Richard H Shukle

Purdue University, ウェストラファイエット, Indiana, United States

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Publications (71)119.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Exploration of the biotype structure of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes and difference in genetic background. Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly variable genetic markers that are widely used in population genetic studies. This study developed and tested a panel of 18 microsatellite and 22 SNP markers to investigate the genetic structure of nine Hessian fly biotypes: B, C, D, E, GP, L, O, vH9, and vH13. The simple sequence repeats were more polymorphic than the SNP markers, and their neighbor-joining trees differed in consequence. Microsatellites suggested a simple geographic association of related biotypes that did not progressively gain virulence with increasing genetic distance from a founder type. Use of the k-means clustering algorithm in the STRUCTURE program shows that the nine biotypes comprise six to eight populations that are related to geography or history within laboratory cultures.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Insect Science
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    ABSTRACT: The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant wheat results in the selection of pest genotypes that can overcome formerly resistant wheat. We have evaluated the effectiveness of 16 resistance genes for protection of wheat from Hessian fly infestation in the southeastern United States. Results documented that while 10 of the genes evaluated could provide protection of wheat, the most highly effective genes were H12, H18, H24, H25, H26, and H33. However, H12 and H18 have been reported to be only partially effective in field evaluations, and H24, H25, and H26 may be associated with undesirable effects on agronomic traits when introgressed into elite wheat lines. Thus, the most promising new gene for Hessian fly resistance appears to be H33. These results indicate that identified highly effective resistance in wheat to the Hessian fly is a limited resource and emphasize the need to identify novel sources of resistance. Also, we recommend that the deployment of resistance in gene pyramids and the development of novel strategies for engineered resistance be considered.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Economic Entomology
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic tractability of the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) provides an opportunity to investigate the mechanisms insects use to induce plant gall formation. Here we demonstrate that capacity using the newly sequenced HF genome by identifying the gene (vH24) that elicits effector-triggered immunity in wheat (Triticum spp.) seedlings carrying HF resistance gene H24. vH24 was mapped within a 230-kb genomic fragment near the telomere of HF chromosome X1. That fragment contains only 21 putative genes. The best candidate vH24 gene in this region encodes a protein containing a secretion signal and a type-2 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP2C) domain. This gene has an H24-virulence associated insertion in its promoter that appears to silence transcription of the gene in H24-virulent larvae. Candidate vH24 is a member of a small family of genes that encode secretion signals and PP2C domains. It belongs to the fraction of genes in the HF genome previously predicted to encode effector proteins. Because PP2C proteins are not normally secreted, our results suggest that these are PP2C effectors that HF larvae inject into wheat cells to redirect, or interfere, with wheat signal transduction pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of insect physiology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), a member of the gall midge family, is one of the most destructive pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Probing of wheat plants by the larvae results in either an incompatible (avirulent larvae, resistant plant) or a compatible (virulent larvae, susceptible plant) interaction. Virulent larvae induce the formation of a nutritive tissue, resembling the inside surface of a gall, in susceptible wheat. These nutritive cells are a rich source of proteins and sugars that sustain the developing virulent Hessian fly larvae. In addition, on susceptible wheat, larvae trigger a significant increase in levels of amino acids including proline and glutamic acid, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of ornithine and arginine that in turn enter the pathway for polyamine biosynthesis.ResultsFollowing Hessian fly larval attack, transcript abundance in susceptible wheat increased for several genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis, leading to higher levels of the free polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine. A concurrent increase in polyamine levels occurred in the virulent larvae despite a decrease in abundance of Mdes-odc (ornithine decarboxylase) transcript encoding a key enzyme in insect putrescine biosynthesis. In contrast, resistant wheat and avirulent Hessian fly larvae did not exhibit significant changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis or in free polyamine levels.Conclusions The major findings from this study are: (i) although polyamines contribute to defense in some plant-pathogen interactions, their production is induced in susceptible wheat during interactions with Hessian fly larvae without contributing to defense, and (ii) due to low abundance of transcripts encoding the rate-limiting ornithine decarboxylase enzyme in the larval polyamine pathway the source of polyamines found in virulent larvae is plausibly wheat-derived. The activation of the host polyamine biosynthesis pathway during compatible wheat-Hessian fly interactions is consistent with a model wherein the virulent larvae usurp the polyamine biosynthesis machinery of the susceptible plant to acquire nutrients required for their own growth and development.