Muneko Nishijo

Kanazawa Medical University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

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Publications (147)320.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The adverse health effects of cadmium (Cd) are well known in human populations; however, much of what is known about biological mechanisms of Cd comes from in vitro and animal studies. The adverse health outcomes due to high levels of Cd exposure in the population of Mae Sot, Thailand have been extensively characterized. Here, for the first time, this population is being studied in an epigenetic context. The objective of this study was to characterize the association between DNA methylation markers and Cd exposure, taking into account sex and smoking differences, in an adult population at an increased risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes from high body burden of Cd. One hundred and sixty-nine residents from known exposure areas of Mae Sot, Thailand and one hundred residents from non-exposed areas nearby were surveyed in 2012. Urine and blood samples were collected for measurement of urinary Cd (UCd) and DNA methylation of Cd-related markers (DNMT3B, MGMT, LINE-1, MT2A). UCd levels were 7 times higher in the exposed compared to the unexposed populations (exposed median: 7.4 μg/L, unexposed median: 1.0 μg/L, p < 0.001). MGMT hypomethylation was associated with increasing levels of UCd in the total population. Sex-specific associations included MT2A and DNMT3B hypomethylation in women and LINE-1 hypermethylation in men with increasing UCd. Upon subanalysis, these associations separated by smoking status. In summary, environmental Cd exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation in a sex and smoking dependent manner.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, respectively. Moreover, high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposure combined with high TCDD exposure may increase autistic traits combined with developmental coordination disorder.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Cheng Chen · Pengcheng Xun · Muneko Nishijo · Akira Sekikawa · Ka He
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer for both genders. Classified as a human carcinogen, cadmium has been related to diverse cancers. However, the association between cadmium exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. We quantitatively reviewed the observational studies on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk among individuals without occupational exposure history published through July 2014 in PubMed by using a fixed-effect model. Four prospective cohort studies (112,934 participants with 335 events) and two case-control studies (177 cases and 539 controls) were identified. The summarized relative risk (RR) with a 95 % confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (95 % CI = 1.58-2.66), comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure. This positive association persisted in men (RR = 1.78, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.05) but not in women (RR = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.63-1.65). Further research is needed to provide more solid evidence on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of the potential gender difference.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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    ABSTRACT: Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the biological half-life of urinary cadmium concentration (U-Cd) based on a 22-year follow-up study after cessation of environmental Cd pollution. Spot urine samples were obtained from the inhabitants (32 men and 36 women) in the target area in 1986, 1991, 1999, 2003 and 2008. These inhabitants were divided into higher or lower baseline U-Cd group by the cut-off of 5 μg l(-1) or 5 μg g(-1) creatinine. Biological half-life of U-Cd was estimated using a linear mixed model adjusted for the baseline age. In the higher baseline U-Cd groups, the estimated half-life and 95% confidence intervals were 12.4 years (9.3-18.8 years) and 11.4 years (9.3-14.6 years) for unadjusted U-Cd in men and women, respectively. For creatinine-adjusted U-Cd, they were 16.0 years (13.0-20.7 years) and 20.4 years (16.6-26.2 years) in men and women, respectively. In the lower baseline U-Cd groups, biological half-life for unadjusted U-Cd in men was solely significant (23.4 years) and longer than the corresponding half-life in the higher baseline U-Cd group. The biological half-lives of U-Cd obtained in this study were identical with the values for U-Cd or total body burden determined by a different method.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Bien Hoa Air Base is the largest dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam. In 2012, we recruited 216 mothers who were living in 10 communities around Bien Hoa Air Base and had delivered newborns at a prefecture hospital, and we investigated recent exposure levels of dioxins and nonortho PCBs in their breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD) was present at 2.6 pg/g lipid in primiparae and 2.2 pg/g lipid in multiparae. Among multiparae and total subjects, significant high prevalence of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD ≥ 5 pg/g lipid and 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD contribution ≥ 40% were observed in mothers living in the five communities closest to Bien Hoa Air Base. The TEQ for nonortho PCBs was 1.6 pg-TEQ/g lipid for primiparae, and this was even lower than that in the unsprayed area. The length of residency was a strong factor to increase dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Residency in the five communities with the highest exposure was a specific risk factor for increased 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. Food intake might contribute partly to the increased levels of dioxin congeners other than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. These results suggest that Bien Hoa Air Base has led to elevated 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD levels in breast milk of mothers in nearby areas even in the recent years.