[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report 2 ALK-positive large B-cell lymphoma cases showing granular cytoplasmic and cytoplasmic/nuclear ALK immunostaining in which cryptic ALK rearrangements were identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization and molecular analysis. In the first case, the ALK-involving t(2;3)(p23;q27) masked the cryptic SEC31A-ALK fusion generated by an insertion of the 5' end of SEC31A (4q21) upstream of the 3' end of ALK. This rearrangement was associated with loss of the 5' end of ALK and duplication of SEC31A-ALK on der(20). In the second case with complex rearrangements of both chromosomes 2, a submicroscopic NPM1-ALK fusion created by insertion of the 3' end of ALK into the NPM1 locus was evidenced. Further studies of SEC31A-ALK showed that this variant fusion transforms IL3-dependent Ba/F3 cells to growth factor independence, and that the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 reduces cell proliferation and kinase activity of SEC31A-ALK and its downstream effectors ERK1/2, AKT, STAT3 and STAT5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A translocation (14;19)(q32;q13.1) was found in a 31 year old man with a large cell lymphoma which had evolved from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Molecular analysis showed a monoclonal proliferation of B cells with rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and kappa light chain genes, and of the bcl-3 gene on chromosome 19q. Nine cases with t(14;19) from the literature were reviewed; B cell lymphoma had been diagnosed in eight and acute biphenotypic leukaemia in one of these cases. Four had transformed from CLL to a more aggressive disease, as in the present case. Two out of seven patients as well as the present one, with t(14;19) and CLL were young (less than 40). The t(14;19) is usually associated with other cytogenetic abnormalities; in our case a (15;16)(q15;p13) translocation was found and appears to be an additional nonrandom aberration in t(14;19) disorders.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morphological, immunological and cytogenetic features were studied in 27 adults presenting with Ph chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), in correlation with clinical outcome.
Twenty patients (group 1) were diagnosed as having typical ALL according to the FAB criteria supported by immunological findings. Less than 1% blast cells with azurophilic granules were detected in all cases. Myeloid cytochemistry, i.e. peroxidase and Sudan black-B stain, was negative in all cases. A minor phenotype deviation consisting of the expression of the CD13 myeloid-associated marker was detected in two patients.
In seven patients (group 2) a diagnosis of ALL with a minor myeloid component was made because of the presence of a majority of lymphoid blasts and of 5-15% blast cells with morphological cytochemical and immunological features of the myeloid lineage.
Abnormal metaphases were found in 6/20 (30%) patients in group 1, compared with 7/7 (100%) patients in group 2.
All patients were treated by antilymphoid regimens: however, complete remission was achieved in 17/20 (85%) patients in group 1 versus 1/7 (14.3%) patients in group 2. Median survival was 16 months, range <1-120+ in group 1 and 9 months, range <1-15 in group 2.
It is concluded that morphological, immunological and cytogenetic studies allow for the recognition of two cytological subsets of Ph+ ALL. The presence of a minor myeloid component in otherwise typical Ph chromosome-positive ALL may be associated with a distinct cytogenetic pattern and poor responses to antilymphoid therapy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal translocations represent an important prognostic indicator in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). However, their value had been neither determined in homogeneously treated patients nor compared to that of IgV(H) mutational status. Sixty-five B-CLL patients were investigated using cytogenetics, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), analysis of IgV(H) and of TP53 mutational status before treatment with 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (CdA). Translocations (n=45) were detected in 42% of the patients, including both balanced (n=12) and unbalanced (n=33) types. IgV(H) was mutated in 43% of the patients. Patients with translocations were more heavily pretreated (P=0.05), presented with more complex karyotypes (P<0.001), 17p abnormalities and TP53 mutations, and had a higher failure rate (59 vs 21% in patients without translocations, P=0.004). Patients with unbalanced translocations displayed a shorter median treatment-free survival (TFS, 6.9 vs 35.9 months, log rank 22.72, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS, 13.0 vs 68.0 months, log rank 16.51, P<0.001), as compared to patients without translocation. In multivariate analysis, unbalanced translocations were independently associated with therapeutic failure, short TFS and short OS. IgV(H) mutational status was independently associated with risk of failure and TFS, but not OS. In B-CLL patients treated with CdA, translocations are strong predictors of outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) comprise