[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aim:
To investigate the prevalence, mortalities, and patient characteristics of Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) according to the AARC (Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver ACLF Research Consortium) and European Association for the Study of the Liver CLIF-C (Chronic Liver Failure Consortium) definitions.
We collected retrospective data for 1470 hospitalized patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and acute deterioration between January 2013 and December 2013 from 21 university hospitals in Korea.
Of the patients assessed, the prevalence of ACLF based on the AARC and CLIF-C definitions was 9.5% and 18.6%, respectively. The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were higher in patients with ACLF than in those without ACLF. Patients who only met the CLIF-C definition had significantly lower 28-day and 90-day survival rates than those who only met the AARC definition (68.0% vs. 93.9%, P<0.001; 55.1% vs. 92.4%, P<0.001). Among the patients who had non-cirrhotic CLD, the 90-day mortality of the patients with ACLF was higher than of those without ACLF, although not significant (33.3% vs. 6.0%, P = 0.192). Patients with previous acute decompensation (AD) within 1- year had a lower 90-day survival rate than those with AD more than 1 year prior or without previous AD (81.0% vs. 91.9% or 89.4%, respectively, all P<0.001). Patients who had extra-hepatic organ failure without liver failure had a similar 90-day survival rate to those who had liver failure as a prerequisite (57.0% vs. 60.6%, P = 0.391).
The two ACLF definitions result in differences in mortality and patient characteristics among ACLF patients. We suggest that non-cirrhotic CLD, previous AD within 1 year, and extra-hepatic organ failure should be included in the ACLF diagnostic criteria. In addition, further studies are necessary to develop a universal definition of ACLF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The radial forearm flap is a versatile, widely used flap. However, the possibility of donor site complications has led to concern over its use. Some surgeons prefer using other flaps whose donor sites can be closed primarily with less morbidity, including avoiding unpleasant scarring. However, in our experience, donor site stability of the radial forearm flap can be reliably achieved by using well-implemented specific procedures. Here, we present a collection of donor site cases of the radial forearm flap and investigate factors that affect the aesthetic results as the basis for a reference for selecting a radial forearm flap.
In this retrospective study, we reviewed 171 cases in which a radial forearm flap was used for free tissue transfer after resecting head and neck cancer. We focused on donor site morbidity rates. Each operation involved a detailed procedure designed to minimize donor site morbidity. Moreover, statistical investigations were conducted for 22 cases to determine factors affecting the scar appearance.
Only one case developed total skin graft necrosis as a major complication. Scar-related aesthetic results were acceptable, and the body-mass index, body weight, diabetes, and cardiac problems were significant factors related to the appearance of scars.
Performing the radial forearm flap using a well-implemented detailed technique helps achieve acceptable donor site morbidity results. The aesthetic results were more promising for patients without excess body weight, diabetes, or cardiac problems. Therefore, anxiety about donor site morbidity should not be a reason to avoid selecting the radial forearm flap in suitable patients.
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Archives of Plastic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to compare the bowel-cleansing efficacy, patient affinity for the preparation solution, and mucosal injury between a split dose of polyethylene glycol (SD-PEG) and low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid (LV-PEG+Asc) in outpatient scheduled colonoscopies.
Of the 319 patients, 160 were enrolled for SD-PEG, and 159 for LV-PEG+Asc. The bowel-cleansing efficacy was rated according to the Ottawa bowel preparation scale. Patient affinity for the preparation solution was assessed using a questionnaire. All mucosal injuries observed during colonoscopy were biopsied and histopathologically reviewed.
There was no significant difference in bowel cleansing between the groups. The LV-PEG+Asc group reported better patient acceptance and preference. There were no significant differences in the incidence or characteristics of the mucosal injuries between the two groups.
Compared with SD-PEG, LV-PEG+Asc exhibited equivalent bowel-cleansing efficacy and resulted in improved patient acceptance and preference. There was no significant difference in mucosal injury between SD-PEG and LV-PEG+Asc. Thus, the LV-PEG+Asc preparation could be used more effectively and easily for routine colonoscopies without risking significant mucosal injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver-related biomarkers have been developed and validated mainly in patients with chronic hepatitis C for the prediction of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, which is a final pathway of chronic liver injury. They are noninvasive, traceable, and easy-to-use. Biomarkers provide implications related to screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of chronic hepatitis. For the improvement of performance and coverage, biomarker panels, imaging biomarkers, and even genetic biomarkers have been developed. With the advancement of genomics and proteomics, earlier and more precise prediction is expected in the near future. In this review, multiple biomarker panels for the estimation of the degree of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C, biomarkers for the screening and diagnosis of hepatitis C, biomarkers for the treatment of hepatitis C, biomarkers for the prediction of complications related to the chronic hepatitis C, and future perspectives will be summarized.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Advances in clinical chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims. The preparation-to-colonoscopy (PC) interval is one of several important factors for the bowel preparation. Short message service (SMS) reminder from a cellular phone has been suggested to improve compliance in various medical situations. We evaluated the effectiveness of SMS reminders to assure the PC interval for colonoscopy. Methodology. This prospective randomized study was investigator blinded. In the No-SMS group, patients took the first 2 L polyethylene glycol (PEG) between 6 and 8 PM on the day before colonoscopy and the second 2 L PEG approximately 6 hours before the colonoscopy without SMS. In the SMS group, patients took first 2 L PEG in the same manner as the No-SMS group and the second 2 L PEG after receiving an SMS 6 hours before the colonoscopy. Results. The SMS group had a lower score than the No-SMS group, according to the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compliance with diet instructions (odds ratio (OR) 2.109; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-3.99, ) and intervention using SMS ((OR) 2.329; 95% (CI), 1.34-4.02, ) were the independent significant factors for satisfactory bowel preparation. Conclusions. An SMS reminder to assure PC interval improved the bowel preparation quality for colonoscopy with bowel preparation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Perineal reconstruction following pelvic exenteration is a challenging area in plastic surgery. Its advantages include preventing complications by obliterating the pelvic dead space and minimizing the scar by using the previous abdominal incision and a vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flap. However, only a few studies have compared the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration between cases with and without a VRAM flap. In this study, we aimed to compare the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration with or without VRAM flap coverage.
We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients for whom transpelvic VRAM flaps were created following pelvic exenteration due to pelvic malignancy. The complications and outcomes in these patients were compared with those of another nine patients who did not undergo such reconstruction.
Flap reconstruction was successful in eight cases, with minor complications such as wound infection and dehiscence. In all cases in the reconstructed group (n=9), structural integrity was maintained and major complications including bowel obstruction and infection were prevented by obliterating the pelvic dead space. In contrast, in the control group (n=9), peritonitis and bowel obstruction occurred in 1 case (11%).
Despite the possibility of flap failure and minor complications, a VRAM flap can result in adequate perineal reconstruction to prevent major complications of pelvic exenteration.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Archives of Plastic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & Aims
Both corticosteroid and pentoxifylline reduce short-term mortality in severe alcoholic hepatitis. However, few studies have directly compared the efficacy of pentoxifylline and corticosteroid in patients with this condition.
In this multicentre, open-labelled, randomised non-inferiority trial, we assigned 121 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey’s discriminant function ⩾32) to receive either pentoxifylline (400 mg, 3 times daily, in 62 subjects) or prednisolone (40 mg daily, in 59 subjects). The primary end point was non-inferiority in survival at the 1 month time point for the pentoxifylline treatment compared with prednisolone.
The 1-month survival rate of patients receiving pentoxifylline was 75.8% (15 deaths) compared with 88.1% (7 deaths) in those, taking prednisolone, for a treatment difference of 12.3% (95% confidence interval, −4.2% to 28.7%; p = 0.08). The 95% confidence interval for the observed difference exceeded the predefined margin of non-inferiority (Δ15%) and included zero. The 6-month survival rate was not significantly different between the pentoxifylline and prednisolone groups (64.5% vs. 72.9%; p = 0.23). At 7 days, the response to therapy assessed by the Lille model was significantly lower in the prednisolone group (n = 58) than in the pentoxifylline group (n = 59): 0.35 vs. 0.50 (p = 0.012). Hepatitis complications, including hepatorenal syndrome and side effects, such as infection and gastrointestinal bleeding, were similar in the two groups.
The findings demonstrate that the efficacy of the pentoxifylline is not statistically equivalent to the efficacy of prednisolone, supporting the use of prednisolone as a preferred treatment option in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with lymphoproliferative disorder such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, there are only few case reports on concomitantly induced NHL and HCC by HCV. Herein, we report a case of synchronous NHL and HCC in a patient with chronic hepatitis C which was unexpectedly diagnosed during liver transplantation surgery. This case suggests that although intrahepatic lymph node enlargements are often considered as reactive or metastatic lymphadenopathy in chronic hepatitis C patients with HCC, NHL should also be considered as a differential diagnosis.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims
In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability between same-day bowel preparation protocols using 2 sachets of Picosulfate and a 4 L split-dose polyethylene glycol (PEG) bowel preparation for afternoon colonoscopy.
The study had a single-center, prospective, randomized, and investigator-blinded, non-inferiority design. We evaluated bowel preparation quality according to the Ottawa scale, patient tolerability, compliance, incidence of adverse events, sleep quality, and polyp/adenoma detection rate.