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Environmental Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that urinary histidine may be a useful marker of dioxin-induced neurodevelopmental deficits and that histaminergic neurotransmission may be an important pathological contributor to dioxin-mediated neurotoxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the reference level of cadmium in rice as the benchmark doses (BMD) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) for various renal effects by applying an updated hybrid approach. The participants were 1120 men and 1274 women aged 50 years or older who lived in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin for at least 30 years. As indicators of renal dysfunction, glucose, protein, aminonitrogen, metallothionein and β2 -microgrobulin in urine were measured. Cadmium concentration was determined for rice samples stored in warehouses of the farmers in all of the polluted hamlets. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk of 5% were calculated with background risk at a zero exposure set at 5%. The obtained BMDLs were 0.39 (aminonitrogen), 0.26 (metallothionein), 0.25 (β2 -microgrobulin) mg kg(-1) in men and 0.44 (glucose), 0.32 (protein), 0.33 (aminonitrogen), 0.28 (metallothionein) and 0.24 (β2 -microgrobulin) mg kg(-1) in women. The lowest BMDL was 0.25 and 0.24 mg kg(-1) (β2 -microgrobulin) in men and women respectively. These values were lower than the maximum level (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) determined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, indicating that these BMDLs may contribute to further discussion on the health risk assessment of cadmium exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Applied Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure indicated by urinary Cd on all-cause mortality in the Japanese general population. A 19-year cohort study was conducted in 1067 men and 1590 women aged 50 years or older who lived in three cadmium non-polluted areas in Japan. The subjects were divided into four quartiles based on creatinine adjusted U-Cd (µg g−1 cre). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous U-Cd or the quartiles of U-Cd were estimated for all-cause mortality using a proportional hazards regression.The all-cause mortality rates per 1000 person years were 31.2 and 15.1 in men and women, respectively. Continuous U-Cd (+1 µg g−1 cre) was significantly related to the all-cause mortality in men (HR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.09) and women (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07). Furthermore in men, the third (1.96–3.22 µg g−1 cre) and fourth quartile (≥3.23 µg g−1 cre) of U-Cd showed a significant, positive HR (third: HR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.03–1.77, fourth: HR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.26–2.14) for all-cause mortality compared with the first quartile (<1.14 µg g−1 cre). In women, the fourth quartile of U-Cd (≥4.66 µg g−1 cre) also showed a significant HR (1.49, 95% CI 1.11–2.00) for all-cause mortality compared with the first quartile (<1.46 µg g−1 cre).In the present study, U-Cd was significantly associated with increased mortality in the Japanese general population, indicating that environmental Cd exposure adversely affects the life prognosis in Cd non-polluted areas in Japan. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Applied Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-effect relationship between urinary cadmium (U-Cd as an index of internal Cd exposure) and mortality in a cohort of the Japanese general population. Methods A 19-year cohort study was conducted in 897 men and 1307 women who lived in two non-polluted areas in Japan. The subjects were categorized into four quartiles (lowest, lower, higher, highest) based on creatinine adjusted U-Cd (μg/g cre). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of the quartiles of U-Cd for mortality was calculated using a proportional hazards regression. Forward stepwise model selection was applied to the potential covariates such as age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, various lifestyle factors and present illness. Results The mortality rates per 1000 person years were 27.8 and 12.5 in men and women, respectively. In men, the fourth quartile of U-Cd (≥ 2.919 μg/g cre) showed a significant, positive HR (1.50, 95%CI: 1.11-2.02) for mortality compared to the first quartile (< 1.014). In women, the fourth quartile of U-Cd (≥ 3.943 μg/g cre) also showed a significant HR (1.50, 95%CI: 1.08-2.09) for mortality compared to the first quartile (< 1.140). Conclusion The present study clarified that U-Cd was significantly associated with increased mortality, indicating the worsened life prognosis of the general population in Cd non-polluted areas in Japan. These results highlight the importance of further discussion of the health risk assessment of Cd exposure in the general population.