a biologically diverse group of neoplasms with respect to activating mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA, histology, anatomical site of origin, and clinical aggressiveness. In this study, we applied the high resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) technology to 66 primary GISTs (40 gastric and 26 nongastric, 48 with KIT and 18 with PDGFRA mutations) for identification of novel high-level alterations and for characterization of genotype-related genomic changes. All cases had genomic imbalances with the highest occurrence of 14q (73%), 1p (62%), 22q (59%), 15q (38%), and 13q (29%) losses. Our data indicate that loss of chromosome 14 and/or 22 is an early change in GIST tumorigenesis irrespective of tumor genotype. Furthermore, DNA copy number changes showed a site dependent pattern. These included lower incidence of losses at 14q (87% vs. 35%), and higher frequency of losses at 1p (45% vs. 85%) and 15q (17% vs. 69%) in nongastric versus gastric site (P<0.001 for all). However, in the multivariate analysis with adjustment to tumor risk stratification, only the 14q loss site-dependent pattern of distribution retained its significance. These findings suggest that loss of 14q is a relatively less frequent genetic event in the development of nongastric GISTs, the lack of which is most likely substituted by the accumulation of 1p/15q and other changes. The novel minimal overlapping regions of deletion at 1p (1p36.32-1p35.2, 1p34.1, and 1p22.1-1p21.3), 13q (13q14.11-q14.2 and 13q32.3-q33.1), and 15q23 were delineated, which point to chromosomal regions that may harbor genes relevant to the development of these neoplasms.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent randomized EORTC phase III trial, comparing two doses of imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), reported dose dependency for progression-free survival. The current analysis of that study aimed to assess if tumour mutational status correlates with clinical response to imatinib. Pre-treatment samples of GISTs from 377 patients enrolled in phase III study were analyzed for mutations of KIT or PDGFRA by combination of D-HPLC and direct sequencing of tumour genomic DNA. Mutation types were correlated with patients' survival data. The presence of exon 9-activating mutations in KIT was the strongest adverse prognostic factor for response to imatinib, increasing the relative risk of progression by 171% (P<0.0001) and the relative risk of death by 190% (P<0.0001) when compared with KIT exon 11 mutants. Similarly, the relative risk of progression was increased by 108% (P<0.0001) and the relative risk of death by 76% (P=0.028) in patients without detectable KIT or PDGFRA mutations. In patients whose tumours expressed an exon 9 KIT oncoprotein, treatment with the high-dose regimen resulted in a significantly superior progression-free survival (P=0.0013), with a reduction of the relative risk of 61%. We conclude that tumour genotype is of major prognostic significance for progression-free survival and overall survival in patients treated with imatinib for advanced GISTs. Our findings suggest the need for differential treatment of patients with GISTs, with KIT exon 9 mutant patients benefiting the most from the 800 mg daily dose of the drug.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a 48-year-old man with concomitantly diagnosed kappa expressing chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and lambda light chain disease with highly complex chromosomal aberrations. The clinical course of the disease was very aggressive with survival of only 1 month. We demonstrate the distinct clonal origin by cytogenetic data and immunoglobulin rearrangement studies. To our knowledge this is the first report of a light chain disease associated with CLL.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Clinical & Laboratory Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the combination of rituximab with chlorambucil in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) not eligible for aggressive therapy. Fourteen patients (male/female: 9/5) were included (two newly diagnosed, 12 relapsed/refractory). The toxicities were neutropenia, thrombopenia and infection. Nine (64%) patients responded; five (36%) achieved complete remission and four (29%) achieved partial remission. The median progression-free survival for responders was 26 months (95% CI, 4-48). Marrow polymerase chain reaction negativity was attained in seven responders. These results suggest that this schedule may have notable antitumour activity in patients with MCL, including patients in relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reliability of immunohistochemistry for subdividing diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) into germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB prognostic subgroups is debated. In this study we evaluated the prognostic significance of such subgrouping on a series of 153 DLBCL patients. Furthermore, we investigated whether both subgroups could comprise clinicopathologic entities recognized by their morphology and characterized by a distinct phenotype, specific genetic abnormalities, and clinical characteristics.
