Ryo Miyata

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Publications (8)27.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The free-living, cosmopolitan, freshwater betaproteobacterial bacterioplankton genus Polynucleobacter was detected in different years in 11 lakes of varying types and a river using the size-exclusion assay method (SEAM). Of the 350 strains isolated, 228 (65.1%) were affiliated with the Polynucleobacter subclusters PnecC (30.0%) and PnecD (35.1%). Significant positive correlations between fluorescence in situ hybridization and SEAM data were observed in the relative abundance of PnecC and PnecD bacteria to Polynucleobacter communities (PnecC + PnecD). Isolates were mainly PnecC bacteria in the samples with a high specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA(254) ), and a low total hydrolysable neutral carbohydrate and amino acid (THneutralCH + THAA) content of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction, which is known to be correlated with a high humic content. In contrast, the PnecD bacteria were abundant in samples with high chlorophyll a and/or THneutralCH + THAA concentrations, indicative of primary productivity. With few exceptions, differences in the relative abundance of PnecC and PnecD in each sample, determined using a high-sensitivity cultivation-based approach, were due to DOM quality. These results suggest that the major DOM component in the field, which is allochthonously or autochthonously derived, is a key factor for ecological niche separation between PnecC and PnecD subclusters.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Environmental Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an assay for simple and cost-effective quantification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples using a recently developed quantification method named alternately binding probe competitive PCR (ABC-PCR). The assay is based on the detection of 18S rRNA specific for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The standard curve of the ABC-PCR assay had a good fitting to a rectangular hyperbola with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9997. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts in real river water samples were successfully quantified by the ABC-reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. The quantified values by the ABC-RT-PCR assay very closely resemble those by the real-time RT-PCR assay. In addition, the quantified concentration in most water samples by the ABC-RT-PCR assay was comparable to that by conventional microscopic observation. Thus, Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples can be accurately and specifically determined by the ABC-RT-PCR assay. As the only equipment that is needed for this end-point fluorescence assay is a simple fluorometer and a relatively inexpensive thermal cycler, this method can markedly reduce time and cost to quantify Cryptosporidium oocysts and other health-related water microorganisms.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Water Research
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a continuous fluorescence assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the monitoring of RNA helicase activity in vitro. The assay is tested using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase as a model. We prepared a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrate with a 5' fluorophore-labeled strand hybridized to a 3' quencher-labeled strand. When the dsRNA is unwound by helicase, the fluorescence of the fluorophore is emitted following the separation of the strands. Unlike in conventional gel-based assays, this new assay eliminates the complex and time-consuming steps, and can be used to simply measure the real-time kinetics in a single helicase reaction. Our results demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 488 and BHQ1 are an effective fluorophore-quencher pair, and this assay is suitable for the quantitative measurement of the RNA helicase activity of HCV NS3. Moreover, we found that several extracts of marine organisms exhibited different inhibitory effects on the RNA and DNA helicase activities of HCV NS3. We propose that this assay will be useful for monitoring the detailed kinetics of RNA unwinding mechanisms and screening RNA helicase inhibitors at high throughput.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Dehalococcoides spp. are responsible for the reductive dehalogenation of environmental contaminants and are candidates for engineered bioremediation. The development of a sensitive, reliable, and rapid method for the quantification of Dehalococcoides spp. is required for the effective use of the organisms in bioremediation sites. Here, we describe the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene of Dehalococcoides spp. using a recently developed quantification method named alternately binding probe competitive PCR (ABC-PCR). The primers and probe sets that were newly designed for ABC-PCR were found to have a high specificity for Dehalococcoides spp. The standard curve of ABC-PCR had a good fitting (R = 0.999), and the lower detection limit was 10 copies/microl of template DNA. We also investigated the effects of inherent PCR-inhibiting compounds in an environmental sample on the quantification using ABC-PCR or real-time PCR by adding the soil extraction solution to PCR mixtures. ABC-PCR was more robust against the PCR amplification inhibitors than real-time PCR. The copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of Dehalococcoides spp. in soil and groundwater samples was successfully quantified using ABC-PCR. In conclusion, ABC-PCR is useful for the quantification of Dehalococcoides spp. populations and dynamics at bioremediation sites.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Molecular and Cellular Probes
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a flexible, specific, and cost-effective real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In this technique, a quenching probe (QProbe) and a nonfluorescent 3'-tailed probe are used. The QProbe is a singly labeled oligonucleotide bearing a fluorescent dye that is quenched via electron transfer between the dye and a guanine base at a particular position. The nonfluorescent 3'-tailed probe consists of two parts: one is the target-specific sequence on the 5' side, and the other is complementary to the QProbe on the 3' side. When the QProbe/nonfluorescent 3'-tailed probe complex hybridizes with the target in PCR, the fluorescence of the dye is quenched. Fluorescence quenching efficiency is proportional to the amount of the target. We called this method the universal QProbe system. This method substantially reduces the cost of real-time PCR setup because the same QProbe can be used for different target sequences. Moreover, this method allows accurate quantification even in the presence of nonspecific PCR products because the use of nonfluorescent 3'-tailed probe significantly increases specificity. Our results demonstrate that this method can accurately and reproducibly quantify specific nucleic acid sequences in crude samples, comparable with conventional TaqMan chemistry. Furthermore, this method is also applicable to single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of carbon sources on bacterial community structure in the gut of the wood-feeding higher termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis was investigated. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses revealed that the bacterial community structure changed markedly depending on feed components at the phylum level. Spirochaetes was predominant in the clone libraries from wood- and wood powder-fed termites, whereas Bacteroidetes was the largest group in the libraries from xylan-, cellobiose-, and glucose-fed termites, and Firmicutes was predominant in the library from xylose-fed termites. In addition, clones belonging to the phylum Termite Group I (TG1) were found in the library from xylose-fed termites. Our results indicate that the symbiotic relationship between termite and gut microorganisms is not very strong or stable over a short time, and that termite gut microbial community structures vary depending on components of the feeds.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic relationship of archaea in the gut of the wood-feeding higher termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis fed with various carbon sources was investigated using a clonal analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The representative phylotypes were affiliated with the Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, and Thermoplasmatales of the Euryarchaeota, and with the Crenarchaeota. The majority of clones obtained in this study were closely related to those obtained from other termite species, regardless of the carbon source in the feed. The relative clone frequencies of the libraries from wood powder-, xylose-, cellobiose-, and glucose-fed termites were similar to those from the library of wood-fed termites. On the other hand, the relative clone frequency of the library from xylan-fed termites in which the Thermoplasmatales predominated differed from that of the library from the wood-fed termites. These results suggest that, except for xylan, the carbohydrate components in feeds have a limited influence on archaeal community structures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Microbes and Environments

Publication Stats

93 Citations
27.11 Total Impact Points


  • 2009-2012
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      • Biomedical Research Institute
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2007
    • University of the Ryukyus
      Okinawa, Okinawa, Japan
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Institute of Applied Biochemistry
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan