete pain and vitamin data available and contributed to this analysis. 151 (6.5 %) developed new CWP at follow up and 577 (24.9 %) were pain free at both time points, the comparator group. After adjustment for age and centre, physical performance and number of comorbidities, compared to those in upper quintile of 25-(OH) D ( ≥36.3 ng/mL), those in the lowest quintile (<15.6 ng/mL) were more likely to develop CWP (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.93; 95 % CI = 1.0-3.6). Further adjustment for BMI (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI = 0.93-3.02) or depression (OR = 1.77; 95 % CI = 0.98-3.21), however rendered the association non-significant.
Low vitamin D is linked with the new occurrence of CWP, although this may be explained by underlying adverse health factors, particularly obesity and depression.
Full-text Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A1c determination is requested in clinical practice.
The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A1c, fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive. After appropriate exclusions, 21844 patients remained in the study. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic, hematological, and biochemical variables excluded from the predictors.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) correlated negatively with Hb A1c. Fasting glucose, MCH, and age emerged as predictors of Hb A1c in a stepwise regression that discarded sex, hemoglobin, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum creatinine, and liver disease. Mean Hb A1c in MCH interdecile intervals fell from 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) in the lowest (≤27.5 pg) to 6.0% (43 mmol/mol) in the highest (>32.5 pg), with similar results for MCV. After adjustment for fasting glucose and other correlates of Hb A1c, a 1 pg increase in MCH reduced the odds of Hb A1c-defined dysglycemia, diabetes and poor glycemia control by 10%-14%.
For at least 25% of patients, low or high MCH or MCV levels are associated with increased risk of an erroneous Hb A1c-based identification of glycemia status. Although causality has not been demonstrated, these parameters should be taken into account in interpreting Hb A1c levels in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose: The secretion of the hepatokine alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (α2HSG)/Fetuin A, implicated in pathological processes including systemic insulin resistance, by adipose tissue (AT) has been recently described. Thus, we have recently identified its presence in white AT secretomes by mass spectrometry. However, the secretion pattern and function of adipose-derived α2HSG are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression and secretion of total and active phosphorylated α2HSG by AT from visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) localizations in animals at different physiological and nutritional status including anorexia and obesity.
Methods: α2HSG expression and secretion in VAT and SAT explants from animals under fasting and exercise training, at pathological situations such as anorexia and obesity, and from human obese individuals were assayed by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR and ELISA.
Results: We reveal that VAT expresses and secretes more α2HSG than SAT, and that this secretion is diminished after fasting and exercise training. VAT from anorectic animals showed reduced α2HSG secretion; on the contrary, α2HSG is over-secreted by VAT in the occurrence of obesity. While secretion of active-PhophoSer321α2HSG by VAT is independent of BMI, we found that the fraction of active-α2HSG secreted by SAT increments significantly in situations of obesity. Functional studies show that the inhibition of adipose derived α2HSG increases insulin sensitivity in differentiated adipocytes.
Conclusions: VAT secretes more α2HSG than SAT and this secretion is more sensitive to nutritional and physiological changes. The over-secretion of α2HSG by VAT, the increased secretion of the active phosphorylated form by SAT in obese animals, and the adipose derived α2HSG capacity to inhibit the insulin pathway suggest the participation of adipose-derived α2HSG in the deleterious effects of obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Context:
The Androgen Receptor (AR) gene exon 1 CAG repeat length has been proposed to be a determinant of between-individual variations in androgen action in target tissues, which might regulate phenotypic differences of human ageing. However, findings on its phenotypic effects are inconclusive.
To assess whether the AR CAG repeat length is associated with longitudinal changes in endpoints which are influenced by testosterone (T) levels in middle-aged and elderly European men.
Multinational European observational prospective cohort study Participants: 1887 men (mean±sd age: 63±11 years; median follow-up: 4.3 years) from centres of 8 European countries comprised the analysis sample after exclusion of those with diagnosed diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis.
Main outcome measures:
Longitudinal associations between the AR CAG repeat and changes in androgen-sensitive endpoints (ASEs) and medical conditions were assessed using regression analysis adjusting for age and centre. The AR CAG repeat length was treated both as a continuous and categorical (6-20; 21-23; 24-39 repeats) predictor. Additional analysis investigated whether results were independent of baseline T or oestradiol (E2) levels.
The AR CAG repeat, when used as a continuous or categorical predictor, was not associated with longitudinal changes in ASEs or medical conditions after adjustments. These results were independent of T and E2 levels.
Within a 4-year timeframe, variations in the AR CAG repeat do not contribute to the rate of phenotypic ageing, over and above, that, which might be associated with the age-related decline in T levels.
Article · Sep 2016 · European Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The long-term effect of therapeutic diets in obesity treatment is a challenge at present. The current study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet on excess adiposity. Especial focus was set on visceral fat mass, and the impact on the individual burden of disease. A group of obese patients (n = 45) were randomly allocated in two groups: either the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group (n = 22), or a standard low-calorie diet group; (n = 23). Both groups received external support. Adiposity parameters and the cumulative number of months of successful weight loss (5 or 10 %) over a 24-month period were quantified. The very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced less than 2 months of mild ketosis and significant effects on body weight at 6, 12, and 24 months. At 24 months, a trend to regress to baseline levels was observed; however, the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced a greater reduction in body weight (−12.5 kg), waist circumference (−11.6 cm), and body fat mass (−8.8 kg) than the low-calorie diet (−4.4 kg, −4.1 cm, and −3.8 kg, respectively; p < 0.001). Interestingly, a selective reduction in visceral fat measured by a specific software of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-scan (−600 g vs. −202 g; p < 0.001) was observed. Moreover, the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group experienced a reduction in the individual burden of obesity because reduction in disease duration. Very low-calorie-ketogenic diet patients were 500 months with 5 % weight lost vs. the low-calorie diet group (350 months; p < 0.001). In conclusion, a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet was effective 24 months later, with a decrease in visceral adipose tissue and a reduction in the individual burden of disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM.
Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet.
No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up.
The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Whether the executive profile is different between obesity (OB) and morbid obesity (MO) remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) can act as a cognitive enhancer. Irisin is a recently discovered hormone associated with some of the positive effects of PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the executive profile in OB and MO, and to explore the role of PA and irisin. 114 participants were included (21 OB, 44 MO and 49 healthy controls-HC) in the study and assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Iowa Gambling Task. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60 years. Results showed a similar dysfunctional profile on decision making in OB and MO compared with HC. Thus, no specific neuropsychological profiles between OB and MO can be clearly observed in our sample. However, a negative correlation was found between irisin and executive functioning. These results demonstrate a specific executive profile in OB and a relevant and negative modulation of irisin on executive functioning. Although irisin might be a promising target for the treatment of obesity, its effects on cognition might be considered when thinking about its therapeutic use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Familial partial lipodystrophy are Mendelian disorders involving abnormal body fat distribution and insulin resistance. The current classification includes the Köbberling syndrome (type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy), characterized by fat loss in the lower limbs and abnormal fat accumulation in other areas. Type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy appears to be heritable, but little is known about it, including putative contributing mutations. We aimed to characterize this syndrome better by evaluating a group of women with phenotypic features of type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy. This is a case-controlled study in which 98 women with type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy that lacked classical mutations known to cause familial partial lipodystrophy were compared with 60 women without lipodystrophy and 25 patients with type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy (Dunnigan disease). Clinical course, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, HbA1c, lipid profile, insulin, leptin and family history were evaluated in all of the participants. Analyses of receiver-operating characteristic curve were performed for type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy diagnosis, comparing different truncal/limbs ratios. Among patients with type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy, 68 % developed recognizable lipodystrophy before adolescence, and most displayed an autosomal-dominant pattern (86 %). Women with type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy had less lower-limb adipose tissue than women without lipodystrophy, but significantly more than patients with Dunnigan disease. Moreover, metabolic disturbances occurred more frequently in the type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy group (81 %) than in the non-lipodystrophic group (30 %, p<0.05). The severity of metabolic disturbances was inversely proportional to the percentage of fat in the lower extremities and directly proportional to the amount of visceral adipose tissue. Metabolic profiles were worse in type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy than in Dunnigan disease. According to the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the best ratio was subscapular/calf skinfolds (KöB index), with a cut-off value of 3.477 (sensitivity: 89 %; specificity: 84 %). Type 1 familial partial lipodystrophy was an early-onset, autosomal-dominant lipodystrophy, characterized by fat loss in the lower limbs and abnormal fat accumulation in the abdominal visceral region, associated to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. A KöB index >3.477 is highly suggestive of this syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3- 19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8- 144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
In ageing men, the incidence and clinical significance of testosterone (T) decline accompanied by elevated luteinising hormone (LH) are unclear. We describe the natural history, risk factors and clinical features associated with the development of biochemical primary hypogonadism (PHG, T<10.5nmol/L and LH>9.4U/L) in ageing men.
Design, patients and measurements:
A prospective observational cohort survey of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years, followed up for 4.3 years. Men were classified as incident (i) PHG (eugonadal [EUG, T≥10.5nmol/L] at baseline, PHG at follow-up), persistent (p) PHG (PHG at baseline and follow-up), pEUG (EUG at baseline and follow-up) and reversed (r) PHG (PHG at baseline, EUG at follow-up). Predictors and changes in clinical features associated with the development of PHG were analysed by regression models.
Of 1,991 men comprising the analytical sample, 97.5% had pEUG, 1.1% iPHG, 1.1% pPHG, and 0.3% rPHG. The incidence of PHG was 0.2%/year. Higher age (>70 years) [OR 12.48 (1.27-122.13), p=0.030] and chronic illnesses [OR 4.24 (1.08-16.56); p=0.038] predicted iPHG. Upon transition from EUG to PHG, erectile function, physical vigour and haemoglobin worsened significantly. Men with pPHG had decreased morning erections, sexual thoughts and haemoglobin with increased insulin resistance.
Primary testicular failure in men is uncommon and predicted by old age and chronic illness. Some clinical features attributable to androgen deficiency, but not others, accompanied the T decline in men who developed biochemical PHG. Whether androgen replacement can improve sexual and/or physical function in elderly men with PHG merits further study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose
Although lower levels of vitamin D have been related to poor cognitive functioning and dementia in older adults, evidence from longitudinal investigations is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels are associated with specified measures of cognitive decline in ageing men.
The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) followed 3369 men aged 40–79 over 4.4 years. 25(OH)D levels at baseline were measured by radioimmunoassay, and 1,25(OH)2D levels were obtained with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Visuoconstructional abilities, visual memory, and processing speed at baseline and follow-up were assessed using the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), Camden Topographical Recognition Memory (CTRM), and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST).
Following attritions, a total of 2430 men with a mean (SD) age of 59.0 (10.6) were included in the analyses. At baseline, the mean 25(OH)D concentration was 64.6 (31.5) nmol/l, and mean 1,25(OH)2D level was 59.6 (16.6) pmol/l. In age-adjusted linear regression models, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a smaller decline in the DSST (β = 0.007, p = 0.020). Men with low 25(OH)D levels (<50 nmol/l) showed a greater decline in the CTRM compared to men with higher (≥75 nmol/l) levels (β = −0.41, p = 0.035). However, these associations disappeared after adjusting for confounders such as depressive symptoms, BMI, and comorbidities. There was no indication of a relationship between 1,25(OH)2D and decline in cognitive subdomains.
We found no evidence for an independent association between 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D levels and visuoconstructional abilities, visual memory, or processing speed over on average 4.4 years in this sample of middle-aged and elderly European men.