All samples from patients were reviewed and morphologically subdivided into large cleaved, immunoblastic, and not otherwise specified DLBCL. GCB and non-GCB immunohistochemical profiles were established. The presence of chromosomal translocations involving BCL2, BCL6, and MYC and/or rearrangements of these genes was investigated.
Subdividing DLBCL with either a GCB or non-GCB immunophenotypic profile was not of prognostic significance. Nevertheless, CD10 expression was a predictor of favorable outcome, whereas high bcl-2 expression and BCL6 rearrangement were adverse predictors of disease-free survival. Interestingly, large cleaved DLBCL was clearly associated with a GCB immunophenotypic profile, CD10 expression, BCL2 rearrangement, age younger than 60 years, and low to low/intermediate International Prognostic Index risk, but was not of prognostic significance. In contrast, immunoblastic morphology was associated with a non-GCB profile and was a significant predictor of unfavorable DFS.
Subdividing DLBCL into subgroups based on their immunohistochemical profile was not of prognostic significance. Nevertheless, it allowed the additional characterization of two lymphoma subgroups previously recognized in the Working Formulation. Both correspond to two distinct clinicopathologic entities within the DLBCL.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of gastrointesinal stromal tumours (GISTs) is widely based on morphological features and KIT (CD117) immunoreactivity. Most patients with advanced GISTs show a major clinical response after treatment with imatinib mesylate. The histopathological features of GISTs in patients on prolonged imatinib treatment have, thus far, not been addressed in detail. In this report, we present three patients with metastatic GISTs, who received more than 1 year of therapy with imatinib, and whose tumours changed their morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics during continued treatment with the drug.
All three primary GISTs from these patients were classical spindle-type tumours, showing diffuse, strong CD117, CD34, and focal alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. During treatment, two clinically progressive and one clinically stable GIST revealed a diffuse epithelioid, or pseudopapillary epithelioid growth pattern, characterized by rounded cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and uniform round-to-ovoid nuclei. In addition, GIST specimens from patients on therapy showed complete loss of CD117 immunoreactivity. Remarkably, two of these tumours also became CD34 immunonegative and in one case the progression was accompanied by desmin expression. KIT mutational analysis revealed the presence of distinct exon 11 mutant isoforms in all cases examined, while the same genotype was sustained in the base line and on-therapy tumour specimens, proving the common origin of analysed specimens.
GISTs subject to imatinib treatment can undergo striking (immuno)phenotypic changes, which are not necessarily corroborated by new genotypic modifications. Because these may mimic other tumour types, this feature creates a differential diagnostic challenge, of which the pathologist should be aware.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 20 patients with myeloid malignancies and isolated trisomy 11 an internal tandem duplication of the MLL and FLT3 genes was observed in 41% and 31% of the cases, respectively; 80% of the FLT3+ cases showed MLL self-fusion. Concomitant presence of MLL and FLT3 anomalies could be relevant in determining the poor outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 11.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). We investigated the mechanisms of resistance in patients with progressive GISTs with primary KIT mutations and the efficacy of the kinase inhibitor PKC412 for the inhibition of imatinib-resistant mutants.
We performed a cytogenetic analysis and screened for mutations of the KIT and PDGFRA kinase domains in 26 resistant GISTs. KIT autophosphorylation status was assessed by Western immunoblotting. Imatinib-resistant GIST cells and Ba/F3 cells expressing these mutant proteins were tested for sensitivity to imatinib and PKC412.