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · BMC Plant Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence is emerging that some proteins secreted by gall-forming parasites of plants act as effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are the putative effectors responsible for the physiological changes elicited in susceptible seedling wheat by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), larvae have been documented. However, how the genes encoding these candidate effectors might respond under field conditions is unknown. The goal of this study was to use microarray analysis to investigate variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst field collections from different geographical regions (southeastern USA, central USA, and the Middle East). Results revealed significant variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst the field collections studied. The field collections separated into three distinct groups that corresponded to the wheat classes grown in the different geographical regions as well as to recently described Hessian fly populations. These data support previous reports correlating Hessian fly population structure with micropopulation differences owing to agro-ecosystem parameters such as cultivation of regionally adapted wheat varieties, deployment of resistance genes and variation in climatic conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Insect Molecular Biology
  • Richard Shukle

    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Deployment of resistance (R) genes is the most effective control for Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say); however, deployment of R genes results in an increased frequency of pest genotypes that display virulence to them. RNA interference (RNAi) is a useful reverse genetics tool for studying such insect virulence pathways, but requires a systemic phenotype, which is not found in all species. In an effort to correlate our observed weak RNAi phenotype in M. destructor with a genetic basis, we have aggregated and compared RNAi related genes across M. destructor, three other insect species, and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We report here the annotation of the core genes in the small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways in M. destructor. While most of the miRNA pathway genes were highly conserved across the species studied, the siRNA pathway genes showed increased relative variability in comparison to the miRNA pathway. In particular, the Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille (PAZ) domain of Dicer-2 (DCR-2) had the least amount of sequence similarity of any domain among species surveyed, with a trend of increased conservation in those species with amenable systemic RNAi. A homolog of the systemic interference defective-1 (Sid-1) gene of C. elegans was also not annotated in the M. destructor genome. Indeed, it is of interest that a Sid-1 homolog has not been detected in any dipteran species to date. We hypothesize the sequence architecture of the PAZ domain in the M. destructor DCR-2 protein is related to reduced efficacy of this enzyme and this taken together with the lack of a Sid-1 homolog may account for the weak RNAi response observed to date in this species as well as other dipteran species.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of insect physiology
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    Jeff J Stuart · Ming-Shun Chen · Richard Shukle · Marion O Harris
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    ABSTRACT: Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF; Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that hypothesis. The minute larval mandibles appear to act in a manner that is analogous to nematode stylets and the haustoria of filamentous plant pathogens. Putative effector proteins are encoded by hundreds of genes and expressed in the HF larval salivary gland. Cultivar-specific resistance (R) genes mediate a highly localized plant reaction that prevents the survival of avirulent HF larvae. Fine-scale mapping of HF avirulence (Avr) genes provides further evidence of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HF in wheat. Taken together, these discoveries suggest that the HF, and other gall midges, may be considered biotrophic, or hemibiotrophic, plant pathogens, and they demonstrate the potential that the wheat-HF interaction has in the study of insect-induced plant gall formation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Annual Review of Phytopathology