Among the 196 patients analyzed (mean age, 55.3 years; 50.3% men), 97 received the same-day regimen of 2 sachets of picosulfate (group A) and 99 received the 4 L split-dose PEG regimen (group B). The Ottawa score of the total colon was 4.05±1.56 in group A and 3.80±1.55 in group B (P=0.255). The proportion of patients having adequate bowel preparation in the same-day picosulfate group (61.5%) was slightly less than the 4 L PEG group (71.3%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.133). Tolerability of the group A regimen was superior to that of the group B regimen (P<0.000). The same-day picosulfate regimen was associated with fewer adverse events, such as abdominal bloating (P=0.037) and better sleep quality (P<0.000).
The same-day picosulfate regimen and the 4 L split-dose PEG regimen had similar efficacy in bowel preparation for afternoon colonoscopy. However, the same-day picosulfate regimen was easier to administer, produced fewer adverse events, and enabled better sleep quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 and A hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).
Between January 2001 and September 2011, 129 patients with BCLC stage 0 and stage A HCC who underwent TACE were retrospectively enrolled. Patient characteristics, routine computed tomography and TACE findings, survival time and 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates, risk factors for mortality, and survival rates according to the number of risk factors were assessed.
The mean size of HCC tumors was 2.4 ± 1.1 cm, and the mean number of TACE procedures performed was 2.5 ± 2.1. The mean overall survival time and 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 80.6 ± 4.9 mo and 91%, 63% and 49%, respectively. In the Cox regression analysis, a Child-Pugh score > 5 (P = 0.005, OR = 3.86), presence of arterio-venous shunt (P = 0.032, OR = 4.41), amount of lipiodol used (> 7 mL; P = 0.013, OR = 3.51), and female gender (P = 0.008, OR = 3.47) were risk factors for mortality. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates according to the number of risk factors present were 96%, 87% and 87% (no risk factors), 89%, 65%, and 35% (1 risk factor), 96%, 48% and unavailable (2 risk factors), and 63%, 17%, and 0% (3 risk factors), respectively (P < 0.001).
TACE may be used as curative-intent therapy in patients with BCLC stage 0 and stage A HCC. The Child-Pugh score, arterio-venous shunt, amount of lipiodol used, and gender were related to mortality after TACE.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether sarcopenia contributes to the prediction of metabolic dysregulations in addition to that predicted by waist circumference.
Subjects consisted of 6832 adult participants in the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, grouped into categories of waist circumference (normal vs. high). Sarcopenia was assessed by appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight.
In the normal waist circumference category, the risk of metabolic syndrome was nearly 3.5-fold higher in sarcopenic men (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.67-6.90) than in those without sarcopenia. For the high waist circumference category, the risk of metabolic syndrome was 2.5-fold higher in sarcopenic women (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.66-3.40) than in those without sarcopenia. The corresponding risk was also higher in sarcopenic men (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.11-2.94) than in those without sarcopenia. With the exception in men with high waist circumference category, adjustments for other potential confounders did not substantially affect the results. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight as a continuous variable was also associated with metabolic syndrome in men (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.35-0.44) and women (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.48-0.60).
Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic syndrome in men with normal waist circumference and women with high waist circumference. Our results emphasize that sarcopenia may contribute additionally to the risk of metabolic abnormalities beyond what is predicted by the abdominal obesity category.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low muscle mass has been associated with arterial stiffness. The aim of the study was to determine whether sarcopenic obesity is associated with hypertension. Subjects consisted of 6832 adults who participated in the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified as normal, sarcopenic, obese, or sarcopenic-obese based on the following measures: waist circumference and appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (ASM/Wt). The sarcopenic-obese group had systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels that were ≈12 mm Hg and 5 mm Hg higher, respectively, than those in the normal group. Compared with the normal group, the odds ratio (OR) of having hypertension for the sarcopenic, obese, and sarcopenic-obese groups were 2.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-6.16), 3.15 (95% CI, 2.76-3.59), and 6.42 (95% CI, 4.85-8.48) times higher, respectively. When waist circumference and ASM/Wt were used as continuous variables in the same regression model, ASM/Wt was a significant predictor of hypertension (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98). Sarcopenic obesity is associated with hypertension, while low muscle mass is also correlated with hypertension, independent of abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity and sarcopenia may potentiate each other to induce hypertension.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Early identification of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and abnormal lipid levels with subsequent life-style intervention is vital to halt disease progression and safeguard the future health of children and adolescents.