Six distinct secondary mutations in KIT were detected in 12 progressive tumors, with V654A and T670I found to be recurrent. One progressive tumor showed acquired PDGFRA -D842V mutation. Amplification of KIT or KIT / PDGFRA was found in 2 patients. Eight of 10 progressive tumors available for analysis showed phosphorylated KIT. Two remaining progressive tumors lost KIT protein expression. GIST cells carrying KIT -del557-558/T670I or KIT -InsAY502-503/V654A mutations were resistant to imatinib, while PKC412 significantly inhibited autophosporylation of these mutants. Resistance to imatinib and sensitivity to PKC412 of KIT -T670I and PDGFRA -D842V mutants was confirmed using Ba/F3 cells.
This study shows the high frequency of KIT/PDGFRA kinase domain mutations in patients with secondary resistance and defines genomic amplification of KIT / PDGFRA as an alternative cause of resistance to the drug. In a subset of patients, cancer cells lost their dependence on the targeted tyrosine kinase. Our findings show the sensitivity of the imatinib-resistant KIT -T670I and KIT -V654A and of PDGFRA -D842V mutants to PKC412.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although reciprocal chromosomal translocations are not typical for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), we identified the novel t(1;6)(p35.3;p25.2) in eight patients with this disorder. Interestingly, all cases showed lack of somatically mutated IgV(H). Clinical, morphological, immunologic, and genetic features of these patients are described. Briefly, the age ranged from 33 to 81 years (median: 62.5 years) and the sex ratio was 6M:2F. Most of the patients (6/8) presented with advanced clinical stage. Therapy was required in seven cases. After a median follow-up of 28 months, five patients are alive and three died from disease evolution. Three cases developed transformation into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Translocation t(1;6) was found as the primary karyotypic abnormality in three patients. Additional chromosomal aberrations included changes frequently found in unmutated B-CLL, that is, del(11)(q), trisomy 12 and 17p aberrations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis performed in seven cases allowed us to map the t(1;6) breakpoints to the 1p35.3 and 6p25.2 chromosomal bands, respectively. The latter breakpoint was located in the genomic region coding for MUM1/IRF4, one of the key regulators of lymphocyte development and proliferation, suggesting involvement of this gene in the t(1;6). Molecular characterization of the t(1;6)(p35.3;p25.2), exclusively found in unmutated subtype of B-CLL, is in progress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), transcription factors are known to be deregulated by chromosomal translocations, but mutations in protein tyrosine kinases have only rarely been identified. Here we describe the extrachromosomal (episomal) amplification of ABL1 in 5 of 90 (5.6%) individuals with T-ALL, an aberration that is not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. Molecular analyses delineated the amplicon as a 500-kb region from chromosome band 9q34, containing the oncogenes ABL1 and NUP214 (refs. 5,6). We identified a previously undescribed mechanism for activation of tyrosine kinases in cancer: the formation of episomes resulting in a fusion between NUP214 and ABL1. We detected the NUP214-ABL1 transcript in five individuals with the ABL1 amplification, in 5 of 85 (5.8%) additional individuals with T-ALL and in 3 of 22 T-ALL cell lines. The constitutively phosphorylated tyrosine kinase NUP214-ABL1 is sensitive to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. The recurrent cryptic NUP214-ABL1 rearrangement is associated with increased HOX expression and deletion of CDKN2A, consistent with a multistep pathogenesis of T-ALL. NUP214-ABL1 expression defines a new subgroup of individuals with T-ALL who could benefit from treatment with imatinib.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical t(11;14)(q13;q32) involving IGH-CCND1 is typically associated with aggressive CD5-positive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Recently, we identified the IGK variant of this translocation, t(2;11)(p11;q13), in three patients with a leukemic small-cell B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In all cases, rearrangements of the IGK and CCND1 genes were demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Moreover, we mapped the 11q13 breakpoint of this variant translocation in the 3' region of CCND1 which contrasts with the 5' breakpoints in a standard t(11;14)(q13;q32). Expression of cyclin D1 was shown in two cases analyzed either at diagnosis or during disease progression. All three patients were asymptomatic at presentation and no initial therapy was required. One patient died of a progressive disease 58 months from diagnosis, and two patients showed stable disease after 12 months of follow-up. In two analyzed cases, mutated IGVH genes were identified. Our findings indicate that variant t(2;11)(p11;q13) does not typify a classical MCL but possibly a more indolent leukemic lymphoma originating from an antigen experienced (mutated) B cell.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A patient with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) of the pleomorphic blastoid subtype is reported. The disease was clinically aggressive and refractory to chemotherapy, and the patient survived only 2 months. Cytogenetically, a t(11;19;14)(q13;q13;q32) was found. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular analyses demonstrated involvement of the BCL1/CCND1 locus in a three-way translocation. In addition, subclonal abnormalities of the region 8q24 manifested either as a t(8;22)(q24;q11)/CMYC rearrangement or trisomy 8 were identified. The pathogenetic impact of this very uncommon association of BCL1/CCND1 and CMYC rearrangements in MCL is discussed and the literature is reviewed.