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    ABSTRACT: Samples of a dipteran pest of wheat were tested to confirm identity, describe local populations and suggest the use of deploying resistance (R) genes in wheat cultivars for control of Mayetiola destructor, Hessian fly (HF). Morphological evaluation of adults and a free-choice oviposition preference test documenting that females overwhelmingly preferred to oviposit on wheat instead of barley supported they were HF. Using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI), the Barcoding Region, nine haplotypes were revealed. Two were found only in the Israeli collections and averaged 3% sequence divergence compared to the other seven haplotypes found in the United States, Israel and Syria. In evaluations of virulence, the Israeli HF in culture was virulent to 11 of the 19 (R) genes tested, and complementation analysis documented that, for four of the R genes tested, the Israeli HF shared loci for virulence with HF from the United States. Levels of HF infestation at seven Israeli fields were at least at the 5-8% level, which historically has indicated a significant yield loss. Microsatellite genotyping of the five HF collections from Israel revealed mixed populations in Israel that are distinctly separate from the single population in Syria.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Bulletin of entomological research
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    ABSTRACT: One strategy to enhance the durability of Hessian fly resistance (R) genes in wheat is to combine them with transgenes for resistance. To identify potential transgenes for resistance a protocol for rapidly screening the proteins they encode for efficacy toward resistance is required. However, the Hessian fly is an obligate parasite of wheat and related grasses. Consequently, no protocol for in vitro delivery of antinutrient or toxic proteins to feeding larvae is available. We report here the development of a Hessian fly in plantatranslocation (HIT) feeding assay and the evaluation of eight lectins and the Bowman-Birk serine proteinase inhibitor for potential in transgenic resistance. Of the antinutrient proteins evaluated, Galanthus nivalis L. agglutinin (GNA), commonly termed snowdrop lectin, was the most efficacious. Ingestion of GNA caused a significant reduction in growth of Hessian fly larvae, disruption of midgut microvilli, and changes in transcript level of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, digestion, detoxification, and stress response. These effects of GNA are discussed from the perspective of larval Hessian fly physiology.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of insect physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), the Hessian fly, is distributed across most of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-growing areas of the world and can cause significant yield losses in wheat production. Native to the Old World, Hessian fly reportedly came to the United States in a single introduction during the Revolutionary War and has since spread across North America. Using a nuclear marker, the population structure of North American Hessian fly was examined with regard to collections from the Old World. White intron 1 (wint1) showed insignificant recombination within collections and a large number of informative characters, allowing its use as a phylogenetic marker. Thirty-three alleles of wint1 were identified. Population structure analyses divided the collections into four populations: Middle East, Old World I, Old World II, and New World. More variation was found within populations than between populations, indicating that gene flow exists between local areas. However, shared ancestral characteristics resulted in mixing of Hessian fly collections into more than one population as revealed by the population structure reconstruction. North American and Spanish collections were a mixture of the Old and New World populations. With the sharing of ancestral characters as well as wint1 alleles, this study indicates that the North American lineage may actually be associated to an unsampled location, perhaps northern Europe. If the single introduction hypothesis were correct, then both lineages would have to have been present at the time of introduction.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Annals of the Entomological Society of America
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    ABSTRACT: Salivary secretions of neonate Hessian fly larvae initiate a two-way exchange of molecules with their wheat host. Changes in properties of the leaf surface allow larval effectors to enter the plant where they trigger plant processes leading to resistance and delivery of defence molecules, or susceptibility and delivery of nutrients. To increase understanding of the host plant's response, the timing and characteristics of the induced epidermal permeability were investigated. Resistant plant permeability was transient and limited in area, persisting just long enough to deliver defence molecules before gene expression and permeability reverted to pre-infestation levels. The abundance of transcripts for GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase, thought to contribute to cuticle reorganization and increased permeability, followed the same temporal profile as permeability in resistant plants. In contrast, susceptible plants continued to increase in permeability over time until the entire crown of the plant became a nutrient sink. Permeability increased with higher infestation levels in susceptible but not in resistant plants. The ramifications of induced plant permeability on Hessian fly populations are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Experimental Botany