Article · Jul 2016 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Elucidating the potential mechanisms involved in the detrimental effect of excess body weight on insulin action is an important priority in counteracting obesity-associated diseases. The present study aimed to disentangle the epigenetic basis of insulin resistance by performing a genome-wide epigenetic analysis in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from morbidly obese patients depending on the insulin sensitivity evaluated by the clamp technique. The global human methylome screening performed in VAT from 7 insulin-resistant (IR) and 5 insulin-sensitive (IS) morbidly obese patients (discovery cohort) analyzed using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array identified 982 CpG sites able to perfectly separate the IR and IS samples. The identified sites represented 538 unique genes, 10% of which were diabetes-associated genes. The current work identified novel IR-related genes epigenetically regulated in VAT, such as COL9A1, COL11A2, CD44, MUC4, ADAM2, IGF2BP1, GATA4, TET1, ZNF714, ADCY9, TBX5, and HDACM. The gene with the largest methylation fold-change and mapped by 5 differentially methylated CpG sites located in island/shore and promoter region was ZNF714. This gene presented lower methylation levels in IR than in IS patients in association with increased transcription levels, as further reflected in a validation cohort (n = 24; 11 IR and 13 IS). This study reveals, for the first time, a potential epigenetic regulation involved in the dysregulation of VAT that could predispose patients to insulin resistance and future type 2 diabetes in morbid obesity, providing a potential therapeutic target and biomarkers for counteracting this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We examined cross-sectional associations of metabolic syndrome and its components with male bone turnover, density and structure. Greater bone mass in men with metabolic syndrome was related to their greater body mass, whereas hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia or impaired insulin sensitivity were associated with lower bone turnover and relative bone mass deficits.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with lower bone turnover and relative bone mass or strength deficits (i.e. not proportionate to body mass index, BMI), but the relative contributions of MetS components related to insulin sensitivity or obesity to male bone health remain unclear.
We determined cross-sectional associations of MetS, its components and insulin sensitivity (by homeostatic model assessment-insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S)) using linear regression models adjusted for age, centre, smoking, alcohol, and BMI. Bone turnover markers and heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were measured in 3129 men aged 40–79. Two centres measured total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD, n = 527) and performed radius peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, n = 595).
MetS was present in 975 men (31.2 %). Men with MetS had lower β C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (β-CTX), N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and osteocalcin (P < 0.0001) and higher total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine aBMD (P ≤ 0.03). Among MetS components, only hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with PINP and β-CTX. Hyperglycaemia was negatively associated with BUA, hypertriglyceridaemia with hip aBMD and radius cross-sectional area (CSA) and stress–strain index. HOMA-S was similarly associated with PINP and β-CTX, BUA, and radius CSA in BMI-adjusted models.
Men with MetS have higher aBMD in association with their greater body mass, while their lower bone turnover and relative deficits in heel BUA and radius CSA are mainly related to correlates of insulin sensitivity. Our findings support the hypothesis that underlying metabolic complications may be involved in the bone’s failure to adapt to increasing bodily loads in men with MetS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction Hyperandrogenism is defined as the clinical syndrome resulting from excess circulating androgens, either due to an excess production or to an increase in androgen receptor sensitivity. Aetiology The condition can have an ovarian, adrenal gland or exogenous origin. The most common cause of the condition is polycystic ovary syndrome, characterised by menstrual disorders, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovarian morphology. Among the adrenal causes, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (through autosomal recessive inheritance) is characterised by enzyme deficits in the cortisol synthesis chain resulting in an increase in precursors to enzyme deficiency. Clinical features Patients clinically progress with adrenal insufficiency and signs of virilisation. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based in the detection of high levels of androgens and in the establishment of its origin. Treatment The treatment varies according to the cause of the hyperandrogenism.
Article · Jun 2016 · Medicine - Programa de Formación Médica Continuada Acreditado
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone which regulates the sodium homeostasis, the plasma volume and the blood pressure. Etiopathogenia Hypoaldosteronisms are a group of syndromes characterized by decreased levels of aldosterone (or resistance to its action). Primary hyperaldosteronisms have elevated levels of aldosterone and decreased of levels of renin, mainly due to primary adrenal hyperplasia (60%) or an aldosteronoma (30%). Clinical Manifestations Hypoaldosteronisms present with hyponatremia, natriuresis, hypovolemia and hyperkalemia/metabolic acidosis. Hyperaldosteronisms produce hypertension, sometimes with hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis The association with a deficit of glucocorticoid should be discarded. The measurement of aldosterone and renin (basal / after stimulus) is necessary to guide the hypoaldosteronism diagnosis. The diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism requires a positive screening test and also a confirmation test; for differential diagnosis we should use adrenal CT and catheterization. Treatment In hypoaldosteronisms it is necessary to treat the precipitating cause and to administrate fludrocortisone. In hyperaldosteronisms the patient must be referred for surgery or treated with aldosterone antagonists according to the localization exams.
Article · Jun 2016 · Medicine - Programa de Formación Médica Continuada Acreditado