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL) showed recurrent rearrangement of the BCL6 which is gene detected in 48% of cases analyzed by interphase-fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). These findings point to a critical role for BCL6 in the development of this distinct Hodgkin's lymphoma. We present our results of metaphase-FISH analyses aimed at identifying and characterizing BCL6-related chromosomal translocations in NLPHL.
Four NLPHL cases with available metaphase spreads obtained either at the time of diagnosis or during progression to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were collected. Extensive metaphase-FISH analysis was performed to identify the affected partner chromosomes and reciprocal breakpoints.
Each of the analyzed NLPHL cases showed a different type of BCL6 rearrangement that included the t(3;22)(q27;q11) targeting immunoglobulin (IG) alpha chain locus, complex t(3;7;3;1) involving the 7p12/Ikaros gene region, t(3;9)(q27;p13) affecting an unknown gene in vicinity of PAX5, and t(3;4)(q27;q32) showing the alternative 3q27 breakpoint outside BCL6 and possibly, an internal deletion of BCL6. Retrospective interphase-FISH analysis of 2 cases with subsequent DLBCL showed the same type of BCL6 translocation as in NLPHL samples.
The spectrum of BCL6 aberrations targeting IG as well as non-IG loci in NLPHL is similar to that found in DLBCL. These findings further support the hypothesis of a germinal center B-cell-derived origin of NLPHL and of a relationship between these two lymphoma entities. This latter issue is additionally illustrated in two NLPHL patients who subsequently developed DLBCL and showed the same type of BCL6 rearrangements in both tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) form a distinctive group of mesenchymal neoplasms, showing differentiation towards the interstitial cells of Cajal. Morphologically, GISTs vary from cellular spindle cell tumors to epithelioid or mixed, epithelioid and spindle cell variants. The genotypic features underlying the morphologic differences of GISTs with vs without epithelioid components are not well defined. Acquisition of activating mutations in KIT and PDGFRA has been reported as alternative oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of GISTs. In this study, a comprehensive KIT and PDGFRA mutational analysis was performed in a group of 28 epithelioid/mixed type tumors, in order to explore whether a specific KIT/PDGFRA mutational status segregates these neoplasms from spindle cell variant GISTs. All GISTs were primary neoplasms, 16 (57.1%) originated from the stomach and 12 (42.8%) from other locations. Histomorphologically, 14 GISTs showed an epithelioid and 14 a mixed cell type pattern. Mutational analysis included KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17, and PDGFRA exons 12 and 18 prescreening by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by direct sequencing. Activating mutations of KIT were found in 14 (50%) GISTs, the majority being within exon 11 (n=11; 39.2%), and the other comprised exon 9 AY 502–503 duplications (n=2; 7.2%) and exon 17 Lys Aln822 missense mutations (n=1; 3.6%). Most of the KIT mutant tumors (n=11; 78.6%) originated from nongastric sites. Seven (25.0%) GISTs with no detectable KIT mutations demonstrated PDGFRA mutant isoforms, carrying either D842 V mutations (n=5) or exon 18 deletions (n=2). All GISTs harboring PDGFRA mutant isoforms originated from the stomach. In seven tumors, no detectable mutations were found; all but one of nonmutant tumors initiated from the stomach and exhibited an epithelioid morphology. These findings indicate that the mutational status of epithelioid/mixed GISTs associates with the anatomical site of the tumor.