Data from a representative sample of 1554 adolescents (821 boys and 733 girls) aged 10-19 from the 2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analysed. The MS was defined using the paediatric criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Abnormal lipid levels were classified according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Approximately 13.7% of adolescents have a body mass index (BMI) between the 85th and 94th percentiles, and 8.4% have a BMI of ≥95th percentile. The prevalence of the MS was 2.3% among all the participants, 2.7% among boys and 2.1% among girls. The prevalence of the MS was 2.8% among overweight adolescents and 23.7% among obese adolescents. A low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was the most common component for the MS. Nearly 20% of adolescents (21% of boys and 19% of girls) had at least one lipid abnormality. Approximately 32% of overweight adolescents and 50% of obese adolescents were candidates for therapeutic life-style counselling based on lipid levels.
The present study provides the most updated prevalence estimates of the MS in the Korean adolescent population and highlights the strong association of the MS with BMI. The prevalence of abnormal lipid levels in overweight and obese adolescents is high, illustrating the large burden of cardiovascular disease in the future Korean population.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) of 6-10 mmHg has been accepted as a hemodynamic parameter of stage 1 compensated liver cirrhosis (LC). The diagnostic accuracy of HVPG in the prediction of stage 1 compensated LC has been investigated in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).MethodsA total of 219 patients with CHB who underwent HVPG and liver biopsy were enrolled. The diagnostic accuracy of two methods was compared. Risk factors associated with the diagnosis of stage 1 compensated LC on the basis of the findings of HVPG, biopsy, and both HVPG and biopsy were evaluated.ResultsThe HVPG score was correlated positively with the stage of biopsy (r=0.439). The sensitivity/specificity of HVPG for predicting stage 1 compensated LC were 78/81% in 6 mmHg, respectively. A total of 57 (26%), 28 (13%), and 20 (9%) patients were diagnosed with stage 1 compensated LC on the basis of the findings of HVPG, biopsy, and both HVPG and biopsy (P>0.05), respectively. Platelet/age (-0.77-0.01xplatelet+0.03xage), albumin/platelet (5.05-1.19xalbumin-0.01xplatelet), and platelet (0.24-0.01xplatelet) were found to be risk factors (logit model) for the diagnosis of stage 1 compensated LC on the basis of the findings of HVPG, biopsy, and both HVPG and biopsy.ConclusionHVPG showed a positive correlation with biopsy, and platelet was found to be a common risk factor for the diagnosis of stage 1 compensated LC in patients with CHB.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is not as prevalent as esophageal variceal bleeding, it is reportedly more serious, with high failure rates of the initial hemostasis (>30%), and has a worse prognosis than esophageal variceal bleeding. However, there is limited information regarding hemostasis and the prognosis for GVB. The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the clinical outcomes of GVB in a multicenter study in Korea.
The data of 1,308 episodes of GVB (males:females=1062:246, age=55.0±11.0 years, mean±SD) were collected from 24 referral hospital centers in South Korea between March 2003 and December 2008. The rates of initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality within 5 days and 6 weeks of the index bleed were evaluated.
The initial hemostasis failed in 6.1% of the patients, and this was associated with the Child-Pugh score [odds ratio (OR)=1.619; P<0.001] and the treatment modality: endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration vs. endoscopic sclerotherapy, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and balloon tamponade (OR=0.221, P<0.001). Rebleeding developed in 11.5% of the patients, and was significantly associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.159, P<0.001) and treatment modality (OR=0.619, P=0.026). The GVB-associated mortality was 10.3%; mortality in these cases was associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.795, P<0.001) and the treatment modality for the initial hemostasis (OR=0.467, P=0.001).
The clinical outcome for GVB was better for the present cohort than in previous reports. Initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality due to GVB were universally associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Clinical and molecular hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Goals and background:
Premedication with pronase, dimethylpolysiloxane, and sodium bicarbonate improves visibility during upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. However, the optimal time for this combination to take effect is unknown. We investigated the optimal time of pre-UGI endoscopy medication.
A randomized, investigator-blind, controlled trial. The 300 patients who were to receive premedication were randomized into 3 groups according to the following medication time before UGI endoscopy: 10 minutes (group A, n=98), 10 to 30 minutes (group B, n=97), and 30 minutes premedication (group C, n=99). Visibility scores (range, 1 to 4, with lower scores indicating better gastric mucosal visibility) were assessed for the antrum, lower body, upper body, and fundus and compared, including the sum of the scores, between the 3 groups.
Group B had significantly lower visibility scores for the lower body, upper body, and fundus than group C (P=0.001, 0.009, and 0.002, respectively). Group A obtained significantly lower scores for the antrum and lower body than group C (P=0.007 and 0.005, respectively). The total visibility scores of groups A and B were significantly lower compared with those of group C (P=0.001, 0.003, respectively).
Administration of pronase, dimethylpolysiloxane, and sodium bicarbonate within 30 minutes before UGI endoscopy significantly improved endoscopic visualization. However, the optimal time to achieve the best visibility was between 10 to 30 minutes before UGI endoscopy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of clinical gastroenterology