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of the present study was to estimate the benchmark doses (BMD) for renal effects for health risk assessment of residents living in Cd-polluted and non-polluted areas in a Thai population. Methods The study participants consisted of inhabitants aged 40 years or older who lived in a non-polluted area (40 men and 41 women) and in the environmentally polluted Mae Sot District (230 men and 370 women) located in northwestern Thailand. We measured urinary and blood cadmium (Cd) as markers of long-term exposure and urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as renal tubular effect markers. An updated hybrid approach was applied to estimate the benchmark doses (BMD) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) of urinary and blood Cd for Cd-induced renal effects in these subjects. BMD and BMDL corresponding to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with the background risk at zero exposure set to 5% after adjusting for age and smoking status. Results The estimated BMDLs of urinary Cd for renal effect markers were 6.9 for urinary β2-MG and 4.4 for NAG in men and 8.1 for β2-MG and 6.1 for NAG μg/g creatinine (Creat) in women. These BMDLs of urinary Cd (μg/g Creat) for NAG were less than the geometric mean urinary Cd in the polluted area (6.5 in men and 7.1 in women). The estimated BMDLs of blood Cd (μg/L) were 6.2 for urinary β2-MG and 5.0 for NAG in men and 5.9 for β2-MG and 5.8 for NAG in women. The calculated BMDLs were similar or less compared with the geometric mean blood Cd (μg/L) in the polluted Thai area (6.9 in men and 5.2 in women). Conclusion The BMDLs of urinary and blood Cd for renal effects were estimated to be 4.4 - 8.1 μg/g Creat and 4.4 - 6.2 μg/L in the Thai population aged ≥ 40 years old, suggesting that more than 40% of the residents were at risk of adverse renal effects induced by Cd exposure in Thailand.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish the cause-effect relationship between renal tubular dysfunction and mortality. A 19-year cohort study was conducted in 900 men and 1313 women in 1993 or 1994 who lived in two cadmium non-polluted areas in Japan. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) for mortality were calculated using a proportional hazard regression. Forward stepwise model selection was applied to the potential covariates such as age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, various lifestyle factors and present illness. Simultaneously, the dose-effect relationship between renal tubular markers and urinary cadmium at baseline was evaluated using multiple regression analyses. In men, HR was significant for β2-MG (HR corresponding to an increase of 100 μg/g cre: 1.02) and NAG (HR corresponding to an increase of 1 IU/g cre: 1.05). In women, a significant HR was observed for β2-MG (HR corresponding to an increase of 100 μg/g cre: 1.01) and NAG (HR corresponding to an increase of 1 IU/g cre: 1.02). Dose-effect relationships were significant for urinary cadmium and all renal tubular markers in men and women. The present study indicated that renal tubular dysfunction was significantly related to mortality in the general population of cadmium non-polluted areas in Japan.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 18 June 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.44.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64), and octaCDD (β = 0.65) were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34) and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42). The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38) was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents); R2 = 0.23). This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid) is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: First, the urinary metabolic profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was performed to compare ten cadmium (Cd) toxicosis cases from a Cd-polluted area in Mae Sot (Thailand) with gender-matched healthy controls. Orthogonal partial list square-discrimination analysis was used to identify new biomarker candidates in highly Cd exposed toxicosis cases with remarkable renal tubular dysfunction. The results of the first step of this study showed that urinary citrate was a negative marker and myo-inositol was a positive marker for Cd toxicosis in Thailand. In the second step, we measured urinary citrate in the residents (168 Cd-exposed subjects and 100 controls) and found significantly lower levels of urinary citrate and higher ratios of calcium/citrate and magnesium/citrate, which are risk factors for nephrolithiasis, in highly Cd-exposed residents. Additionally, this inverse association of urinary citrate with urinary Cd was observed after adjustment for age, smoking and renal tubular dysfunction, suggesting a direct effect of Cd on citrate metabolism. These results indicate that urinary citrate is a useful biomarker for the adverse health effects of Cd exposure in a Thai population with a high prevalence of nephrolithiasis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Publication Stats

2k Citations
320.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993-2016
    • Kanazawa Medical University
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 2015
    • Chubu University
      Касугай, Aichi, Japan
  • 2002
    • Kanazawa Gakuin University
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 1988
    • Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan