[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The question about the processes used to comprehend printed words has been debated for many years. A classic theory, direct access theory, assumes that word identification is only based on the orthographic representation of a printed word. According to another theory, dual access theory, the word identification is assumed to be a process consisting of transformation of spelling to sound and then mapping sound to meaning. Within the second hypothesis, it is known that the sound of words can influence the identification of printed words, a phenomenon called phonological mediation in the psychology of reading. A classical experiment to investigate this phenomenon is semantic categorization in which human subjects are to decide if homophonic foils, incorrect but sounding similar target words, are category exemplars (e.g., ROWS for the category A FLOWER). In the same experiment, in order to not confound homophony with spelling similarity, there are also spelling control foils, wrong but similarly written target words, in the categorization task. Van Orden (1987) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of false positive errors to incorrect sentences with homophones (e.g. a ROWS is A FLOWER) than to sentences with an incorrect word of equivalent orthographic similarity to the target homophone (e.g. a ROBS is A FLOWER). Following the work by Balota et al. (1995), Moreno et al. (2011) discussed that key pressing methodology for measuring latencies in typical reaction time experiments, may not be a satisfactory index of when a lexical decision response becomes available. Accordingly, in their lexical decision making experiment, they measured EMG activity of specific muscles. In particular, they inquired whether the cognitive response is also evident in the involuntary postural adjustments of motor system for maintaining the postural stability of the body during raising the arm for making a response, called anticipatory postural adjustments or APAs (e.g. Belenkii et al., 1967) and if this response is as informative as the actual focal arm response. Moreno et al. found that the latency for the onset of EMG activity in a lexical decision task (right arm raised for word, left arm raised for nonword) increased systematically from the muscles of the lower limbs, to those of the lower back, to those of the shoulder. In this study, the " whole-body " decision-making methodology of Moreno et al. was directed at the question of whether the dynamics prefatory to responding are reflected in the postural adjustments prefatory to raising an arm as quickly as possible to indicate the categorical decision.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In J. J. Gibson's classic paper “The Problem of Temporal Order in Stimulation and Perception” (1966a13.
Gibson, J. J. (1966a). The problem of temporal order in stimulation and perception. Journal of Psychology, 62, 141–149.[Taylor & Francis Online], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references), he referred to the difficulties encountered when attempting a sharp distinction between memory and perception as “the muddle of memory.” Resolution of the muddle by J. J. Gibson proceeded by blurring the distinction itself. We develop the conjugate “muddle of anticipation” similarly by blurring the sharp distinction traditionally drawn between anticipation and perception. The subsequent redefinition of the problem is grounded in strong anticipation equated with anticipating synchronization—that which arises from a system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of function. We identify the fit of strong anticipation's properties to J. J. Gibson's ecological approach and in so doing introduce the possibility of a potentially deep connection between them, namely, that the coordination of perception with surroundings (direct perception) is a special case of strong anticipation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A theory of perception for all organisms encounters two quantum- like issues. Issue 1 is the there not here enigma or outness problem. For example, given visual entities here (e.g., in the sensory organ, or in the brain), how are they experientially situated there (in the environment) coordinate with the entities to which they belong? The outness problem's foundation is the principle of local causality: no action at a distance. The problem does not arise under a principle of nonlocality, raising the question of whether there is a conception of action at a distance befitting nature's ecological scale. Issue 2 is the observation problem so labelled by Gomatam and implicit in deliberations of Bohr, Einstein, Bell and others: to identify a quantum-compatible nonclassical conception of everyday objects, one consonant with the principle of superposition. The ecological notion of accordance is an organism-relative perspective on macroscopic objects. Any given object makes possible (accords) difierent actions for difierent organisms simultaneously. Accordance raises the question of whether there is a conception of superposition (and, perforce, decoherence) befitting nature's ecological scale. Conceptual steps to addressing the two questions relating to the two issues are presented and the significance of doing so for a theory of perception-action encompassing all organisms is emphasized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipedal gaits have been classified on the basis of the group symmetry of the minimal network of identical differential equations (alias cells) required to model them. Primary bipedal gaits (e.g., walk, run) are characterized by dihedral symmetry, whereas secondary bipedal gaits (e.g., gallop-walk, gallop-run) are characterized by a lower, cyclic symmetry. This fact has been used in tests of human odometry (e.g., Turvey et al. in P Roy Soc Lond B Biol 276:4309–4314, 2009, J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 38:1014–1025, 2012). Results suggest that when distance is measured and reported by gaits from the same symmetry class, primary and secondary gaits are comparable. Switching symmetry classes at report compresses (primary to secondary) or inflates (sec-ondary to primary) measured distance, with the compression and inflation equal in magnitude. The present research (a) extends these findings from overground locomotion to tread-mill locomotion and (b) assesses a dynamics of sequentially coupled measure and report phases, with relative velocity as an order parameter, or equilibrium state, and difference in symmetry class as an imperfection parameter, or detuning, of those dynamics. The results suggest that the symmetries and dynamics of distance measurement by the human odometer are the same whether the odometer is in motion relative to a stationary ground or stationary relative to a moving ground.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research on dynamic touching of a rod attached at its center point to the shoulders (1st vertebra) has shown that with voluntary wielding—by means of axial rotations, flexions-extensions, and lateral bending of the trunk—participants can selectively perceive the whole rod length and a partial rod length (e.g., leftward segment) with comparable precision to wielding by hand (Palatinus, Carello & Turvey, 2011). The present research addressed whether this haptic ability is preserved in quiet standing, when postural control is limited to center of pressure (COP) fluctuations at the mm/ms scale and, if so, whether the intentions (“perceive partial”, “perceive whole”) are distinguishable within the fluctuations. The participants provided significantly distinct, appropriately scaled, whole and partial estimates of three rod-lengths (72, 96 and 120 cm) with three mass manipulations (no mass, 150 g mass rightward, and 150 g mass leftward, of attachment point). The COP displacement time series were subjected to multifractal, detrended, fluctuation analysis. The resultant spectrum of fractal scaling exponents for gradually different-sized fluctuations revealed that the intention to perceive partial length elicited larger fractal scaling exponents for progressively smaller fluctuations. Our results indicate that the significant mechanical variables for haptically perceiving object extent are available in the small scale of normal body sway and that these seemingly “passive” movements reflect the intention of the perceiver.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT For any given animal, the sources of mechanical disturbances inducing tissue deformation define environment from the perspective of the animal's haptic perceptual system. The system's achievements include perceiving the body, attachments to the body, and the surfaces and substances adjacent to the body. Among the perceptual systems, it stands alone in having no defined medium. There is no articulated functional equivalent to air and water, the media that make possible the energy transmissions and diffusions underpinning the other perceptual systems. To identify the haptic system's medium the authors focus on connective tissue and the conjunction of muscular, connective tissue net, and skeletal (MCS) as the body's proper characterization. The challenge is a biophysical formulation of MCS as a continuum that, similar to air and water, is homogeneous and isotropic. The authors hypothesized a multifractal tensegrity (MFT) with the shape and stability of the constituents of each scale, from individual cell to whole body, derivative of continuous tension and discontinuous compression. Each component tensegrity of MFT is an adjustive-receptive unit, and the array of tensions in MFT is information about MCS. The authors extend the MFT hypothesis to body-brain linkages, and to limb perception phenomena attendant to amputation, vibration, anesthesia, neuropathy, and microgravity.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Motor Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Quiet standing" is standing without intended movement. To the naked eye, a person "quiet standing" on a rigid surface of support is stationary. In the laboratory quiet standing is indexed by behavior (at the millimeter scale) of the center of pressure (COP), the point location of the vertical ground reaction force vector (GRF). We asked whether quiet standing is lateralized and whether the COP dynamics of the right and left legs differ. In answer, we reexamined a previous quiet standing experiment (Kinsella-Shaw et al. in J Mot Behav 38:251-264, 2006) that used dual, side-by-side, force plates to investigate effects of age and embedding environment. All participants, old (M age = 72.2 ± 4.90 years) and young (M age = 22.8 ± 0.83 years), were right handed and right footed. Cross-recurrence quantification of the anterior-posterior and mediolateral coordinates of each COP revealed that, independent of age, and with no right GRF bias, right-leg coordination was (1) more dynamically stable and less noisy than left-leg coordination and (2) more responsive to changes in degree of visible structure. The results are considered in the context of theories of laterality inclusive of lateralized differences in postural dynamics.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Experimental Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In prism adaptation experiments, the effect on throwing to a target is reduced (primary aftereffect is smaller) when the throwing condition with prisms removed (first test phase) is different from the throwing condition with prisms (the training phase). The missing adaptation, however, can be revealed through further testing (second test phase) in which the throwing condition during training is fully reinstated. We studied throwing underhand to a target flush with the floor. During training, participants wore left-shifting prism glasses while standing on the floor (Group 1) or on a balance board (Groups 2 and 3). Tests 1 and 2 following training involved the same underhand throwing. For Group 2, Test 1 was on the balance board and Test 2 on the ground; for Group 3, the order was reversed; and for Group 1, both tests were on the ground. The Group 3 Test 1 aftereffect was smaller, and the Test 2 aftereffect was larger than the respective tests for Groups 1 and 2, with the aftereffect sum the same for all three groups. A parallel was noted between prism adaptation and implicit memory: whether given training (study) conditions lead to better or poorer persistence of adaptation (memory performance) at test depends on the fit between the conditions at test relative to the conditions at training (study). In the general memory case, those conditions will involve nonobvious contributors to memory performance, analogous to the support for upright standing in the adaptation of the visual system to prismatic distortion investigated in the present research.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Experimental Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-letter targets, followed at varying onset-onset intervals by a patterned mask, were presented for identification to the hemiretinae of both eyes. The target and mask stimuli were spatially overlapping; the mask could impede target perception dichoptically, and the energy of the target stimuli was twice that of the mask. Under these conditions, U-shaped monoptic masking functions were obtained which did not differ, as a function of hemiretina, in their overall shape or in their points of maximal masking.
Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What is the basis for the categorical distinctions evident in action? For some visually-guided activities it can be shown that categories of action are specified by criterial values of optical properties. In the more general case, the criterial optical properties should be scaled relative to dimensions of the acting animal. The analysis of the prey-catching behavior of praying mantids is used to exemplify the strategy for determining naturally defined boundaries on actions.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Motor Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At one level, the scientific enterprise engaged in by Guy Van Orden was about how to analyze reaction time data. At another level it was an attempt to understand the kind of system that one is dealing with in a reaction time (RT) experiment—the system that accords with the instructions that the experimenter gives, produces the responses to the particular class of stimuli that the experimenter presents, at latencies that the experimenter measures and analyzes. That there can be any question about the essential nature of the system under study is perhaps surprising given the long and influential history of RT research and the relative simplicity and transparency of the RT task. In this brief note we hope to show that the question is deserved and that on close inspection the nature of the RT task is, indeed, surprising.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Ecological Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One commonly perceives whether a visible object will afford grasping with one hand or with both hands. In experiments in which differently sized objects of a fixed type are presented, the transition from using one of these manual modes to the other depends on the ratio of object size to hand span and on the presentation sequence, with size increasing versus decreasing. Conventional positive hysteresis (i.e., a larger transition ratio for the increasing sequence) can be accommodated by the order parameter dynamics that typify self-organizing systems (Lopresti-Goodman, Turvey, and Frank, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73:1948-1965, 2011). Here we identified and addressed conditions of unconventional negative hysteresis (i.e., a larger transition ratio for the decreasing sequence). They suggest a second control parameter in the self-organization of affordance perception, one that is seemingly regulated by inhibitory dynamics occurring in the agent-task-environment system. Our experimental results and modeling extend the investigation of affordance perception within dynamical systems theory.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Attention Perception & Psychophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For skills that involve hitting a target, subsequent judgments of target size correlate with prior success in hitting that target. We used an archery context to examine the judgment-success relationship with varied target sizes in the absence of explicit knowledge of results. Competitive archers shot at targets 50 m away that varied in size among five diameters. Immediately after the arrow's release, its flight and landing were occluded and archers chose which of 18 miniature targets looked most like the distal target. Greater apparent size correlated with higher accuracy. In a second experiment, nonarchers merely aimed the bow (without an arrow) at varied targets. Apparent size was larger when the bow arm was stabilized than when it was not. Archery is seemingly an instance of affordance-based control: For an archer, the affordance of the target is the "hitableness" of its central regions, a property inclusive of his or her momentary, and perceptible, archery form. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an axiomatic derivation of a model proposed by Haken, Kelso, and Bunz (1985) that describes dynamical aspects of the rhythmic coordination between two limbs. Elaboration of this model has included a symmetry parameter that captures the coordination consequences of an inherent or imposed frequency difference between the limbs. We modified one of the axioms involved in the model derivation, a symmetry axiom, in order to incorporate a new symmetry parameter. This new parameter defines a shift between (a) the laboratory coordinate system, in which the behavior is observed, and (b) a second, postulated coordinate system. It is this second coordinate system, in which the relevant state dynamics is assumed to take place and in which the state dynamics evolves under the impact of an attractor. The state dynamics as described in the attractor coordinate system is then mapped by means of the new symmetry parameter to the laboratory coordinate system. We discuss analytically the bifurcation diagram of the model and determine main effects and interaction effects of manipulations related to the symmetry parameters and related to the mode of coordination (in-phase and anti-phase). The theoretical results are brought to bear on the challenging experimental observation that concurrent cognitive activity (counting, encoding, retrieving, sentence analysis) changes the location of the bimanual coordination attractor but not its strength. The theoretical results suggest that cognitive activity may have the effect it has because it shifts the attractor coordinate system relative to the laboratory coordinate system.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Mathematical Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipedal gaits have been classified on the basis of the group symmetry of the minimal network of identical differential equations (alias cells) required to model them. Primary gaits are characterized by dihedral symmetry, whereas secondary gaits are characterized by a lower, cyclic symmetry. This fact was used in a test of human odometry. Results suggest that when distance is measured and reported by gaits from the same symmetry class, primary and secondary gaits are comparable. Switching symmetry classes at report compresses (primary to secondary) or inflates (secondary to primary) measured distance, with the compression and inflation equal in magnitude. Lessons are drawn from modeling the dynamics of behaviors executed in parallel (e.g., interlimb coordination) to model the dynamics of human odometry, in which the behaviors are executed sequentially. The major observations are characterized in terms of a dynamics of sequentially coupled measure and report phases, with relative velocity as an order parameter, or equilibrium state, and difference in symmetry class as an imperfection parameter, or detuning, of that dynamic.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nonword prime can sound like a target word or one of the target’s associates, and it can look like either without sounding
like either. These pseudohomophones and pseudohomographs can vary in the number of letters shared with the target or its associate.
In an associative priming experiment in which targets were named and prime duration was 125 msec within a mask-prime-mask-target
sequence, pseudohomophones primed and pseudohomographs did not, with the pseudoassociative priming being only weakly affected
by spelling differences. In three further experiments, prime homophony and homography were defined in respect to the target.
Prime durations were 125 and 21 msec within a maskprime-mask-target sequence and 57 msec vrithin a mask-prime-target sequence.
The superior priming by pseudohomophones was relatively insensitive to spelling. Results are discussed in terms of the phonological
coherence hypothesis and the roles for orthographic information implied by the hypothesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reading a word may involve the spoken language in two ways: in the conversion of letters to phonemes according to the conventions of the language's writing system and the assimilation of phonemes according to the language's constraints on speaking. If so, then words that require assimilation when uttered would require a change in the phonemes produced by grapheme-phoneme conversion when read. In two experiments, each involving 40 fluent readers, we compared visual lexical decision on Korean orthographic forms that would require such a change (C stimuli) or not (NC stimuli). We found that NC words were accepted faster than C words, and C nonwords were rejected faster than NC nonwords. The results suggest that phoneme-to-phoneme transformations involved in uttering a word may also be involved in visually identifying the word.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gibson's (1966, 1979/1986) ecological approach to perception, action, and cognition is patently non-representational and non-computational. In the place of these commonly assumed neural endowments, ecological psychology seeks to expose the laws that underlie intelligent capabilities. It is argued that this is the goal for understanding the directed behavior of not just humans, not just animals, and not just the living. We argue that an approach to intelligence that is physically grounded is completely consistent with—and is even a natural consequence of—the central tenets of ecological psychology. We identify two dozen guidelines for seeking intelligence in first principles.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Ecological Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of prism adaptation on movement is typically reduced when the movement at test (prisms off) differs on some dimension from the movement at training (prisms on). Some adaptation is latent, however, and only revealed through further testing in which the movement at training is fully reinstated. Applying a nonlinear attractor dynamic model (Frank, Blau, & Turvey, 2009) to available data (Blau, Stephen, Carello, & Turvey, 2009), we provide evidence for a causal link between the latent (or secondary) aftereffect and an additive force term that is known to account for symmetry breaking. The evidence is discussed in respect to the hypothesis that recalibration aftereffects reflect memory principles (encoding specificity, transfer-appropriate processing) oriented to time-translation invariance-when later testing conserves the conditions of earlier training. Forgetting or reduced adaptation effects follow from the loss of this invariance and are reversed by its reinstatement.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Cognitive Science A Multidisciplinary Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans and other animals can measure distances nonvisually by legged locomotion. Experiments typically employ an outbound measure (M) and an inbound report (R) phase. Previous research has found distance reproduction to be maximally accurate, when gait symmetry and speed of M and R are of like kind: Successful human odometry manifests at the level of the M-R system. In the present work, M was an experimenter-set distance produced by a blindfolded participant using a primary gait (walk, run). R was always by walk. Fast and slow versions of walk and run were adopted by participants, such that when M was fast R was slow, and vice versa. Distance was underestimated when M was slower than R and overestimated when M was faster than R. However, the pattern of participant-adopted velocities indicated that it was the instructions, not the speed as such, that yielded the pattern of results. The results are interpretable through a dynamical perspective and indicate speed is an imperfection parameter acting on the attractors of the M-R system.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Motor Behavior