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    ABSTRACT: Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is currently the most important insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States and causes significant economic damage worldwide, but little is known about the aphid at the molecular level. Mariner-like transposable elements (MLEs) are ubiquitous within the genomes of arthropods and various other invertebrates. In this study, we report the cloning of MLEs from the soybean aphid genome using degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify conserved regions of mariner transposases. Two of the ten sequenced clones (designated as Agmar1 and Agmar2) contained partial but continuous open reading frames, which shared high levels of homology at the protein level with other mariner transposases from insects and other taxa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Agmar1 to group within the irritans subfamily of MLEs and Agmar2 within the mellifera subfamily. Southern blot analysis and quantitative PCR analysis indicated a low copy number for Agmar1-like elements within the soybean aphid genome. These results suggest the presence of at least two different putative mariner-like transposases encoded by the soybean aphid genome. Both Agmar1 and Agmar2 could play influential roles in the architecture of the soybean aphid genome. Transposable elements are also thought to potentially mediate resistance in insects through changes in gene amplification and mutations in coding sequences. Finally, Agmar1 and Agmar2 may represent useful genetic tools and provide insights on A. glycines adaptation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Bulletin of entomological research
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic resistance in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is the most efficacious method for control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). However, because of the appearance of new genotypes (biotypes) in response to deployment of resistance, field collections of Hessian fly need to be evaluated on a regular basis to provide breeders and producers information on the efficacy of resistance (R) genes with respect to the genotype composition of Hessian fly in regional areas. We report here on the efficacy of 21 R genes in wheat to field collections of Hessian fly from the southeastern United States. Results documented that of the 21 R genes evaluated only five would provide effective protection of wheat from Hessian fly in the southeastern United States. These genes were H12, H18, H24, H25, and H26. Although not all of the 33 identified R genes were evaluated in the current study, these results indicate that identified genetic resistance to protect wheat from Hessian attack in the southeastern United States is a limited resource. Historically, R genes for Hessian fly resistance in wheat have been deployed as single gene releases. Although this strategy has been successful in the past, we recommend that in the future deployment of combinations of highly effective previously undeployed genes, such as H24 and H26, be considered. Our study also highlights the need to identify new and effective sources of resistance in wheat to Hessian fly if genetic resistance is to continue as a viable option for protection of wheat in the southeastern United States.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Economic Entomology
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    ABSTRACT: Nous avons récupéré deux séquences complètes d'ADN complémentaire qui codent pour les sérines protéases digestives (désignées SmPROT-1 et SmPROT-2) dans le tube digestif moyen de la cécidomyie orangée du blé, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Dipera : Cecidomyiidae), dans le cadre d'une étude en cours sur les marqueurs de séquences exprimées. Les séquences d'acides aminés déduites partagent des homologies avec les sérines protéases digestives d'espèces d'insectes et de non insectes, incluant les régions conservées, telles que la triade catalytique, la poche d'interaction et les motifs structuraux conservés. Des peptides de signal de sécrétion dans les deux protéases aux terminaux N indiquent que ces protéines pourraient servir de sérines protéases digestives dans le tube digestif moyen. Une analyse phylogénétique regroupe SmPROT-1 et SmPROT-2 respectivement avec les sérines protéases de type trypsine et chymotrysine. Une analyse d'amplification en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) quantitative en temps réel montre que SmPROT-1 et SmPROT-2 sont exprimées plus dans le tube digestif moyen par comparaison aux autres tissus (corps gras et glandes salivaires). Des analyses d'expression génique montrent des concentrations élevées d'ARNm chez les stades qui s'alimentent (larves de 1er et 2e stades) par rapport aux autres stades (néonates, larves de 3e stade, nymphes et adultes). Nos résultats ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives sur la biologie de S. mosellana; nous en discutons dans le contexte de la mise au point de stratégies de contrôle de rechange. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · The Canadian Entomologist
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    ABSTRACT: Figure S3: Evidence for clustered organization of SSSGP-encoding genes.
    Preview · Dataset · Sep 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Figure S6: Sequence alignment of similar SSSGP-encoding cDNAs (presumably derived from different alleles).
    Preview · Dataset · Sep 2010